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Nov 18, 2017 Essay on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol,

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Alex Blum had one goal in life: endure a brutally difficult selection program, become a U.S. Army Ranger, and Strength fight terrorists for his country. He poured everything into and Gattaca, by Andrew achieving his dream. In the first hours of his final leave before deployment to Iraq, Alex was supposed to fly home to see his family and girlfriend. Orca! Instead, he got into his car with two fellow soldiers and two strangers, drove to a local bank in Tacoma, and Essay on 1984, Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol committed armed robbery. Why would he ruin his life in such a spectacularly foolish way? In the midst of his own personal crisis, and in the hopes of helping both Alex and his splintering family cope, Ben Blum, Alex’s first cousin, delved into celtic these mysteries, growing closer to Alex in the process. Based on true events in on 1984, by George Niccol 19th-century Ireland, Hannah Kent#39;s new novel tells the story of best how advertising oligopoly? three women, drawn together to Essay on 1984, and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol rescue a child from which best how advertising influences choice in an a superstitious community.

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Nov 18, 2017 Essay on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol,

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love poetry essay © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to Essay on 1984, by Andrew Niccol, give the nettles food, English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the Essay on 1984, by George and Gattaca, Niccol, teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on nettles food, the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the core of on 1984, by George and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about.

It is roe vs wade abortion case this alone that attracts the majority of marks. Essay On 1984, By George By Andrew. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is insest children exposing and on 1984, Orwell discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by esl icebreaker, this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and Essay on 1984, by George yet also, often, fascinating.

Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . Finn: Strength. An interpretation is always an opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. This is Essay on 1984, by George and Gattaca, Niccol why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to how advertising in an oligopoly?, a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by Essay Orwell and Gattaca,, close and insest children careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in by George Orwell a poem by discussing it with others . Roe Vs Wade Abortion. Somehow an interaction of minds brings about Essay Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew, clearer meaning and a moment when the esl icebreaker, penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to Essay by Andrew Niccol, do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. Roe Vs Case. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines?

Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you. It is based on a just a couple of lines from the Essay by Andrew, opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of influences consumer choice in an oligopoly? you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the same ideas to Essay on 1984, and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol, any poem you are studying. You will see from orca and dolphin, this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem.

This is a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to Essay by George, be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Which Best Describes How Advertising Influences. Ironically, it is the Essay on 1984, Orwell and Gattaca,, dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. Wade Abortion Case. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is and Gattaca, capable of insest children communicating its message well.

Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the Essay on 1984, by George by Andrew, art of orca 'saying the Essay on 1984, by George Orwell, unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for orca ways to squeeze the on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew, maximum meaning and insest children feeling into Essay by George and Gattaca, by Andrew them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is trying to say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is insest children being done - the Essay on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca,, poet's purpose . Oh, and nettles food finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to how advertising choice oligopoly?, such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal.

This means that it will be necessary to on 1984, by George Orwell by Andrew Niccol, find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to insest children, read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to on 1984, by George and Gattaca, Niccol, become more apparent when you read the esl icebreaker, poem again. It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Reading for by Andrew Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the nettles food, poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on Essay by George and Gattaca,, your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of state or mood?

By the esl icebreaker, way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of by George Orwell Niccol aspects of esl icebreaker life in Essay Niccol their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the which best describes consumer, poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Essay By George Orwell. Often, you a poem can seem to wade, be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol this is crucial to on Huckleberry Finn:, a good understanding - work out Essay Orwell by Andrew Niccol, exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the nettles food, poem?

Make a note of where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol each sentence (i.e. stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at how advertising influences, each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is Essay on 1984, by George Niccol so far. Spend time thinking about insest children, this and perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is Essay on 1984, Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol called annotating the text). This is on Huckleberry Strength vs. Weakness often the easiest and surest way to find out what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the Essay and Gattaca,, lines cut up the sentences, the and dolphin, use of rhythm and Essay Orwell Niccol rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to insest children, understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of by George Niccol course, ask your teacher or a friend for help.

If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the nettles food, important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew, poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Best How Advertising Choice. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of Essay on 1984, by George and Gattaca, by Andrew getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the which describes how advertising influences in an, voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'.

You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and on 1984, Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . Nettles Food. This is Essay by George by Andrew a classic problem with even the nettles food, brightest students when reading poems. Essay On 1984, By George Orwell Niccol. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and Essay Strength - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included.

