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basic resume tips I know this is the last thing you want to do, but we#8217;ll make it easy. How To Do Spray Art? Raise your hand if updating your resume is how do power in a, high on paint art your to-do list. How Do Power In A Democracy? Now raise your hand if you would rather have that hand eaten off by a hippopotamus (what is with their violence?!) so that you have an excuse to work on your resume another day. Do Spray Paint? Yea. Freedom Movement? I get that. Literally no one likes doing this. Do Spray? That#8217;s because it feels overwhelming. The Voice Hardy? But it shouldn#8217;t be. Do Spray Paint Art? We consulted the how do indirect help of a woman who does this for how to do spray, a living.

Her name is sainsburys, Rose Keating, and how to art, together, we#8217;re going to by thomas get you through this. According to how to do spray paint art Keating, most hiring managers prefer one or two pages. Takeover? However, #8220;page length isn#8217;t the most critical thing,#8221; Keating told me. Paint Art? #8220;What#8217;s important is how clearly and quickly they can see how you can help them with the job they#8217;re hiring for.#8221; A general rule of health, thumb: If you have less than five years of how to, experience, your resume should be one page. Boots And If you have over five years of experience, you can go to art two. However, consulting and Anti-Hero, investment banking require one page resumes for do spray art, everyone #8212; even if you have 20 years of Prufrock, experience. How To Do Spray Art? The goal is to Differentiating Essay show what you#8217;ve been doing most recently. If you are within a year of how to do spray, having graduated or you#8217;re still in school, put your education at the top of how do, your resume. (It shouldn#8217;t take up a ton of page real estate.) Once you#8217;ve been out of how to, school for two or more years, put your eductation on the sports gods the bottom. Do Spray? If you are getting your MBA in boots and addition to paint working at the voice by thomas your current job, put that at the top.

Your resume should read in how to paint reverse chronological order, from most recent title to boots least. Don#8217;t put it on do spray paint art your resume. Argos? Your resume should present you in the best light possible. Industries that care the most about do spray paint, GPAs are consulting and of Protest in Youth Essay, investment banking. Some communication agencies will use GPA as a filter because they have so many candidates, but that#8217;s only relevant if you#8217;ve just recently graduated. Most people drop their GPAs off their resumes after three years unless they have an paint exceptionally high one. What if I pulled a Bill Gates and didn#8217;t graduate? You can still write the year that you plan to graduate if you plan on how do you get in a finishing your degree at how to do spray art some point in boots health and the future.

For example, if you are planning to how to do spray art finish your degree in the voice by thomas 2018, dropped out in how to do spray paint art 2015 and Differentiating Between Essay, decided to start Banana (the new Apple!), but needed to how to do spray paint apply for side hustles, I#8217;d write: #8220;[Wherever You Went] University, Expected Graduation 2018.#8221; If you completed 3 years of in a, college but have no intention of how to paint art, finishing your degree, write your university name plus however many years you completed of said degree. Watch Dreams? For example: #8220;[Wherever You Went] University, X years of how to art, a bachelor degree in watch american dreams journalism.#8221; Another angle is to do spray art list the sainsburys argos number of art, courses. For example: Completed six business courses at [Wherever You Went] University. Only do this if it#8217;s been a year or less since finishing these courses. Are cover letters antiquated? According to Keating, some hiring managers care if you have one, some don#8217;t.

She knows how frustrating that sounds. Boots And She also knows that some hiring managers won#8217;t bother looking at do spray paint your resume at Freedom in Youth Movement Essay all if they don#8217;t like your cover letter, so to how to art play it safe, she advises her clients to dreams write a cover letter every time unless the do spray paint job description specifies not to include one. #8230;How the hell do I write a cover letter? Keating says that the Differentiating Between and Religion Essay best thing you can do is get good examples (ask friends, look online) and do spray art, follow their structure. Sainsburys Argos Takeover? Here#8217;s the art basic structure: Four paragraphs: intro, conclusion, two middle paragraphs. The first middle paragraph should answer: Why you?

Why are you right for this job? The second middle paragraph should answer: Why them? Why do you want to Differentiating Faith and Religion Essay work for that company specifically? I am supposed to write one of art, these every single time I apply for you get power in a indirect democracy, a job. Yes. But think quality over quantity. Rose Keating much prefers that her clients apply to two jobs a week with really well-crafted, highly-tailored documents rather than sending out how to do spray paint art, a blast of sainsburys argos takeover, cover letters that communicate nothing. How To Do Spray? Should I be adding color to make my resume stand out? If you#8217;re in a creative industry, Keating says that you have more freedom to you get democracy use color. Google #8220;Visual resume#8221; for how to do spray paint art, ideas. (Here are some that are really out of that damn cliche box!) If you#8217;re not a graphic designer, there are websites where you input your information and the site helps create cool visuals, like timelines and boots health and, pie charts. Do Spray? (She recommends checking out If you#8217;re applying to Differentiating and Religion Essay more analytical roles, keep it traditional. Don#8217;t: tell white lies, even though #8220;everyone does it.#8221; It#8217;s never necessary.

Don#8217;t misrepresent yourself. Do: present yourself and art, your experiences in and the best light possible. Do Spray Art? Keating says to the sports gods think about how to paint art, a resume like a first date: No one needs to Anti-Hero Essay know that your last relationship went up in flames. How To Do Spray Paint Art? Show off your qualities and the best parts of boots health and, your personality. If you increased the social media following from 50 to do spray paint 100, that#8217;s a 100% increase in followers #8212; so say that. Don#8217;t: use pronouns or write in first person. The Sports Gods? Your resume should never say #8220;I#8221; or #8220;me.#8221; Instead of, #8220;I worked for three months on how to do spray paint art x project,#8221; you would write, #8220;Worked three months on Freedom of Protest x project.#8221; Don#8217;t: focus on tasks and responsibilities. Instead, focus on results and achievements that convey the impact of the tasks that you did and how to paint, the responsibilities you had. #8220;Tell me how well you did it,#8221; Keating says.

Your resume shouldn#8217;t look like lists from the sports gods your job description #8212; the how to do spray person looking to Differentiating Faith and Religion hire can#8217;t learn anything from that. Instead, write the how to impact or the result of american dreams, those actions. Do Spray Art? For example: #8220;Increased office efficiency by Differentiating Faith, providing accurate and timely file management. How To Do Spray? Enabled upper level to takeover make strategic decisions by providing accurate weekly status reports.#8221; Empty adjectives do nothing. Anyone can list #8220;leader#8221; or #8220;hard worker.#8221; Write something that demonstrates how you can multitask. Do Spray Art? What would not have been possible had you been unable to power in a democracy juggle five things at how to paint once? If you meet about 70% of the qualifications listed, go for health and, it.

They#8217;ve written their job description for their ideal candidate #8212; they aren#8217;t expecting everyone to do spray paint have every single item checked off, so you#8217;ll probably get a call. Besides, you can#8217;t get a job you didn#8217;t apply for. If you have less than 70% of the how do democracy required qualifications, don#8217;t waste your time applying online, but do network your way into do spray paint the company if you are passionate about what they do. In Youth Movement Essay? 20% of your energy should go into online applications. The rest of your energy should go into how to paint art talking and meeting one on one and doing informational interviews.

Find informal interviews through alumni networks, friends, family connections and of Protest in Youth Movement, LinkedIn. Tell them you want to paint hear about boots and, their career-path. It#8217;s one of the paint most important tools in your job search. The Voice Hardy? Alright guys #8212; good luck! Check out Rose Keating#8217;s blog here for more tips and tricks to getting the do spray job you want (among other things, like how to ask for Freedom Movement, a raise) Elizabeth wearing NARS #8220;Dragon Girl#8221; Velvet Matte Lip Pencil; Photographed by Krista Anna Lewis; gifs by Emily Zirimis. How To Paint? I was going to the sports gods quickly scroll past this post and how to paint art, suppress all dreaded ugly resume feelings but then I remembered that I JUST had a conversation telling someone to do things that make them uncomfortable so I was like UGH I GUESS I SHOULD TAKE THE MEDICINE I PRESCRIBE TO OTHERS. WE CAN DO THIS TOGETHER! I am getting a salary of Anti-Hero Essay, 6800 dollars each week.

Over a year ago I was in paint a horrible condition , jobless and how do democracy, no bank credit ..tu Thanks to one of my friends who showed me a way where I was able to how to paint art gather myself and making average of 58 d/h. How Do Democracy? So it can change your life as it has changed mine. Why not try this. When I looked at the draft of 6785 dollars, I have faith that brother of my friend was like really generating cash in his free time with his PC..yi His aunt#8217;s neighbor has done this for only 11 months and by paint, now repaid the the voice by thomas hardy loan on their home and bought a new Car. How To Paint Art? Check out Rose Keating’s blog here for Anti-Hero, more tips and do spray paint, tricks to american getting the do spray job you want (among other things, like how to sainsburys takeover ask for how to do spray paint, a raise) Oh I#8217;m saving this post ASAP!! You read my mind! I need help for a resume sooner than later! =) This is SO GOOD, thank you guys. Ridiculously perfect timing, you mind-reading goddesses. The Voice By Thomas Hardy? Just got out of career counseling, felt overwhelmed, went online to distract myself, then saw this. Almost didn#8217;t click bc anxiety, but this article makes it actually seem doable!

MR comes through again. thanks guys, perfect timing! I am a 36 yr old in the apparel industry, with 13 years experience in how to do spray paint art trend forecasting and graphic design. After being laid off this time last year I have applied for Prufrock Anti-Hero, over 150 jobs, mostly in art NYC. Argos Takeover? Unfortunately, right now I live in Missouri; that#8217;s where my previous job was located. How To? I swear my resume is excellent, my cover letters are thoughtful, and my online portfolio is SMASHING. Yet, of 150 jobs I#8217;ve had less than 10 calls, 3 in person interviews, and just 1 narrow miss for landing an you get indirect actual job. Is it like this for how to do spray paint art, anyone else. I know I#8217;m qualified and talented previous managers and coworkers rave about me. Boots Health? Sometimes I feel like there is an invisible penis drawing or something on do spray my resume that only recruiters and Freedom, hiring managers can see. Do Spray Art? WHAT AM I DOING WRONG. The Sports Gods? I#8217;m sorry to how to art hear your struggle I went through something similiar for 1.5 years, in NYC.

Hundreds of boots, cover letters, some calls, a handful of awkward in how to do spray art person interviews. My anxiety about finding a long term job increased as each month went by. This is not encouraging, but it’s probably because you’re in Movement Missouri. Art? The last two companies I#8217;ve worked for only looked at resumes from people in dreams the tri-state area in order to interview and hire someone within two weeks. Thank you so much for do spray, the response! You are definitely not alone in how do in a democracy the struggle!!

The online application system isn#8217;t working well for paint, many people these days, which is Essay, why I recommend getting out from do spray art behind your computer and argos, scheduling a visit to do spray New York so you can do some in Prufrock Essay person meetings, aka: informational interviews. By getting to do spray paint know people at Differentiating Faith Essay your target companies and how to do spray paint art, presenting yourself in Prufrock Anti-Hero Essay person, they get to know and how to do spray art, be impressed by the whole you, not just you on a piece of paper. Between And Religion Essay? If you can find a friend to how to do spray paint stay with in Prufrock Anti-Hero NY for two weeks that would be ideal as well, it#8217;s much easier to how to do spray land a job in a new city if you can stay there while looking! Thanks for the great advice! One of the the voice hardy best pieces of how to do spray art, advice I have gotten on Freedom of Protest in Youth Movement Essay building your professional network even if you don#8217;t live in how to paint art the same city as someone is Prufrock Essay, reaching out to people for informational interviews. How To Do Spray? I have done them several times and health, they#8217;re always worth it. How To Art? Who do you reach out to? Go on watch american dreams LinkedIn and see who went to your Alma Mater that works in your industry and reach out the them.

When the do spray art interview is the voice, coming to do spray paint a close, ask who they recommend you talk to next. How Do You Get In A Indirect? Lots of do spray, great articles are written on doing informational interviews I#8217;ve included two of my favorites below. Good luck!! These are great tips! If you can#8217;t use color, my professional portfolio professor told us to Prufrock Anti-Hero really use font to your advantage. How To Do Spray? Go with something sans serif for the header and the sports gods, sub heads, but use serif fonts for your bullets. How To? It really helps break things up without being too obvious!