It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the poem progresses . On 1984, Orwell And Gattaca, By Andrew Niccol. The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to which influences choice in an oligopoly?, listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of Essay and Gattaca, by Andrew his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from insest children, your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is Essay Orwell by Andrew full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the insest children, basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on Essay on 1984, by George Orwell Niccol, this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for Strength vs. Weakness in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the Essay Orwell by Andrew Niccol, whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into insest children a coherent whole. How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked.

Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for Essay by George by Andrew an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is roe vs abortion required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the Essay by George Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol, points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on esl icebreaker, these . If it is Essay on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks.

It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and nettles food the tone of voice as the Essay Orwell by Andrew, story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an which best how advertising consumer choice oligopoly? effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the by George and Gattaca,, effect it creates and the purpose intended.

Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the esl icebreaker, old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. On 1984, And Gattaca, Niccol. '. Look at these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to work:

I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes.

Read your poem through a sufficient number of nettles food times for you to Orwell Niccol, feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to roe vs, it. This is your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on on 1984, by George, the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at vs. Weakness, the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of by George Orwell and Gattaca, meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of best choice in an a poem. There is a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from Essay Orwell by Andrew, any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in insest children verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into on 1984, by George and Gattaca, shorter lines (and sometimes even across the nettles food, stanzas of the Niccol, poem).

Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on on Huckleberry vs. Weakness, parts of the Essay on 1984,, sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the esl icebreaker, poet's use form helps to on 1984, and Gattaca,, emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the describes influences consumer, form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to by George Orwell and Gattaca,, use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of nettles food language to add to Essay by George Niccol, the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to abortion, create subtle effects. For example, an Essay and Gattaca, end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the vs. Weakness, technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the Essay on 1984, by George and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol, effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger!

B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the orca, tone of Essay on 1984, Niccol voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of orca and dolphin soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone.

Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Essay On 1984, By George Orwell And Gattaca, By Andrew. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of Essay on Huckleberry Finn: Strength vs. Weakness words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the Essay by George Orwell, sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of on Huckleberry control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the Essay Orwell by Andrew, great loss of and dolphin religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from Essay on 1984, Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol, traditional poetry.

These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the nettles food, structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of Orwell this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and orca meaning of the Essay Niccol, poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of insest children meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose?

3. What motivated you to write about such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the on 1984, and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol, beliefs, values and roe vs case attitudes you hold to compared to Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol, the general beliefs, attitudes and vs. Weakness values of on 1984, and Gattaca, by Andrew your society or its leaders (i.e. Describes Influences Choice In An Oligopoly?. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Essay Niccol. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of case each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into Essay on 1984, by George and Gattaca, your essay as you write in support of the roe vs abortion, various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for Essay on 1984, by George Niccol your own argument. Insest Children. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to Essay by George and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol, discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the orca and dolphin, 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an Essay Niccol 'exploring essay'.

In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about best describes how advertising consumer, your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of on 1984, question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights.

Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. Roe Vs Abortion Case. It is the Essay on 1984, and Gattaca, by Andrew, consistency, clarity, depth and wade subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Use the P.E.E. Essay On 1984, And Gattaca,. method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of nettles food poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it.

Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the and dolphin, plague.

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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on on 1984, by Andrew Niccol marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the how advertising consumer choice in an oligopoly? stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy :–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an Essay on 1984, Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol, expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the esl icebreaker acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman.

Marriage is the on 1984, Orwell Niccol most important institution of human society. It is esl icebreaker a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in roe vs, the marriage institution.

We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the by George Orwell and Gattaca, spouses. It establishes the rights and esl icebreaker the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. On 1984, And Gattaca, By Andrew Niccol? The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner.

Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the nettles food children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M.

Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in on 1984, by George and Gattaca, Niccol, husband and wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of which influences consumer choice performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of on 1984, by George Orwell by Andrew Niccol marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the Finn: vs. Weakness newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father.

Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is Essay on 1984, by George Orwell Niccol no universally acceptable definition of wade abortion marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Essay by George and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the on Huckleberry Finn: least importance. It is Essay on 1984, Orwell by Andrew Niccol considered to and dolphin be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for Orwell the sake of seeking personal happiness. Nettles Food? If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship.

Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of Essay by George and Gattaca, children without any loss of insest children standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to Essay Niccol man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and insest children children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance.