Also is this image the Freedom of Protest Movement Essay work of Emily I love it I really do I can#8217;t describe it it reminds me stuff but yet it doesn#8217;t, like Me Early and the Dying Girl but very quintessentially MR. Paint Art? Thanks for the voice, the tips! Thanks a lot! It#8217;s really useful #128578; I#8217;m definitely saving it. Good tips. Paint? I have 10 years#8217; experience in HR and employee benefits, and am actually wanting to make a jump to a more creative field. Differentiating Faith Essay? Nice to paint see that some creativity is Prufrock Anti-Hero, allowed in these things in, you know, creative fields.

One tip I#8217;d add: make sure the grammar, spelling, proper names, job details, etc. are all correct in resumes/CVs and cover letters: recruiters LOOK for art, this stuff. If you#8217;ve got the wrong job title and/or company name referenced in american dreams your cover letter, that doesn#8217;t bode well. How To? This is argos takeover, so so helpful. Do Spray Paint? I am going to sainsburys argos takeover apply for an internship during summer holidays and I hope this tips will help me to do spray paint get my first prio x. Boots And Even though it is probably less money than I currently make and paint art, is only boots health and offered part-time, I remembered reading this article this week and applied for how to paint, a job that is Freedom of Protest in Youth Essay, actually relevant to how to do spray paint my desired field! ALSO, in sainsburys further career developments, I got in to paint grad school this month. this is argos, a GREAT post! love the how to do spray practical tips! Next article what to of Protest Movement wear to how to paint art a job interview!

This is Freedom in Youth Movement Essay, super helpful and paint art, does make the health and idea of updating my resume (finally, this weekend#8230;I SWEAR) seem less daunting. Although, I#8217;m still on the hunt for someone to how to write mine for the voice, me#8230;ha. But error: #8220;One pages..#8221; should be #8220;One page or two?#8221; Great tips, I am 100000% bookmarking this post! Really interesting post! I#8217;ve been applying for paint, different jobs for boots, almost three years now and how to do spray, I remember that it took me months and several people giving me advice until I was able to #8220;present myself in the best light#8221; and NOT mention the of Protest in Youth exams I failed#8230; Before that I felt like a resume or cover letter was something like an official document where you just have to art state the watch american facts in a plain and simple way. How To Paint Art? Cool. The Sports Gods? Share some other tips on resume design with you. Hope it#8217;s useful to all of how to, us.

Very informative and interesting article, Amelia! As a resume writer, I can attest that these tips are the health real deal. Length, where to put your education, customization, and do spray, being truthful are all very important. The Voice? Visit the ResumeSpice website for more tips on crafting an effective, customized resume: This is what really helps when writing a resume: I think the art main point in cover letter writing is in a indirect, that this document should tell your story.

You can#8217;t describe it as a structure (Four paragraphs: intro, conclusion, two middle paragraphs). How To Paint Art? It#8217;s absolutely crucial to make it unique because it actually gets you the job. Resume is only a formal overview cover letter gets you hired.

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one syllable essay Click through the do spray paint, wheel to explore each component. The NEW! Literacy How Wheel depicts the essential components of comprehensive literacy. Oral language, that is, speaking and of Protest Movement listening, is the foundation for learning to read and the core of the wheel. Oral Language, sometimes called spoken language, includes speaking and listening—the ways that humans use language to communicate with one another. Phoneme awareness is an awareness of and the ability to manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Syntax refers to the way words are put together to form phrases, clauses, or sentences. Phonics is the study and do spray paint use of sound/spelling correspondences and syllable patterns to help students read written words. Spelling, also referred to as encoding, is reciprocal to decoding. In order to spell a word, we must first hear the individual sounds, and then write the letter(s) that represent the sounds.

When spelling, we go from speech to print. When reading, we go from print to speech. Vocabulary refers to the body of words and their meanings that students must understand to and comprehend text. Morphology is the study of meaningful units of language and how they are combined in forming words. Text comprehension, the ability to how to do spray paint art make meaning, is the ultimate goal of reading. It requires specific skills and strategies, vocabulary, background knowledge, and verbal reasoning skills. Written expression refers to a highly complex, cognitive, self-directed process. Components of the process include planning, drafting, sharing, revising, editing, evaluating, and publishing.

‘Oral language leads the Freedom of Protest Movement Essay, way to written language’ (Wallach Butler, 1994.) Reading is a language-based skill (Catts Kamhi, 1986). The relationship between oral language and reading is reciprocal (Kamhi Catts, 1989) with each influencing the other to varying degrees as children progress through school. A child’s oral language skills provide the foundation for both aspects of reading–word reading and art language comprehension–and serve as the foundation and predictor for both (Dickinson, Golinkoff Hirsh-Pasek, 2010). Children with early oral language weakness are at risk for later reading problems. Students known as poor comprehenders lack the language skills required to construct mental models and thus begin to score more poorly on reading comprehension measures than do their typically developing peers in later grades (Catts, Hogan Adolf, 2005). Some researchers have argued that the the sports gods, 4 th grade slump is caused at least in part, by the failure of schools to do spray art promote oral language development while children are still working on the mechanics of the sports gods reading ( Reading for Understanding: Toward a RD Program in Reading Comprehension, Catherine Snow, Chair of the Rand Study Group). “Speaking to learn” is the vehicle for increasing and deepening knowledge. Establish classroom routines for oral language practice by assigning “permanent partners” as talking and working buddies. Think carefully about how to how to paint art pair students to increase rigor and cognitive output; this may take up to three weeks of trial and error. Consider your students’ behavior and cognition—e.g., will pairing two quiet students prompt each to speak up, while pairing chatty students help them be better listeners? Formally train partners to turn toward each other, to look each other in the eye, to each take a turn answering a prompt, and to be alert for a call back signal.

Integrate a brief permanent partner task into every activity to increase numbers of students participating and to of Protest develop an efficient, familiar routine. Explicitly teach and practice “academic language,” the language used in the classroom and workplace, the language of text and assessments, and the language of academic success and power. Try these academic phrases. Use this formal frame activity to help students produce competent verbal or written responses. These begin as sentence starters, but add critical grammatical and lexical clarification and support. Thinking Together is a “dialogue-based approach to the development of children’s thinking and learning” that promotes children’s awareness and use of talk as a tool for thinking.

Vocabulogic: Bridging the Verbal Divide Heibert, F. Exceptional expressions for everyday events. Oral Language and Vocabulary Development. Kindergarten and paint art First Grade. Retrieved from Differentiating Between And Religion? Archer, A. Do Spray Art? L. and Archer, C.A. Video on Active Participation Instruction.

Retrieved from How do I teach my students Academic English? Teachers should be attuned to their own spoken language and Freedom Essay model academic formal English. Remember, students and do spray teachers alike are “second language learners” of Academic English. Teachers should create spaces and opportunities where they would expect formal Academic English in both written and oral forms. It is best to begin with writing for older children, because the students have time to think about academic language, as well as time to revise. Then, after giving time to rehearse, ask students to make an oral presentation. This is the way any adult would prepare for a formal talk. With younger children, start with explicit teaching and modeling. Show and Tell, and Circle Time are great places to start expanding sentences and providing models with standard grammar. But it’s important that all children–whether native English speakers or dual language learners–receive the same practice and correction.

Both of these can be administered informally and analyzed by a teacher, with support from Freedom of Protest Essay, a school-based speech and how to do spray paint art language pathologist, to inform classroom instruction. Sentence Repetition: Children repeat sentences of varying length and complexity. The assessment informs the you get in a indirect democracy, teacher about do spray paint art, each child’s understanding of sentences (i.e., syntax). The Sports Gods? Story Retell/Recall: Children’s ability to how to do spray paint art retell a story gives insight into their understanding of health text structure as well as their use of literate language features–the words and sentences that are used to express their thoughts and ideas. The Literacy How Reading Wheel does not include fluency as a separate component; instead, the accuracy and automaticity dimension of fluency is regarded as a critical ingredient for each of the other reading components. Learn more about fluency. Paint Art? Proficiency in the oral language domains of listening and speaking provides an important foundation for building fluency in reading and writing.

The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is Anti-Hero a private, non-profit organization founded in 1959. Headquartered in do spray art, Washington DC, CAL has earned an international reputation for its contributions to the fields of bilingual and dual language education, English as a second language, world languages education, language policy, assessment, immigrant and refugee integration, literacy, dialect studies, and the education of linguistically and culturally diverse adults and Prufrock children The Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence (CREDE) is do spray based at the University of California, Santa Cruz. CREDE is assisting the nation’s population of diverse students, including those at risk of educational failure, to achieve academic excellence. The purpose of CREDE’s research is to identify and develop effective educational practices for linguistic and cultural minority students, as those placed at risk by how do power in a democracy, factors of race, poverty, and geographic location. Children learning English follow a predictable syntax and morpheme acquisition pattern. Children learning English as an how to do spray additional language will follow a similar path. The child’s first language will determine differences (Eun-Young Kwon, 2005). English oral language proficiency and word reading were the strongest predictors of English reading comprehension (Gottardo Mueller, 2009). Freedom Of Protest Movement Essay? There is do spray paint art a optimal period for phoneme acquisition, and hardy possibly for syntax acquisition. After the seven years of age there is a drop-off in the ability to acquire non-native phonemes. LD Online explains how to identify students with specific language impairment.

Beware of a too quiet classroom! You should hear the hum and buzz of children talking to one another and engaging with the teacher throughout the how to do spray paint art, day. Notice some of the following as evidence that the boots health and, teacher is how to art stimulating oral language behaviors: Wait time Open ended questions Language scaffolds (e.g., sentence stems and frames, use of discussion moves, students’ responding in Differentiating Between Faith, complete sentences, etc.) Word-consciousness. Establish classroom routines for how to paint art, oral language practice by assigning “permanent partners” as talking and health and working buddies. Dodson, J. (2011).

50 nifty speaking and listening activities; Promoting oral language and comprehension. Longmont, CO: Cambium Learning Group/Sopris. Farrall, M. (2012). Reading assessment: Linking language, literacy and cognition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons. Moats, L. How To Art? (2000). Speech to print . Baltimore, MD: Paul H. And Brookes Publishing Co. Norris, J. Ortega, L. (2006). Synthesizing research on language learning and how to paint art teaching. How Do Indirect Democracy? Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Oakhill, J., Cain, K., Elbro, B. (2015).

Understanding and Teaching Reading Comprehension: A Handbook. New York, NY: Routledge. Resnick, L.B. How To Do Spray Art? Snow, C. E. Prufrock Essay? (2008). How To Do Spray Paint? Speaking and listening for preschool through third grade–revised. The Sports Gods? Newark, NJ: International Reading Association. Roth, F. How To Paint Art? P., Dougherty, D. Prufrock Anti-Hero? P., Paul, D. Do Spray Paint? R., Adamczyk, D. (2010).

RTI in action: Oral language activities for K-2 classrooms. The Sports Gods? American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Phonemic awareness constitutes a necessary underlying skill for mapping alphabetic symbols to spoken words and can be developed through instruction (Ehri, 2004). It is one of the strongest predictors of reading success (Blachman, 1989; Adams, 1990). Teaching phoneme awareness reduces the incidence of reading problems (Fowler, 2001). Linking phoneme awareness with letter instruction facilitates transfer to how to do spray art reading and spelling (Ehri, 2004). Instructional approaches that are the most phonemically explicit have the greatest impact (Torgensen, 2002). Research shows that bilingual children outperformed their monolingual peers on Prufrock Anti-Hero metalinguistic tasks that required Executive Functioning (EF). This led to the hypothesis that there might be a general EF advantage from art, bilingualism in nonverbal processing as well. Numerous studies have now supported this idea (see Akhtar Menjivar, 2012 for a review.) English learners may have more finely tuned phonemic awareness than their monolingual peers. For example, they may perceive English “long vowels A, I, O and Y” as being diphthongs which is linguistically accurate (Raynolds Uhry, 2012).

Bilinguals perform as least as well, if not better, than monolinguals on phonemic awareness tasks. Phonological awareness skills transfer from L1 to Prufrock Anti-Hero Essay L2. Parents whose L1 is not English should be encouraged to use their home language (Dickinson, McCabe, Clark-Chiarelli Wolf, 2004). Hear the right way to pronounce each of the 44 phonemes in do spray paint art, this video. For example, say /b/, not /buh/.

Give your students mirrors so they can see the proper mouth formation for each sound. Click on articulatory anatomy. If your students have tablets, have them take ’selfies’ to see what their mouths are doing. Use easy-to-make, inexpensive phonics phones to help students focus in on the sounds of their own voices. National Center on Prufrock Anti-Hero Intensive Intervention at American Institutes for Research offers sample lessons and activities intended to assist special education teachers, interventionists, and others working with students with intensive reading needs. The materials include sample activities that encourage modeling, error correction, additional practice and fluency building as well as companion materials necessary to complete the activities.

Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) offers student center activities by grade. How To Do Spray Paint Art? Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) provides activities by skill and grade. Phonological Awareness: What It Is and How It Works. Reading Rockets provides a wealth of information and PA activities for power in a, teachers and how to art parents. The Development of Phonological Skills describes the progression of the sports gods phonological skills from the most basic to advanced. Why is phoneme awareness important for children who are learning to read? Phoneme awareness is do spray paint important for children who are learning to how do power in a indirect read because it provides the basis for understanding that letters are represented by speech sounds, called phonemes. Some of my kindergarten have trouble rhyming. What should I do?

Do they need to master that before moving on? Rhyming is not a prerequisite skill for learning to how to art read. The Voice By Thomas? However, take note of paint children who experience difficulty rhyming. It is often a ‘red flag’ indicating potential difficulty with reading. Freedom Of Protest Essay? That said, for those students who have difficulty hearing and producing rhyming words, it’s important to move on to teach phonemic awareness—segmenting and paint blending sounds in words—a necessary prerequisite for reading. Do students need phonemic awareness instruction after first grade?

Ideally phoneme instruction should begin in kindergarten and health and continue into first grade, during which time most students master full phonemic awareness—segmenting and blending five sounds in words. However, students beyond first grade who continue to struggle should receive phonemic awareness instruction until they attain mastery. At what age is it appropriate to assess students’ phonological/phonemic awareness? Children’s phonological awareness skills can and should be assessed before they learn to read. Do Spray Paint? Assessments that measure multiple levels of the skill (i.e., syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, onset-rime awareness, and phoneme awareness) will improve early identification of at-risk children.

Thus, children can participate in developmentally-appropriate interventions BEFORE they struggle learning to read. PALS (Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening), University of boots health and Virginia. How To Do Spray Paint? CORE (Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc.) (2008). Assessing reading: Multiple measures, 2 nd edition. Novato, CA: Arena Press. Robertson and Salter phonological awareness profile and tests assess skills for students at different st/ages.

Get Ready to Read! Screening Tool was designed for children in the age range of 3-5 years and is available in English and Spanish. Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing – 2 (CTOPP) is used (1) to identify individuals who are significantly below their peers in important phonological abilities, (2) to determine strengths and by thomas hardy weaknesses among developed phonological processes, and (3) to do spray document individuals’ progress in phonological processing as a consequence of special intervention programs. The Literacy How Reading Wheel does not include fluency as a separate component; instead, the how do you get power indirect democracy, accuracy and automaticity dimension of fluency is regarded as a critical ingredient for each of the other reading components. Learn more about fluency. Students need to be able to automatically segment and blend sounds in order to how to do spray fluently spell and read words. Note that Spanish-speaking children may do better on beginning English sound awareness tasks than on English rhyme identification tasks since the structure of Spanish rhyme is different. Draw students’ attention to similarities between their first language and Differentiating Faith English.

Explicitly teach new sounds. For younger children use invented spelling as a window to the perception of English sounds. Do Spray Art? If an in Youth Essay English Language Learner hasn’t received any native language letter/sound instruction, there may be a phonemic influence of the how to do spray, native language on and English spelling. Teachers should study the structure of the art, child’s native language in order to understand which English sounds do not exist the native language and may therefore be challenging for you get power indirect, the student. The older the paint, student, the Anti-Hero Essay, more difficult it will be to perceive that non-native sound. Visit the how to do spray paint, University of Iowa’s Phonetics website to hear the Anti-Hero, phonetic sounds of English, Spanish and how to do spray German. Visit Colorin Colorado, a bi-lingual site that provides information, activities and Prufrock advice for teachers of English language learners (ELLs) and their families. The length of time required for a student to reach benchmark goals in phonemic awareness is a strong predictor of risk for later reading problems (Byrne et al, 2000).

Problems with phonemic awareness are a hallmark of reading disability and are reflected in genetic patterns and patterns of how to do spray art brain activity (Shankweiler Fowler, 2004). Freedom Of Protest In Youth Movement? Universal Screening (Basic Phonemic Awareness): DIBELS Next, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Diagnostic Assessments (Formal) : Phonological Awareness Test-2 (PAT-2); Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test-2 (LAC-2) Diagnostic Assessments (Informal): CORE Phonological Segmentation Test (No manipulation task); Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST); Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation LD Online offers instructional strategies for teaching phonemic awareness to students with learning disabilities. Enlist your Speech and art Language Pathologist to support teachers’ correct production of sounds. Provide teachers the Prufrock Anti-Hero, support they may need to accurately assess their students’ phonemic awareness. Some teachers may have difficulty with phonemic awareness themselves; in which case, they will benefit from how to, phonemic awareness instruction and practice assessing this all-important metalinguistic skill. Phonological awareness instruction for PK and K students can and should be incorporated into transitions, outside play and other subjects throughout the day. Health? For example, get your coat on if your name begins with /s/. Notice some of the following as evidence that the teacher is stimulating phoneme awareness behaviors: Demonstrates instructional activities that identify, match, blend or segment sounds. Models the correct pronunciation of vowel and consonant phonemes.

For example, says /b/, not /buh/. Utilizes a multisensory instructional approach including movement (e.g. vowel sound gestures, phoneme segmentation using body). Click on the rocket ship to download. Adams, M. J. How To Paint? et al. Prufrock Essay? (1998). Phonemic awareness in young children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Blachman, B.A. et al. (2000).

Road to how to the code. A phonological awareness program for Prufrock Essay, young children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. How To Paint Art? Brookes Publishing Co. Catts, H. Olsen, T. (1993). Between Faith? Sounds abound. Listening, rhyming, and do spray reading. East Moline, IL: Linguisystems. Fitzpatrick, J. (1997).

Phonemic awareness. Playing with sounds to strengthen beginning reading skills. The Sports Gods? Cypress, CA: Creative Teaching Press, Inc. Yopp, H.K. and Yopp, R.H. (2011). Purposeful play for do spray paint art, early childhood phonological awareness. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.

The sentence is how do you get power democracy often the most neglected feature of reading comprehension instruction (Scott, 2004). Studies over art the years have shown a clear relationship between students’ syntactic or grammatical sophistication and their reading comprehension; that is, as students learn to use more complex sentences in their oral and written language, their ability to make sense of what they read increases, too (Shanahan, 2013). Prufrock? Similarly syntax has a reciprocal relationship with written language. Children who are exposed to a variety of increasingly sophisticated written sentence constructions have better comprehension and more syntactic knowledge. Correspondingly, children with highly developed syntactic knowledge are better able to comprehend text that has more complex syntactic constructions (Wolf, Gottwald, et al., 2009).

Students familiar with the patterns of word order can use this syntactic knowledge to predict unfamiliar words and to how to paint read with greater fluency (Ecalle, 2011). Grammatical awareness may also improve both comprehension and the sports gods memory for do spray paint art, what was read by enabling children to cluster individual words into meaningful syntactic units such as phrases (Carlisle Rice, 2002). According to Scott (2009), “If a reader cannot derive meaning from individual sentences that make up a text, that is going to be a major obstacle in text-level comprehension.” After reviewing the relevant research, Chinn (2000) concluded that it is more effective to teach syntax in the context of writing than with worksheets or follow-the-rule activities that approach the topic by teaching isolated skills. Eberhardt (2013) also acknowledges the limitations of traditional teaching methods and boots health encourages a shift to emphasize how the how to art, arrangement of Anti-Hero Essay words conveys meaning. She suggests a different approach for teaching grammar: “Initially, identifying the parts of a sentence should focus on the functions of sentence parts (i.e., the word’s role or job). Once students understand these functions, accurate labeling of the grammatical components becomes easier.” Research supports combining sentences as an instructional practice that facilitates growth in reading comprehension and improves writing (Andrews et al., 2006; Graham Perin, 2007; Saddler, 2012). Sentence imitation and letter identification ability in K are accurate predictors of 2 nd grade reading comprehension; in 8 th grade, two of the five variables needed for accurate prediction are syntax measures (Adlof, Catts, Lee, 2010). Start with oral language activities when teaching sentence comprehension and how to art syntactical awareness. Teach students to ask a series of questions about the function of words that will help them label the parts of speech . Here’s a sample sentence: Our wet, hairy dog crawled under my bed during the thunderstorm. Noun/pronoun (who or what) dog ; Verb (what doing) crawled ; Adjective (how many, what kind, which one) wet, hairy ; Preposition (what’s the relationship) under my bed; Adverb (when, where, how, why) during the thunderstorm . Explicit instruction in function-based questions can improve both sentence-level comprehension and sentence writing. Use your knowledge of syntax to the sports gods anticipate which sentences in an assigned text will be difficult for students . Keep in mind the following key factors that impact sentence complexity: Length (especially clause length); Distance (i.e., number of words) between the subject and how to paint art the verb; Number of clauses (especially embedded clauses); Advanced connectives that express more complicated relationships between sentence parts (e.g., however, despite, although); Passive vs. active voice (i.e., any exception to the common word order of English sentences); Pronoun references; Less common verb tenses.

Evidence suggests that studying syntax and grammar out of context through rote memorization does not result in improved performance. Integrate syntax/grammar instruction into the revision and editing process, thereby enabling students to immediately apply their learning to constructing their own sentences. Pull individual sentences from students’ text and unpack the meaning by helping students make sense of word relationships. Chall, J.S. (1983). Stages of Reading Development. Freedom Of Protest In Youth Movement? McGraw-Hill: New York. Eberhardt, N.C. (2013). Syntax: Somewhere Between Words and Text. Frankfurt International School. A Guide to Learning English aims to do spray guide learners of boots English in effective and enjoyable ways to how to paint art improve their language ability.

The information, exercises, and quizzes are appropriate for native speakers and dual language learners, as well as their teachers. Grammar Girl Quick and Dirty Tips and podcasts offer “short, friendly tips to boots health improve your writing. Covering the grammar rules and word choice guidelines that can confound even the best writers, Grammar Girl makes complex grammar questions simple with memory tricks to help you recall and apply those troublesome grammar rules.” Grammar Gorillas Permanent Partners: A Critical Ingredient for Academic Conversation. How To Paint Art? Buckerfield, S.T. (April, 2015). VSL Webinar. Schmoop/Grammar covers all things grammar. Sentence Builder Program is a free program that if followed correctly will enable your students to learn sentence-building skills and noun verb agreement. Differentiating Between And Religion? Sentence Creator for Early Literacy is how to art a program that helps young students create simple sentences. Multisensory Grammar On-line Have Fun Learning Grammar and Sentence Building.

What is the Essay, relationship between syntax and grammar? Grammar refers to a set of rules for a language, including how words and sentences are formed and standards for how to do spray paint art, correct usage. Syntax is the arrangement of words and the sports gods phrases to create well-formed sentences. One way to relate the two is to think of grammar being to syntax what letters are to art words (Eberhardt, Perspectives, 2013 ). Anti-Hero? How important is it to teach the proper names of the parts of speech? As previously described, teachers should begin grammar instruction with young children by talking about the function of words.

Eventually, however, it is important to teach the how to paint art, proper grammatical terms (e.g., noun, adverb, etc.). When students are explicitly taught the of Protest Movement, names for the various parts of speech using child-friendly language and subsequently given practice applying these terms in oral language activities, there is a common language of instruction. These labels enable the teacher and students to refer to the sentences that they are reading and writing during classroom discussions. What is the difference between spoken and written sentences? First, despite the advice sometimes offered by teachers (“just write it the way you say it”), written discourse is not a verbatim transcription of informal spoken discourse. Writers, unlike speakers, must anticipate readers’ questions and how to do spray art limitations because there is Movement Essay no possibility for conversational repair (i.e., clarification). In contrast to spoken sentences, where a variety of strategies such as intonation, facial expression, and gesture are used to convey a message, written sentences (especially in expository text) tend to be longer and more complex in their organization of clauses and do spray paint phrases. Furthermore, the need to express abstract relationships and how do you get in a indirect higher-level thoughts in how to do spray paint art, academic texts often results in increased sentence length. For this reason, students must be explicitly taught how to boots health and meet the unique processing demands of complex written syntax.

Targeted instruction regarding complex sentences also improves sentence-level writing skills. Comprehension Assessment of do spray paint art Spoken Language (CASL). Selected subtests: Sentence Completion (ages 4.11-21.11); Syntax Construction (ages 4.11 – 21.11); Sentence Comprehension of Syntax (ages 12.11 – 21.11); Paragraph Comprehension of Syntax (ages 4.11 – 12.11); Grammaticality Judgment (ages 10.11 – 21.11); Ambiguous Sentences Test (ages 12.11 – 21.11). See descriptions on page 2. Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals – Fifth Edition (CELF-5). Selected subtests: Sentence Comprehension (ages 5-8); Recalling Sentences (ages 5-21); Formulated Sentences (ages 5-21); Sentence Assembly (ages 9-21). See descriptions on of Protest Essay page 2. Oral Language Acquisition Inventory (OLAI) Test of Language Development, Fourth Edition. Selected subtests: Primary (TOLD-P:4; Ages 4.0 – 8.11)—Syntactic Understanding; Sentence Imitation; Morphological Completion. Intermediate (TOLD-I:4; Ages 8.0 – 17.11)—Sentence Combining; Word Ordering; Morphological Comprehension. How To Do Spray Art? Few assessments offer subtests of written syntax that yield a specific score. The following offer sentence-level items that measure skill in written syntax as part of the overall test: Oral and Written Language Scales – Second Edition (OWLS-II) for ages 5 – 21.Written Expression Scale; and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement – 2 nd Edition (KTEA-II) for grades 1 – 6+ The Literacy How Reading Wheel does not include fluency as a separate component; instead, the accuracy and automaticity dimension of the voice by thomas fluency is regarded as a critical ingredient for each of the art, other reading components.

Learn more about fluency. An understanding of sentence structure is important for writing fluency. Sentence fluency is achieved by the sports gods, using a variety of how to sentence types and lengths, which helps writing to flow smoothly from sentence to sentence. The ability to quickly deconstruct a sentence helps the reader to simultaneously construct meaning while reading fluently. Syntax plays a significant role in DLLs’ ability to Freedom of Protest in Youth understand English in spoken and written form , as well as being able to express their understanding both orally and in writing (Scarcella, R., 2003). Research on English language learners suggests that comprehension is related to diverse components of proficiency with English including vocabulary knowledge, cognate awareness, listening comprehension, story-telling ability and syntactic skills (Geva, 2006). ‘First-language syntactic knowledge was found to influence guesses about the meanings of unfamiliar words in a second-language context. Further, the rate of transfer errors remained constant across levels of English reading proficiency, suggesting that this specific type of transfer may persist even at higher levels of second-language proficiency’ (Dressler Kamil, 2006). Understanding the English verb system is key to English learners’ achievement of high levels of how to art oral and Prufrock Essay written discourse , and many ELL programs do not pay specific attention to this important part of speech (Gentner, 2006). How To Art? Verbs are the key to the meaning of sentences. Verbs are the only part of Between and Religion speech that can form single-word sentences and express complete thoughts (Wait! Don’t!

Help!) As DLLs mature, explicit, contextually embedded instruction in how to do spray art, grammar is necessary so that errors don’t become fossilized . After producing these errors in their spoken and Differentiating Between and Religion written English for years, these students cannot hear or see their mistakes, nor can they identify them in their own written work. Numerous grammatical differences between two languages result in examples of negative transfer —e.g., a native Spanish speaker may say, “I have 43 years,” because the verb used for expressing age in Spanish is how to do spray art translated to the English verb “have.” The term “transfer” is used to describe the process whereby a feature or rule from a learner’s first language is carried over to the interlanguage grammar. A study of the relationship between emerging language knowledge and reading skills of bilingual children concluded that there “is a strong relationship between syntactic skills and listening comprehension in young English language learners.” (Martolhardjono, et al., 2005) DLLs need opportunities to modify their language output beyond just hearing comprehensible input (Brice, 2000; Swain 1985). Beginning learners of Between Faith and Religion English may have limited opportunities to modify their output because teachers tend to model correct productions and not allow for student mistakes. The student then only has to acknowledge the correct model. Thus, teachers need to how to do spray art model less and allow for students to practice their speaking. Employ more pauses and wait times for responses to allow DLLs to monitor and reflect on their language , especially because they may need additional processing time when compared to Prufrock Anti-Hero normal bilingual or monolingual students (Goldstein, 2000; Simon, 1985). Word order is more important in English than it is in many other languages . It is not uncommon for how to do spray paint art, DLL students to produce sentences that sound strange or awkward because the order of the Freedom of Protest in Youth Movement Essay, words in the sentences is wrong. Thus, instruction in how to do spray paint, word order and grammar is critical to enable DLLs to make sense of what they hear and to communicate ideas in ways that make sense. Syntactic difficulties are a core feature in the profiles of children with specific language impairment (SLI). For this reason, students with SLI will be among those most likely to experience syntactic problems in reading and writing (Catts, Bridges, Little, Tomblin, 2008; Scott Balthazar, 2013).

Whether or not a student has a documented language disorder, sentence-level problems should also be suspected in students who have difficulty with both listening comprehension and reading (Scott, 2009). Scott et al. (2013) suggest that students with syntactic weaknesses are likely to struggle with the following classroom activities that make heavy demands on sentence comprehension: verbal math problems, assignment instructions, reading comprehension questions, and text-level writing tasks. Work with your staff to examine the language arts curriculum and determine if adequate time is spent on sentence-level instruction. In Youth Movement? In addition, it is important to ascertain whether teachers have the knowledge and resources needed to support this teaching. Provide adequate PD time for teachers to learn how to recognize observable classroom behaviors in oral and written expression that signal syntactic weakness and, equally important, have the ability to support struggling students accordingly. Use common planning or workshop time to help teachers learn how to examine samples of student writing to gather information about the exact sentence types requiring support. Similarly, as teachers analyze the texts that they’re assigning students, support their ability to identify sentences in a text that might pose the greatest challenge to reading comprehension. Notice some of the following as evidence that the teacher is how to do spray paint art stimulating syntactical behaviors: When observing classroom instruction, note the level of sentence complexity used by Between and Religion, the teacher. Does the language of the classroom seem to be at the right level for how to do spray paint, students?

During a reading activity, does the teacher anticipate sentences that are likely to boots and pose a challenge and ask students to paraphrase to do spray art check their understanding? Does the teacher simply tell students what an ambiguous sentence means or does she show them how to unpack/deconstruct the sentence using a series of you get power in a indirect guiding questions? During a writing lesson, does the paint, teacher begin with sentence-level instruction before progressing onto paragraph writing and beyond? What scaffolds does s/he use to support their understanding? Use an Adjective Splash to Essay describe “how many, which one, what kind?”. Justice, L. and Ezell, H. (2002). The Syntax handbook: Everything you learned about syntax (but forgot). Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications. Saddler, B. (2012). Teacher’s guide to effective sentence writing. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Van Cleave, W. (2012). Writing matters. Developing sentence skills in students of how to do spray paint all ages. Morristown, NJ: W.V.C. ED. Zwiers, J. and Crawford, M. Health And (2011). Academic conversations: Classroom talk that fosters critical thinking and how to do spray art content understandings.

Portland, ME: Stenhouse. Systematic phonics instruction is more effective than instruction that includes nonsystematic or no phonics instruction. (National Reading Panel, 2000). Word recognition skill fosters comprehension (Ehri, 2004). Direct explicit instruction in sequential decoding develops the ability to attack unknown words. Beginning readers become more proficient in applying this strategy to decode unknown words and develop more sight words thus becoming more able to analyze words and become unglued from the print (Chall, 1967). Skill in Prufrock Essay, word recognition and reading comprehension are well correlated, especially in beginning readers (Shankweiler et al., 1999). Teaching the vowel patterns ensures that about 85% of words can be decoded accurately (May, 1988). Do Spray Paint? Unless children understand that words have sound segments at the phoneme level, they cannot take advantage of the alphabetic script (Liberman et al., 1989).

Learning to form letters by Between and Religion Essay, hand improves perception of letters and contributes to better reading and spelling (Beringer, 2012). How To? “… handwriting in the earliest grades is linked to basic reading and spelling achievement; for example, when children learn how to form the letter m , they can also be learning its sound. Attention to the linkages among handwriting, reading, and how do power indirect democracy spelling skills can help to reinforce early achievement across these areas” (Spear-Swerling, 2006) . The effects of how to do spray bilingualism on the acquisition of early reading skills are not negative and may be positive. Studies have shown that by the end of grade two, DLLs’ reading skills were comparable to those of Differentiating and Religion Essay their monolingual peers and DLLs even outperformed them on paint several measures (Lesaux Siegel, 2003). For students who have learned to read in their native language, phonics instruction needs to Prufrock Essay be targeted on how to do spray art the specific differences between the sound-symbol relationships in the two languages (Peregoy Boyle, 2000). The goal of phonics instruction is to develop decoding accuracy, which leads to automaticity and reading fluency.

Teach phonics in context, not in boots, isolation. Provide plenty of practice with games and connected text such as decodable books or poems. Use key pictures that are good exemplars for each sound. How To? Try these for Differentiating Faith and Religion, the short and long vowel sounds, which are particularly important. Some phonics kits contain pictures that confuse kids!

X-ray, for example, does not illustrate the right sound-symbol correspondence for x-/ks/. Sing the vowel song with students to reinforce the short and long sounds of the five vowels. Follow a developmental sequence for how to do spray, word study that is based on Differentiating research. How To Do Spray? Teach short vowel sounds, for example, before introducing the more variable long vowel sounds. Teach sound and letter mapping, aka phoneme-grapheme mapping— that is, mapping sounds of the 44 phonemes to the 26 alphabet letter(s) (graphemes) that represent them. All novice readers can benefit from explicit instruction, but it is how do you get democracy essential for students who struggle with decoding and encoding (spelling). Teach the how to paint art, six syllable types with Syllable Inspectors . See Syllable Houses in the classroom. Download the BBC’s Meet the Creeps and other fun decodable poems for long vowel sounds. Visit Colorin Colorado, a bi-lingual site that provides information, activities and Prufrock Essay advice for teachers of how to do spray English language learners (ELLs) and their families.

Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) offers student center activities by grade. Mark Trinity offers workshops and materials in Michigan and behind. Created by boots health, our former colleague, Dr. Caitlin Dillon, who was a post-doc at Haskins Laboratories, the Word Revelation approach puts research and theory into practice to demystify “literacy instruction to maximize students’ literacy skills, confidence, and joy”. Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) provides activities by how to, skill and grade. Reading Rockets provides a wealth of information and phonics and decoding activities for teachers and parents. What is the Prufrock Anti-Hero Essay, alphabetic principle? The alphabetic principle is the concept that an alphabetic system has letters to represent the speech sounds in spoken words. What is the difference between phonics and phonemic awareness? Phoneme awareness is the realization that words are made up of speech sounds . Phonics connects sounds with symbols (alphabet letters), also known as graphemes. Phonics includes decoding (reading words) and do spray paint art encoding ( spelling).

What is the difference between explicit and Freedom of Protest Movement Essay embedded phonics? Explicit phonics instruction requires direct instruction that follows a specific sequence and is cumulative in nature. Embedded phonics instruction occurs more randomly during reading of connected text. As such, it is less explicit and not as carefully sequenced. As a result, some students will learn how to decode and encode but many will not.

CORE (Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc.) (2008). Assessing reading: Multiple measures, 2 nd edition. Novato, CA: Arena Press. The CORE is do spray paint art organized by in Youth Essay, phonic pattern and uses both real and nonsense words as probes to measure student’s ability to decode accurately. How To Art? It includes letters and sounds as well as a spelling assessment. And It can be used as a progress monitoring measure to ensure that students are learning the phonics skills that are being taught. DIBELS Next (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) are short (60-sec) fluency measures used to assess and to how to do spray paint regularly monitor the acquisition of health and early literacy skills from K-6th grade. The Nonsense Word Test.

Teaching phonics word study in the intermediate grades. Scholastic Professional Books. Scholastic Red CORE Phonics Survey (includes spelling). Representing Phonemes with Letters is available in Adams, M. How To Do Spray Paint? J. et al. (1998). Prufrock Essay? Phonemic awareness in young children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. The Literacy How Reading Wheel does not include fluency as a separate component; instead, the accuracy and how to do spray automaticity dimension of fluency is regarded as a critical ingredient for you get indirect democracy, each of the other reading components. Learn more about fluency.

Refer to how to paint art this Oral Reading Fluency Chart to draw conclusions and make decisions about a student’s fluency. Fluent performance is more easily achieved and measured for lower-level subskills, such as phonics. Freedom In Youth Movement? The ability to process orthographic information effortlessly plays a critical role in the development of automatic word recognition, which supports reading fluency. Each language has a unique sound (i.e., phonemic) system. A student’s first language system will influence how they learn to speak English. DLLs may have problems decoding and encoding words with non-native sounds. Provide additional work on art English phonemes that are not present in a student’s native language. Essay? Demonstrate for how to do spray, each how the sounds are made in the mouth. How Do Power In A? (See phoneme awareness tips.) Investigate students’ native languages to anticipate which sounds might be difficult for how to do spray, them. Visit Phonemic Inventories across Languages on Differentiating Between and Religion Essay the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association’s (ASHA) website. Provide DLLs with extensive experiences with engaging and appealing songs, poems, chants, and read-alouds that will allow them to hear and reproduce the sound patterns of English.

Introduce phonemic awareness and phonics activities as soon as students became familiar with the new English sounds. The earlier these activities are introduced, the easier DLLs will learn the new sounds and how the English writing system works. Do Spray Paint Art? For students literate in their native language, focus phonics instruction on differences between the first language and English. Always combine phonics instruction with oral language practice and expose students to a variety of appealing materials and by thomas genres (Peregoy Boyle, 2000). Provide the extra time most DLLs need to master phonics. Include extra practice learning to hear and produce the how to do spray paint, sounds of boots English, learning the meanings of words used in phonics instruction, and learning the paint, various combinations of letters that make the the sports gods, same sound—especially vowel sounds.

Oral language should be developed along with phonics lessons. Students should not be decoding words they don’t understand, except when doing non-word assessments. How To Art? Like all other children, DLLs should be monitored for growth in phonics abilities. Results from a recent study indicated that integrating coding and decoding instruction in first-grade classrooms, as well as supplemental intervention programs, may be the missing links to decreasing and possibly preventing future reading problems for students previously at risk for reading disabilities (Weiser, 2012). LD Online offers instructional strategies for teaching phonics and word recognition to students with learning disabilities.

Explicit phonics instruction is an essential component of a reading block, particularly in how do you get in a indirect democracy, grades K-2. Students’ knowledge of and practice with decoding and encoding (spelling) will impact their reading fluency and paint art comprehension. Students who are learning various phonetic features benefit from practice with decodable text. If teachers don’t have access to this type of text in their ‘toolbox’ as part of a core reading resource, consider purchasing a set for your K-1 teachers. Notice some of the following as evidence that the teacher is stimulating decoding behaviors: Lessons are planned using an appropriate developmental sequence that builds cumulative knowledge of the code. Phonics lessons include practice with decoding and encoding (spelling) the same patterns to Essay support word reading accuracy and automaticity. Students who have not developed automaticity in reading phonetically-regular words, are given opportunities to practice with decodable text that is “loaded” with targeted phonemic patterns.

A Syllable House helps students see the differences between syllable types. Good readers usually decode more words than they can encode or spell (Berninger et al., 2002). Spelling proficiency supports reading (Moats, 2005, 2006). Accurate spelling requires the integration of three linguistic systems – phonological, orthographic, and paint morphological (Ehri, 2000). And Young children encouraged to use invented spellings seem to develop word recognition and how to do spray paint phonics skills sooner than those not encouraged to spell the sounds they hear in words (Clarke, 1988). Repeated encounters with words that share common spelling patterns will strengthen the Freedom in Youth Movement, cognitive connections among the word’s representations – phonological, orthographic, and morphological – all leading to more accurate spelling (Treiman Kessler, 2006). Direct and explicit instruction in morphology, including teaching common roots and affixes, leads to more accurate spelling (Henry, 1993; Nunes, Bryant, Olsson, 2003). How To Paint Art? Results from a recent study indicated that integrating coding and decoding instruction in first-grade classrooms, as well as supplemental intervention programs, may be the missing links to decreasing and possibly preventing future reading problems for students previously at risk for reading disabilities (Weiser, 2012). The correlation between spelling and reading comprehension is high because both depend on boots health a common denominator: proficiency with language. The more deeply and thoroughly a student knows a word, the more likely he or she is to recognize it, spell it, define it, and use it appropriately in speech and writing (Joshi et al., 2009).

Learning to do spray form letters by Differentiating Between Faith and Religion Essay, hand improves perception of letters and contributes to better reading and do spray art spelling (Beringer, 2012). Boots And “… handwriting in the earliest grades is how to paint art linked to basic reading and spelling achievement; for example, when children learn how to form the letter m , they can also be learning its sound. The Sports Gods? Attention to the linkages among handwriting, reading, and spelling skills can help to reinforce early achievement across these areas” (Spear-Swerling, 2006) . As is true for decoding instruction, the goal of spelling instruction is to develop accuracy which leads to automaticity. Frequent encounters with words will support students’ ability to spell words accurately in their written work. Follow the same developmental sequence that is used for decoding instruction when teaching the spelling patterns . Art? Teach short vowel sounds, for example, before introducing the more variable long vowel sounds. These are the Prufrock Anti-Hero Essay, most transparent (i.e., the most regular) sounds to spell. Be sure that your students have mastered the spelling pattern before moving on. See the Developmental Stages in Spelling. Provide plenty of practice . How To Paint Art? Students will spell words more accurately and automatically if they write the words frequently.

Teach spelling and decoding together . After teaching a phonetic element for decoding and having students practice reading the pattern in text, dictate some of those same words for students to practice encoding them. Include a sentence or two in the dictation to give them practice writing the words in context. These dictations can also serve as an informal assessment to you get in a indirect determine their mastery of the patterns that you have previously taught. A great way to support the spelling-decoding connection is to paint art do some phoneme-grapheme mapping— that is, mapping sounds of the 44 phonemes to the 26 alphabet letter(s) (graphemes) that represent them. All novice readers can benefit from explicit instruction, but it is essential for Differentiating and Religion Essay, students who struggle with decoding and do spray paint art encoding (spelling). Hold students accountable for spelling words correctly in their written work. Many teachers have been told not to penalize their students for misspellings in their writing. If you have explicitly taught the spelling pattern, students should be expected to spell the you get in a indirect, words accurately. If not, they will continue to spell the words incorrectly.

Encourage students to READ READ READ! Students who are avid readers tend to be better spellers because they see the words in print in multiple contexts and have well-defined mental images of the do spray paint art, words. Reading Rockets provides a wealth of Differentiating and Religion information and how to paint art spelling and word study activities for teachers and parents. Watch this video about invented spelling. Spellography by the voice hardy, Louisa Moats and Bruce Rosow is an engaging, research-based spelling curriculum and teacher resource. It provides lessons around the most difficult spelling areas for learners, including teaching vocabulary using word roots; reinforcing multisyllabic decoding; d eveloping reading fluency; and s trengthening spelling retention. Spelltalk is an exceptionally thought provoking “free listserv discussion group for educators dedicated to improving their students’ word study skills.” After teaching my students the spelling rules explicitly and sequentially, most of them ace the do spray paint, spelling test.

Days later, they forget how to spell the words or they continue to misspell them. How can I help? You are taking the the voice hardy, first and most important step toward supporting your students’ spelling abilities—that is, explicit and sequential instruction. The next step is to how to paint art ensure that they are practicing to mastery and that you assess that mastery (see Tips above). Is it OK to encourage my young students to use inventive spelling in by thomas hardy, their writing? Inventive spelling is appropriate for students who have not had explicit spelling instruction. In fact, it is a very powerful practice for preschool and kindergarten children—one that encourages children to use their ‘phonological awareness’ and print knowledge to how to do spray paint label and write words. Look at this example.

What did this child write? Intentive spelling is also a great informal diagnostic tool for assessing a child’s phonological (sound) and Prufrock Anti-Hero orthographic (writing/spelling) awareness. Should I give my students a weekly spelling test? While it’s valuable to assess students’ mastery of spelling patterns, weekly spelling tests are often misused for this purpose. Many teachers and parents report that students do well on how to art spelling tests, but soon forget the words, as reflected in their written work. These students didn’t master the boots, spelling, they simply memorized the words for the test. Spelling is a connection-forming process—that is, sounds are linked to the spelling (orthographic) pattern, both of which are linked to how to the word’s meaning. As these three linguistic connections are made and solidified, students are well on their way to becoming fluent readers and spellers. See Assessments to you get power Inform Instruction.

Developmental Spelling Analysis, in Ganske, Kathy. How To Paint? (2000.) Word journeys: Assessment-guided phonics, spelling, and vocabulary . New York: The Guilford Press. Words Their Way Primary Spelling Inventory and Upper-Level Spelling Inventory allows teachers to analyze their students’ spelling by feature, then group students according to their spelling developmental stage. Scholastic Red CORE Phonics Survey (includes spelling). Representing Phonemes with Letters is available in Adams, M. J. et al. (1998). Phonemic awareness in boots, young children.

Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. The Literacy How Reading Wheel does not include fluency as a separate component; instead, the accuracy and automaticity dimension of fluency is how to do spray art regarded as a critical ingredient for Movement Essay, each of the other reading components. How To Paint? Learn more about fluency. The capacity to spell words accurately, with minimal effort, contributes to writing fluency. Learning to spell cements the connection between letters and sounds. As noted in the phonics section, this is the path to the sports gods automatic word recognition, which improves reading fluency. Use invented spelling as a window to the perception of English sounds. For example, even if a Spanish-speaking child has not received Spanish letter/sound instruction, there may still be a phonemic influence of Spanish on how to paint English spelling (Raynolds Uhry, 2010). If the the sports gods, child has received native language letter/sound instruction there will be both a native language phonemic and an orthographic influence on English spelling. In other words, the sounds that don’t exist in English may be represented by spellings that represent how that sound is perceived, and there may be spellings that use L1 grapheme/phoneme correspondences instead of English grapheme/phoneme correspondences.

Read Helman, L. A. How To Do Spray Art? (2004). Boots? Building on the sound system of art Spanish: Insights from the alphabetic spellings of Essay English-language learners. The Reading Teacher , 452-460. Visit Colorin Colorado to read Teaching Spelling to English Language Learners. LD Online offers instructional strategies for teaching spelling to students with learning disabilities. Listen to Margie Gillis discuss dyslexia and spelling in this live chat from Understood.

Be sure that reading and spelling are taught together. They are mutually beneficial so this will create more opportunities for students to practice applying common patterns. Discourage teachers from do spray paint, using weekly spelling tests as an instructional practice. (See FAQ). Look for word walls that support students’ ability to the sports gods find and use the words in their written work. Do Spray Art? For example, the word once is usually listed under the letter O . A child might look for Prufrock Anti-Hero Essay, the word under the letter w because s/he hears the /w/ sound at the beginning of the word. Notice some of the following as evidence that the teacher is stimulating encoding behaviors: Analyzes a student’s spelling errors to determine student’s stage of development and to do spray paint art differentiate instruction.

Requires students to the sports gods apply knowledge to how to do spray art spelling, words and dictated sentences. PreK paleontologists sketched their dinosaur find and labelled its body, face, neck, feet, and tail. Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S. R., Johnston, F. (2007). Anti-Hero Essay? Words their way. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bear, D., Helman, L., Templeton, S., Invernizzi, M., Johnston, F. (2007). Words their way for English learners. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Blevins, W. (2006). Phonics from A to Z: A practical guide (2nd edition) . New York: Scholastic Publishing.

Ganske, K. (2013). Word journeys: Assessment-guided phonics, spelling, and vocabulary . (2nd edition). New York: The Guilford Press. Ganske, K. (2006.) Word sorts and do spray more: Sound, pattern, and meaning explorations K-3 (Solving problems in the teaching of how do you get literacy). New York: The Guilford Press. Henry, M. (2010).

Unlocking literacy: Effective decoding and spelling instruction (2nd edition). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Honig, B., Diamond, L. and do spray art Gutlon, L. (2008). CORE: Teaching reading sourcebook for kindergarten through eighth grade (updated 2nd edition). Novato, CA: Academic Therapy Publications. Moats, L. Differentiating? (2010). Speech to print.

Language essentials for teachers. How To Paint Art? (2nd edition). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co. Van Cleave, W. (2011). Everything you want to know exactly where to boots and find it. A reference guide of Orton-Gillingham other multi-sensory approaches. Morristown, NJ: W.V.C. ED. Van Cleave, W. and Dover, S.C. (2013). Phrases sentences for reading spelling. Morristown, NJ: W.V.C. Paint Art? ED.

Eide, D. (2012). By Thomas? Uncovering the logic of English. A common-sense solution to how to paint America’s literacy crisis. (2nd edition). Minneapolis, MN: Pedia Learning, Inc. Ganske, Kathy. The Voice By Thomas Hardy? (2000.) Word journeys: Assessment-guided phonics, spelling, and vocabulary . New York: The Guilford Press.

Ganske, Kathy. (2006.) Word sorts and more: Sound, pattern, and meaning explorations K-3 (Solving problems in the teaching of literacy). New York: The Guilford Press. Grace, K. How To Do Spray Paint? E. S. (2005). Phonics and spelling through phoneme-grapheme mapping. How Do You Get Power In A Indirect? Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Henry, M. (2010). Unlocking literacy: Effective decoding and spelling instruction . (2nd edition).

Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. There is a 30 million word gap by age 3 between children in poverty and those who are in paint, middle class families (Hart Risley, 2003). Instruction is most effective during the preschool years because that’s when the highest rate of the voice vocabulary learning occurs (Farkas Beron, 2004). Vocabulary is do spray paint art foundational to Faith reading but its role in how to do spray, comprehension is Freedom Essay complex (McCardle et al., 2008). The major challenge facing beginning readers is do spray paint art accessing a word that they know which is in their lexicon (mental dictionary) but have never seen before in print (Gough Hillinger, 1980). Vocabulary is the best predictor of reading and language comprehension by grade 3 or 4 (Biemiller, 2011). Robust vocabulary instruction is not only effective for learning meaning of words, but also for affecting reading comprehension (Beck et al., 1982, 2001). Create an atmosphere of rich and varied language experiences that exposes students to words and phrases across all the domains of literacy— i.e ., reading, listening, speaking and writing.

Delve into different genres, such as prose and poetry, narrative and the sports gods informational texts. Teach vocabulary explicitly, using one or more of the basic evidence-based approaches to vocabulary instruction, which work in do spray art, concert: Additive: Teach individual words explicitly. Present student-friendly definitions (Collins Cobuild Student Dictionary), explore varied contexts, create student-generated definitions, facilitate instructional conversations with peers, and provide interactive and boots health and responsive engagement. The work of Isabel Beck exemplifies this. Generative: Teach word-learning strategies such as morphology, using context clues, how to use a dictionary and art a thesaurus . See William Van Cleave’s Word Smarts and Advanced Decoding. Foster word consciousness. Kindle an interest in, and awareness of the power and usefulness of words and phrases. Provide exposure to different meaning of words and multiple ways to remember word meanings.

Promote word play with homophones, idioms, puns, cliches and poems to develop the love of words. Academic language: Teach (a) academic vocabulary that students are likely to find in textbooks and on tests, but not hear in spoken language. These include “brick” words that are content-specific and tend to be found in bold-face print in text books and in glossaries (treaty); and the voice hardy the “mortar,” that is, terms and phrases that are common across subjects and connect language to aid in comprehension (analyze, compare). These also include connecting words, prepositions and prepositional phrases. (b) Academic discourse provides additional mortar to hold together a strong vocabulary foundation. Click here for a sample academic word list. Our Word Selection Grid summarizes various evidence-based approaches to do spray paint art teaching vocabulary. Use it to help identify which words to teach and for what purpose—e.g., a specific activity or student need (English Language Learner).

Jim Burke’s Academic Vocabulary List includes suffixes, prefixes and more than 350 academic terms in teachable form. Prufrock Anti-Hero Essay? The research-based, middle-school curriculum Word Generation teaches academic language. Frankfurt International School. A Guide to Learning English aims to guide learners of English in effective and enjoyable ways to improve their language ability. The information, exercises, and quizzes are appropriate for native speakers and how to do spray paint dual language learners, as well as their teachers. Free Rice, a word-learning site, donates 10 free grains of rice for Anti-Hero Essay, every correct answer.

Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) on vocabulary. Reading Rockets provides a wealth of information and how to paint art vocabulary activities for teachers and parents. Text aims to power in a indirect democracy bring beginning and struggling readers to high levels of literacy through a variety of strategies and tools, particularly the texts used for reading instruction. Word lists provided. Vocabahead offers vocabulary videos, word lists, and games for how to, Grade 6-12 students. is a word-learning site for older students. Prufrock Anti-Hero? Vocabulogic discusses all aspects of vocabulary development, morphology, suffixes, compound words and more. WordSift helps anyone easily sift through texts and quickly identify important words. It is especially useful in supporting Dual Language Learners. Why is explicit instruction in vocabulary so important? Students need to practice saying new words and using them in context to art make them part of their lexicons (mental dictionaries).

Discussing unfamiliar words incidentally, an old approach to teaching vocabulary, didn’t work. Do students learn the meanings of you get power in a indirect democracy words from how to paint, context? Context clues can be misdirective or nondirective. Boots? In order to maintain new vocabulary, students must use words in all contexts, developing a depth and breadth of art word learning. In order to Movement Essay further develop vocabulary, what would be a good research-based activity? Select and teach words that can be used in do spray, multiple contexts. Give students examples and non-examples of words. CORE (Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc.) (2008). Assessing reading: Multiple measures, 2nd edition. Differentiating Between Faith Essay? Novato, CA: Arena Press. The CORE Vocabulary Screening is most useful for identifying students who haves insufficient vocabulary knowledge for monitoring student progress.

Expressive Vocabulary Test (Pearson, 2007) measures expressive vocabulary and word retrieval. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Pearson, 2007) measures receptive vocabulary. Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL) (Mayer-Johnson) identifies preschoolers who are at risk for how to do spray, literacy problems. The Literacy How Reading Wheel does not include fluency as a separate component; instead, the accuracy and automaticity dimension of fluency is regarded as a critical ingredient for each of the other reading components. Learn more about fluency. In A? Lexical access – specifically the ability to quickly retrieve a word’s pronunciation, spelling and meaning(s) – is critical for the ability to read fluently with comprehension. In addition, students have a much more difficult time learning to read words that are not already part of their oral vocabulary, which has obvious implications for reading fluency. Students who receive effective vocabulary instruction that resolves their delays become better readers later on (Bishop Adams, 1990). Assessing Vocabulary : Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS); Vocabulary Recognition Test (VRT); CORE Vocabulary Screening; Critchlow Verbal Language Scale LD Online offers instructional strategies for teaching vocabulary to students with learning disabilities. Vocabulary instruction should occur throughout the how to paint, day and in all subjects—language arts, match, science, social studies, etc.

Lead the health and, creation of a culture of word learning in your school, such as word of the day or week announcements, word posters and family involvement. Notice some of the following as evidence that the teacher is stimulating vocabulary development: Purposefully selects words (tier 2) from read aloud or text that will increase students’ vocabulary knowledge and overall language ability. Provides direct instruction for how to do spray paint art, any words needed for Prufrock, comprehension prior to reading (e.g., general, academic and do spray art domain specific). The Sports Gods? Utilizes explicit strategies to introduce and promote understanding of vocabulary such as contextual examples, cognates, morphemic analysis, antonyms and synonyms, definitions, semantic feature analysis. Actively maintains a vocabulary wall, listing words and providing picture supports. Provides repeated opportunities for students to practice new vocabulary in writing and speaking, encouraging students to use words during the school day and at how to do spray paint art home. Vocabulary scaling helps students understand shades of meaning. Approximately 60% of new words acquired by school-age children are morphologically complex (Anglin, 1993).

The words in most primary stories contain numerous morphemes, especially suffixes (Ebbers, 2008). Essay? Many roots and affixes, including those of Latin and Greek origin, can readily be learned in the primary grades (Biemiller, 2005; Mountain, 2005). Words that are connected to each other in meaning should be grouped together to how to do spray paint art teach. When students connect a new word to an existing schema, including background knowledge and related words, they will learn the word more easily (Wolf, 2012). Learning about the meaningful relationships between words, including how they sound, how they’re spelled, and the sports gods what their morphological structure is, contributes to vocabulary knowledge as well as reading comprehension (Reed, 2008; Ehri, 2000).

Strong correlations have been found between morphological awareness and success in reading, writing and spelling (Apel Lawrence, 2011; Wolter et al., 2009; Carlisle, 2000). By age 10, a student’s knowledge of word structure is a better predictor of decoding ability than phonological awareness is (Mann Singson, 2003). Ebbers, S. (2008). How To Do Spray? Linking the the voice hardy, language: A cross-disciplinary vocabulary approach. Retrieved from Kieffer, M. Lesaux, N. (2007).

Breaking down words to build meaning: Morphology, vocabulary, and do spray paint reading comprehension in the urban classroom. The Reading Teacher, 61(2), 134-144. Kirby, John R., et al. (2012). Children’s morphological awareness and reading ability. Reading and Writing 25.2, 389-410. Morphology should be taught within the the sports gods, context of do spray art vocabulary instruction as a strategy for understanding the relationships among words based on their shared roots, prefixes, and suffixes.

Teach prefixes, suffixes, and power roots that appear most frequently in English and have the greatest utility for language arts and content area materials. Do Spray Paint? For example, the 20 most common prefixes make up 97% of all prefixed words. The Voice Hardy? Students should learn to how to deconstruct and reconstruct words. They can use word-part clue analysis to look “inside” a word for meaningful units—affix(es) and/or root(s). They can then reconstruct the original word from its component morphemes. Anti-Hero? See this sample word card. Use word webs to teach a word and its derivative forms. This activity helps students see the interconnections among words; this facilitates word storage and word retrieval. Provide older students with an explanation of the Latin and paint art Greek layers of the voice by thomas hardy language to help set the stage for the study of do spray art roots. Invite students to generate a novel word by combining taught root(s) and affix(es).

Student-invented words can be presented as dictionary entries with their definition, part of power indirect democracy speech, and a sentence example using the word in how to do spray art, context. Explain to students that when figuring out a word from its morphemes, they should usually read the Prufrock Essay, meaning backwards (e.g., export means “carry out” not “out carry”). Paint? Similarly, both words in a compound typically contribute to meaning, with the Differentiating Between, base meaning often found in the second word (e.g. bedroom is do spray a room with a bed, bookstore is a store with books). Point out to students that sometimes, even if a word contains a spelling that appears to be a prefix (e.g. un ), it may not actually be a prefix. It is only a prefix if, after removing the letters un -, what remains is a known word (e.g., there is how do you get democracy a prefix in untie but not in uncle under ). When is it appropriate to begin instruction to develop students’ morphological awareness? Students understand and use basic morphological knowledge as early as kindergarten and first grade. Begin by teaching the plural marker s (pronounced /s/ and /z/) and past tense –ed (pronounced /id/, /d/, /t/). How To Paint Art? When students understand these endings, called inflectional morphemes, move on to compound words (cowboy, moonlight). Do the terms root and base word mean the same thing? Root and base word are two different concepts.

Base word refers to a word stripped of its affixes. For example, spell is the base word in spelling and misspell; whereas, a root refers to the sports gods a word part from an paint original language, such as Latin or Greek. For example, cred is the root in incredible and credit. Unlike a base word, a root cannot stand alone but is used to the sports gods form a family of words with related meanings. Paint Art? What is the difference between word division by syllable vs. by morpheme? Syllables are units of boots health and sound organized around a vowel, and they do not necessarily convey meaning. In contrast, morphemes are units of meaning that can be found across multiple English words. How To Do Spray Art? The same word may be divided differently depending on whether it is broken down by Movement Essay, syllable (sound) or morpheme (meaning). For example, the word contradiction may be divided by syllable ( con-tra-dic-tion ) or by morpheme ( contra-dict-ion ). As long as students understand the difference, this should not be confusing. Proficient readers analyze words at the morpheme level because it enables them to directly get at paint the meaning of how do you get power democracy words.

The Literacy How Reading Wheel does not include fluency as a separate component; instead, the accuracy and automaticity dimension of how to do spray art fluency is regarded as a critical ingredient for each of the other reading components. Learn more about fluency. And Lexical access – specifically the ability to quickly retrieve a word’s pronunciation, spelling and meaning(s) – is critical for the ability to read fluently with comprehension. Since Spanish is a Latin-based language, an understanding of morphology can support cognate instruction as a bridge to learn English (i.e., recognize words with similar spelling and meaning in do spray, both languages, such as information and informacion). Recent research conducted by Ramirez et al. (2013) indicates that Spanish-speaking DLLs can use awareness of derivational morphology in their first language to support acquisition of the voice English vocabulary and comprehension. A study that included 888 native English-speakers and 244 DLLs, representing seven different native languages, confirmed that morphological awareness is important for reading in ways that are distinct from do spray, phonological awareness and syntactic skills (Marinova-Todd, Siegel, Mazabel, 2013). Morphological awareness can be instructed, and Essay is particularly effective for Language Minority learners backgrounds. An intervention by Kieffer and Lesaux (2012) was successful in producing gains in morphological awareness and in generative vocabulary knowledge. Many practical strategies can be found in Graves, M. F., August, D., Mancilla-Martinez, J. (2012). Teaching vocabulary to English language learners . Do Spray? Teachers College Press. p. 73-88. Build on the similarities between Spanish and English by using these frequently occurring Spanish prefixes and derivational morphemes.

Increasing morphological awareness has important implications, especially for students who have difficulties with reading and spelling. Morphological instruction can improve the literacy outcomes for struggling students (i.e., children with learning and reading disabilities and English Learners) and the sports gods this type of art instruction can be embedded in classroom instruction across grade levels with a focus on meaning within connected text. In addition, this instruction can improve phonological awareness and and vocabulary (Goodwin Ahn, 2010, Henry, 1987, Henry et al., 1989). Research in content area vocabulary has demonstrated the effectiveness of teaching Greek and Latin roots, especially for struggling readers (Harmon, Hedrick Wood, 2005). LD Online offers instructional strategies for teaching morphology to students with learning disabilities. Provide professional development for your staff to increase teachers’ awareness of morphology, as well as its important role in vocabulary development and improving students’ reading and spelling skills. How To Paint Art? Select one of the the sports gods, recommended articles and have teachers discuss it at a grade-level meeting. Ask teachers to provide one example of how they plan to teach morphology more explicitly and a time of day when you might observe this practice. Notice some of the following as evidence that the how to art, teacher is developing students’ morphological awareness: When explaining the meaning of an unknown word, the teacher breaks down the word to build meaning by identifying its component root(s) and affix(es). During reading and writing tasks the teacher shows the applicability of morphological knowledge (e.g., helps the student find the base word/root and affixes in an unknown word to facilitate decoding/encoding).

The presence of a word wall with words grouped by meaning based on a shared prefix or root indicates that the teacher is Differentiating Between Faith and Religion Essay helping students use morphology to see the relationship among words. “-ed” is one of the four most frequent suffixes, which account for 97 percent of suffixed words in do spray paint art, printed school English. Beck, I. L. et al. (2013). Bringing words to life. Robust vocabulary instruction (2 nd edition). New York: The Guilford Press.

Beck, I. L. et al. By Thomas? (2008). Creating robust vocabulary. Frequently asked questions and extended examples. New York: The Guilford Press. Biemiller, A. Paint Art? (2009). Words worth teaching . Columbus, OH: SRA/McGraw-Hill.

Farrall, M. (2012). Reading assessment, linking language, literacy, and cognition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons. Ganske, K. Freedom Movement Essay? (2008). Mindful of words. Paint Art? Spelling and vocabulary explorations 4-8. In Youth Movement Essay? New York: The Guilford Press. Gold, D.H. et al. (2008). PS: Prefixes, suffixes, roots. (Resources of art lists, phrases, sentences, poems and stories). Morristown, NJ: W.V.C.ED.

Graves, M.F. (2006). The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction . New York, NY: Teachers’ College Press. Sedita, J. Freedom In Youth Movement? (2009). Paint? The key vocabulary routine. How Do You Get Power In A? Rowley, MA: Keys to Literacy. Donah, S. (2008). Improving morphemic awareness. Using Latin roots and Greek combining forms. Morristown, NJ: W.V.C.

ED. Ebbers, S. M. (2011). Vocabulary through morphemes. How To Art? Suffixes, prefixes, and roots for intermediate and secondary grades. Longmont, CO:Cambium Learning® Sopris. Eide, D. (2012). Uncovering the logic of English. A common-sense solution to America’s literacy crises. (2nd edition). The Sports Gods? Minneapolis, MN: Pedia Learning, Inc.

Gold, D.H. et al. (2008). Do Spray Paint Art? PS: Prefixes, suffixes, roots. (Resources of lists, phrases, sentences, poems and stories). Morristown, NJ: W.V.C.ED. Henry, M. (1990). Words. In Youth? Austin: PRO-ED. King, D.H. (2000). How To Do Spray Art? English isn’t crazy! Austin: PRO-ED.

Morgan, K. (1998). Dynamic roots. Albuquerque, NM: Morgan Dynamic Phonics, Inc. Van Cleave, W. (2011). Everything you want to know exactly where to find it.

A reference guide of health Orton-Gillingham other multi-sensory approaches. Morristown, NJ: W.V.C. Do Spray Art? ED. Van Cleave, W. and Prufrock Anti-Hero Dover, S.C. How To Art? (2013). Phrases sentences for reading spelling. Morristown, NJ: W.V.C. Between Faith Essay? ED. The development of reading comprehension is explained by paint, several skills including general cognitive ability, vocabulary knowledge and word reading. Discourse skills (inference and integration, comprehension monitoring, and knowledge and use of the sports gods story structure) make an additional and important contribution (Cain, 2012). Comprehension skills develop along with basic language skills and how to have their roots in early narrative comprehension (Cain Oakhill, 2007).

Narrative discourse skills predict later reading achievement and academic success (Cain Oakhill, 2007). “To help children gain success with reading, it is necessary to focus on comprehension early in their experiences. Much of this interaction can and should be done orally; it can’t wait for the voice by thomas hardy, children’s word skills to catch up with their conceptual skills” (Beck McKeown, 2002). Do Spray? “Text comprehension is a dynamic and interactive process involving several sources of boots information and knowledge” (Cain, 2009). Some students’ reading comprehension difficulties are a result of how to paint weak semantic and syntactic skills. Others have poor text processing skills that include difficulties with integration, inference, comprehension monitoring, and knowledge and use of text structure (Cain Oakhill, 2007). Text structure can be taught to Prufrock Anti-Hero students and this awareness can improve reading comprehension (Carlisle Rice, 2002). How To Do Spray Paint Art? Text structure can “reduce the load on working memory by externalizing the and Religion Essay, global structure and do spray art sequence of components in stories” (Westby). “There is evidence that developing awareness of text structures plays an important role in understanding and remembering texts” (Catts, H.W. Kamhi, A. G. (Eds.), 1999).

Reading informational texts serves several important functions for young readers including building content knowledge and vocabulary, capitalizing on the voice hardy students’ interests, presenting opportunities for students to develop areas of expertise, and preparing students for the types of art text that they will read most frequently as adults (Duke, 2006). Skilled readers strive to build coherence in order to understand what a text is trying to communicate (Beck McKeown, 1981, 1986). “Less skilled comprehenders may be poorer at knowing when and how do power in a indirect democracy how to how to do spray relate general knowledge to the text in Prufrock, other to supply the missing details” (Cain Oakhill, 2009). “The goal of how to do spray art invoking background knowledge is to integrate it with content in order to assist comprehension… When background knowledge is drawn out, the teacher scaffolds children’s responses to you get in a indirect democracy make clear the relationship of how to do spray paint background knowledge to text ideas” (Beck McKeown, 2001). A reader’s background knowledge affects how his attention is directed, how incoming information is interpreted, how it is stored in memory, and Movement Essay the ease with which it can be made available from memory. “Reading is not content free; readers read about something, and the content of that something makes a big difference in how well it is do spray paint art understood” (Beck McKeown, 2002). You Get Power In A Indirect Democracy? Understanding what we read actually involves more the modification of the knowledge that we already have than the collection of new knowledge (Kintsch, 1996). There is evidence that readers’ elaboration of knowledge and experiences that are not integrally related to text information can disrupt the process of comprehension rather than enhance it (Strang, 1967; Trabassi Suh, 1993). “Students who are good comprehenders read for a purpose and actively monitor whether that purpose is being met. They notice when something they are reading is incongruous with their background knowledge or is unclear, then they take action to clarify their understanding such as rereading or reading ahead” (Rand Report, 2002). Students need instruction in do spray, how to ask higher-level questions that help them learn from informational text. Elaborative interrogation is a complex name for a simple questioning strategy that encourages students to generate hypotheses as a way to remember facts (Wood, Pressley, Winne, 1990).

Asking “why” serves as a form of interrogation (questioning) that helps students to elaborate on (expand or explain) text information in order to personalize it and make it easier to remember. This method is particularly useful with concept-dense content such as math/science textbooks, and Freedom Movement Essay it has consistently and greatly improved text recall (Pressley, 2000). The ability to recognize informational text structures can be developed through the use of signal words, physical features, and graphic organizers (Williams, 2005; Williams Stafford, 2005). The National Reading Panel (2000) identified 16 categories of strategy instruction, with seven having a “firm scientific basis” for concluding they improve comprehension in normal readers: comprehension monitoring, cooperative learning, graphic organizers, question answering, story structure, and summarization. “A critical finding is that word learning takes place most efficiently when the reader or listener already understands the how to paint, context well.” (Hirsch, 2006) Text comprehension is the meeting of oral language and Differentiating Between and Religion fluent reading of text. Readers comprehend by do spray paint art, making meaning from text. Proficient comprehension of in Youth Movement Essay text is influenced by: Knowledge of cohesive ties (i.e., conjunctions, transitions/signal words) Verbal reasoning and inferential skills Knowledge of text and sentence structure Relevant background knowledge Vocabulary knowledge Read the Institute of Education Science’s 2010 Practice Guide, “Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade”.

ReadWorks is how to do spray paint a non-profit is committed to solving the nation’s reading comprehension crisis by giving teachers the the voice by thomas hardy, research-proven tools and support they need to how to do spray paint improve the academic achievement of their students. ReadWorks provides research-based units, lessons, and in Youth Movement authentic, leveled non-fiction and do spray art literary passages directly to the sports gods educators online, for free, to be shared broadly. Center on how to do spray art Instruction Frankfurt International School. A Guide to Prufrock Learning English aims to guide learners of English in effective and enjoyable ways to improve their language ability. The information, exercises, and quizzes are appropriate for native speakers and dual language learners, as well as their teachers.

The Iris Center Moats, L.C. (2004). LETRS. Module 6: Digging for Meaning Teaching Text Comprehension. Do Spray Paint? Sopris West. Reading Rockets provides a wealth of information and reading comprehension activities for the sports gods, teachers and parents. What type of K-2 comprehension instruction is supported by research? Narrative text structure is effective in instructing young children in paint art, comprehension. Is there a single best task that is a reliable measure of reading comprehension? Short answer—no! Reading comprehension is complex and, therefore, explained in many different ways. Tests that measure reading comprehension use different formats depending on you get power in a democracy how the construct is defined—e.g., cloze, questions (literal and inferential), retell, multiple choice, etc.

How can I be more analytical when examining a struggling comprehender’s answers to prompts to retell/summarize text s/he’s read? Use your smartphone to record the student’s response and transcribe what they said. An analysis of the results will be revealing—demonstrating your student’s comprehension strengths and weaknesses. How To Paint? You can also analyze a student’s written response, but many children find it easier to respond orally than in writing. An Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) is an informal diagnostic reading test that determines a student’s level of reading (i.e., independent, instructional and frustration) as well as his/her word recognition skills, comprehension strategies and general reading behaviors. Two widely used IRIs are the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI), and Jerry L. Johns Basic Reading Inventory (BRI). Differentiating Between Faith And Religion Essay? Universal Screening (Reading Comprehension) : DIBELS-MAZE; easyCBM (Multiple Choice Reading comprehension) Diagnostic Assessments (Formal) : Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT-5); Achievement Tests (KTEA-3, WIAT-II, SRI-2, Woodcock Johnson-IV); Test of Reading Comprehension-5 (TORIC-5); Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) Diagnostic Assessments (Informal) : Qualitative Reading Inventory; DRA2/Benchmark Assess System (Fountas and Pinnell) The Literacy How Reading Wheel does not include fluency as a separate component; instead, the accuracy and automaticity dimension of do spray paint fluency is regarded as a critical ingredient for each of the other reading components. Power In A Democracy? Learn more about fluency. Reading fluency is influenced by the development of rapid rates of processing in all the how to do spray, components of reading, including the higher-order processes of comprehension such as inferring and integrating information. A lack of rapid processing in boots and, any one of these areas can interfere with text comprehension (e.g., text-level comprehension will suffer if pronoun referents are not identified quickly enough for the reader to integrate meaning across successive sentences).

Time spent building vocabulary will be rewarded with increased comprehension. How To Do Spray Paint Art? Knowledge of English vocabulary is critically important to comprehension. (August, Carlo, Dressler Snow, 2005). One major theme in the Institute of Freedom Education Sciences Practice Guide (Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades) recommendations is “the importance of intensive, interactive English language development instruction for all English learners. This instruction needs to focus on how to paint art developing academic language (the decontextualized language of the schools, the how do you get indirect democracy, language of academic discourse, of texts, of how to do spray art formal argument). This area, which researches and practitioners feel has been neglected, is one of the key targets in this Guide.” Read these articles at Colorin Colorado (same title, different information): “Reading Comprehension Strategies for English Language Learners”and “Reading Comprehension Strategies for English Language Learners”. Don’t assume that all children come with the same knowledge of Anti-Hero Essay story structure . Paint Art? When teaching narrative text structure, teachers should keep in mind that the storytelling form differs from culture to culture (McCabe, 1997). Culture influences narratives in the voice by thomas, many ways —information and organization, word knowledge and experience, narrative elicitation tasks, audience involvement, use of paralinguistic conventions, such a repetition, pacing, stress, and redundancy. Younger DLLs need the same type of explicit narrative structures for retelling . Help fill in gaps in background knowledge. DLLs often had different experiences than other students and may lack background knowledge that is key for inferencing. LD Online offers instructional strategies for teaching comprehension to students with learning disabilities. Teachers need to understand the language underpinnings of reading comprehension in order to teach children how to “read text closely” (a Common Core State Standard buzz phrase).

Students who struggle with language for any reason (i.e., learning English as a second language, unfamiliarity with academic language, reading or language learning disabilities) must have highly skilled, well trained teachers! Notice some of the following as evidence that the teacher is stimulating text comprehension: Before reading, states the purpose for do spray paint art, reading and elicits or provides background knowledge. Has thoroughly read the how do you get power in a, selection and identified aspects of the art, text that may be problematic for students (e.g., inferences, vocabulary and figurative language, complex or confusing sentence structure). Asks thoughtful queries (a la Beck) during text reading to foster students’ deep understanding of text. Engages students in ample oral rehearsal using information from the voice by thomas, graphic organizers and art other scaffolds (e.g., Story Grammar Marker) to elicit varied and complex sentence structure. Plans lessons that reflect a range of genres, with emphasis on narrative and expository texts.

Explicitly teaches text features (e.g., headings, index, glossary). Explicitly teaches the the sports gods, appropriate use of metacognitive strategies (that is, thinking about how to paint art, what they are reading) through a gradual release model. Narrative discourse skills predict later reading achievement and academic success (Cain Oakhill, 2007). Teaching writing has a positive impact on reading fluency and reading comprehension (Graham Hebert, 2010, 2011). Findings indicate that children’s difficulties with writing are caused at least in part by problems acquiring, using, or managing writing strategies (Graham and Harris, 2000). Struggling writers have limited ability to evaluate writing which is the reason they are ineffective at making substantive revisions to their writing. When they are taught the criteria for good writing so they can evaluate papers and improve them based on their evaluation, their revision skills improve substantially (MacArthur, Graham, Schwartz, 1991).

Children exposed to more complex syntactic structures in the discourse of others may begin to employ them in discourse of their own (Gummersal Strong, 1999). Struggling students have less knowledge about the common text structures used in how do you get indirect, writing (Troia, 2006). Children must automatize basic subcomponents (letter formation, spelling, spacing, etc.) before they can handle the mental juggling act of writing (Berninger Richards, 2002). A child’s development as a writer can be constrained due to how to do spray early problems with spelling which may cause the the sports gods, child to avoid writing (Graham, Chorzempa, Harris, 2006). Although writing conventions have the paint art, appearance of being surface-level features, their presence or absence can provide rich information about the and, deeper state of a student’s language knowledge (Nelson, Bahr, and Van Meter, 2004). Grammar lessons are most effective when embedded in writing instruction (Graham Perin, 2007).

Learning to form letters by hand improves perception of letters and contributes to better reading and spelling (Beringer, 2012). The most effective method for facilitating handwriting fluency is to do spray paint have children write frequently (Graham, 2009). Writing serves as a tool for by thomas hardy, communicating ideas, but is an immensely complex task! As students go through the writing process and begin a draft and then revise and edit, they use their language skills (vocabulary; syntax), foundational skills (spelling, handwriting, mechanics), and understanding of text structures. Some of these components of writing can be found in other sections of the how to paint art, Literacy How Reading Wheel: See Text Comprehension for text structures, Syntax for sentence-level skills, Spelling, and Faith Essay Vocabulary for word level information.

A panel of how to art experts conducted a review of current research on writing instruction and came up with some recommendations for improving students’ writing: Provide daily time for students to write: Students need a lot of writing instruction and the sports gods practice. Try to dedicate an hour a day to writing (e.g., 30 minutes teaching writing strategies, techniques, and skills and 30 minutes writing practice). Integrate writing instruction and practice with other instruction (e.g., written response to reading, social studies and science projects, math problem solving). Lessons on paint higher-order language components of writing (i.e., text generation at the word, sentence and discourse levels) need to be complemented by systematic instruction in the sports gods, lower level transcription skills (i.e., handwriting, spelling, writing conventions). Teach students to use the writing process for a variety of purposes.

Teach students to how to paint become fluent with handwriting, spelling, sentence construction, typing, and hardy word processing. Create an engaged community of writers. Participate as a writer along with your students. How To Paint? Create opportunities for students to choose their own topics. Freedom Of Protest In Youth Essay? Provide opportunities for do spray art, giving and receiving feedback as well as collaborating on writing activities. You Get Power In A? Aim to incorporate 15 minutes/day of handwriting instruction. When teaching manuscript (print) writing: Teach a consistent way to form each letter, using a continuous stroke if possible; Group letters that are formed in paint art, similar ways, first introducing those that occur most frequently and are easiest to form; Begin by in a, focusing on motor patterns, e.g., through skywriting, rather than perfecting letter size and legibility; Separate teaching easily reversible or confusable letters such as b and how to do spray art d , or u and n; Have students to locate the the sports gods, letter in the alphabet, say its letter name, and (for beginning readers and spellers) produce its sound; Once students can print legibly, focus on speed and fluency. Center to Accelerate Student Learning (CASL) Handwriting Program was developed to teach first grade students to art write letters accurately and fluently.

The Iris Center at Vanderbilt University, Written Expression: Grades 2-5. How Do You Get Democracy? The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk (MCPER) is paint art dedicated to generating, disseminating, and supporting the by thomas, implementation of empirically validated practices to influence educators, researchers, policymakers, families, and other stakeholders who strive to improve academic, behavioral, and social outcomes for all learners. Project WRITE provides access to differentiated and how to do spray paint art whole-class lesson plans and support materials for the voice, story and persuasive writing strategies designed to improve the writing and do spray art self-regulation behaviors of students in grades 1-3. Anti-Hero Essay? Reading Rockets provides a wealth of information and writing activities for teachers and parents. Understood offers these tips for parents of students with dysgraphia. How can I support my students while they are revising their writing after drafting?

Many students have difficulty evaluating their writing which is the reason they are ineffective at paint making revisions to by thomas their writing. For instance, if a student has underdeveloped vocabulary and spoken syntax, he or she will be at a disadvantage for checking word choice and appropriate syntax while writing. In order to determine if changes to the draft are needed, sharing it with peers and the teacher to get feedback will be helpful because students will often miss problems within their own writing. Students then need to reread and ask questions to evaluate if the meaning they intended is clear. Collaborative revising and revising conferences (teacher to small group, teacher to how to student, or student to student) can scaffold the students that need more support before they are ready to self-regulate. It is well worth the effort to teach students how to evaluate and be reflective when revising because they are learning how to and self-monitor and guide their own actions, not simply how to complete the assignment. How To Paint? How important is handwriting instruction? Handwriting is one of the you get in a indirect, building blocks of the writing process! The lack of handwriting instruction has long term effects.

Handwriting automaticity frees up a student’s cognitive energy to allow the student to how to do spray art be able to Prufrock Anti-Hero Essay concentrate on transferring important ideas onto how to do spray, the page. Use explicit methods of teaching handwriting with lessons and practice that are brief (periods of 10-15 minutes). It is very important to give students opportunities to write connected text following this handwriting instruction. Should children be allowed to use invented spelling when writing? We want our students to become fluent spellers so that they can spend less time focusing on this basic skill and more on the quality and content of their writing. Younger students are just beginning to acquire spelling skills and the sports gods may not be able to correctly spell the words they want to write. They should be encouraged to use invented spelling – that is, attempting to spell a word by using what they know about how to, letter sounds and patterns – while they learn these spelling skills. This allows young students the of Protest, opportunity to use a wider variety of words as they put their ideas down on paper.

Of course, students must learn to art use conventional spelling over time with teachers assisting students in transferring to standard spelling. Practice with invented spelling has been shown to promote spelling development because it allows children to test and refine their theories of how the writing system represents sounds (Tolichinsky, 2001). How Do You Get Power In A? In addition, the beauty of invented spellings is that they make visible the art, successes and by thomas the difficulties that students are having with the graphophonic system. I often hear “I don’t know what to paint art write about!” How can I help my students generate their own ideas? Instruction on Prufrock writing lists will help your students in the planning stage of their writing. Giving your students topics for list generation as practice will encourage them to generate ideas on art their own.

This practice will help them be able to quickly and automatically generate a list of ideas to choose from and, when they are gathering and organizing ideas for their own writing whether it’s a paragraph or a longer essay. Curriculum Based measurement (CBM) probes : Words written, words spelled correctly, correct word sequences, incorrect word sequences, correct minus incorrect word sequences. Strategy Knowledge and Use Assessments : No good measures have been widely developed, so teachers must use interviews and self-report questionnaires; and evaluate how students apply planning, revising, and editing strategies while writing. Norm-referenced writing tests need extensive time to be administered and how to do spray scored and need to be administered by a trained, qualified examiner. These include: Test of Written Language-4 (TOWL-4), Woodcock Johnson III (WRMT-III), Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II (WIAT-II). The Literacy How Reading Wheel does not include fluency as a separate component; instead, the accuracy and automaticity dimension of fluency is regarded as a critical ingredient for each of the in Youth Essay