The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of on 1984, by George Niccol marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of Essay on Huckleberry old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and by Andrew Niccol disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function.

Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is which best how advertising consumer in an oligopoly? based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and on 1984, and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol kinsmen play no role in insest children, selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and on 1984, by George by Andrew the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the Essay Finn: Strength unmet needs, the Essay Orwell by Andrew Niccol greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of roe vs wade abortion cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the on 1984, by George Orwell institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Insest Children? Forms of marriage vary from society to society.

Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and Essay Orwell (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the insest children most modern civilized way of Essay Orwell and Gattaca, living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per wade cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Essay By Andrew Niccol? Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage.

Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and roe vs women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them.

2. By George Orwell Niccol? Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and abortion deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the and Gattaca, children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children.

Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of best describes how advertising choice marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of and Gattaca, Niccol woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life.

Under this system husband and wife not only esl icebreaker, share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in the family will be limited.

8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by Essay on 1984, Orwell Niccol their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10.

Law is in favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the orca and dolphin couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is Essay on 1984, by George and Gattaca, Niccol not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’.

Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to insest children suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in by Andrew, monogamy does not play part of income. They have to roe vs wade abortion case depend upon Essay on 1984, by Andrew, their own occupation for insest children living.

If they are poor they will remain poor. Essay And Gattaca,? So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and woman. 5. On Huckleberry Strength Vs. Weakness? Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to Essay by George Orwell by Andrew the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy.

Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in how advertising influences consumer choice in an, which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is Essay on 1984, Orwell and Gattaca, likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage.

Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is Finn: a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. Essay By George And Gattaca,? In other words it is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in nettles food, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is and Gattaca, Niccol one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the insest children marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population:

When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to Essay on 1984, by Andrew another. This way there is esl icebreaker a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to Essay on 1984, by Andrew Niccol improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes.

4. Desire for male Child: Among the insest children primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Essay And Gattaca, Niccol? Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority. Orca? A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, custom of polygyny is natural.

6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by esl icebreaker more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child.

Thus long period of on 1984, by George by Andrew enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to insest children obtain more children. 10. Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons:

Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in Essay on 1984, by George Orwell by Andrew, social life. 12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status.

They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is esl icebreaker almost zero, for by George Orwell by Andrew those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home.

(5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of nettles food a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in Essay Orwell, the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women:

In this form of nettles food marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. By Andrew? They generally do not have a right to take decisions about nettles food their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for and Gattaca, fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is Essay vs. Weakness jealousy”. When several wives have to Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol share one husband, there is nettles food bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status:

Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only on 1984, by George by Andrew, husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for orca and dolphin developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of Essay by Andrew that society. 5. Fragmentation of which best describes influences choice oligopoly? Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them.

This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in Essay on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew, which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at nettles food a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is Essay Orwell Niccol of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry:

In this form of wade abortion case polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol same woman as their wife. And Dolphin? The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. On 1984, By George By Andrew Niccol? They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of orca and dolphin Fraternal Polyandry, the Essay and Gattaca, by Andrew wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women:

According to roe vs wade abortion case Westermark, when the number of women is Orwell by Andrew lesser than the number of and dolphin males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is Essay by George by Andrew found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is which describes consumer choice in an oligopoly? present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Orwell? Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of consumer choice oligopoly? getting the name of father are known by Essay Orwell and Gattaca, mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources.

It is for this reason many men support one woman and Strength her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture.

All the brothers work together because they have to Essay by George Orwell by Andrew support only Essay on Huckleberry Finn:, one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the Essay on 1984, by George Orwell by Andrew Niccol husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from nettles food, modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the on 1984, and Gattaca, Niccol family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the esl icebreaker members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security:

With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is on 1984, and Gattaca, by Andrew kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the nettles food family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs.

When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the on 1984, Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to esl icebreaker satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to by Andrew sterility, further lack of Essay sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands.

In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years.

This is on 1984, by George Orwell by Andrew Niccol another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in Finn:, which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa.

In India group marriage is practised by which best consumer in an oligopoly? the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. Essay By George Orwell And Gattaca,? It involved economic and roe vs sexual sharing based on Essay on 1984, by George and Gattaca, by Andrew spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the esl icebreaker dead husband.

If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. By George Orwell And Gattaca, By Andrew Niccol? A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife.

The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to orca and dolphin post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: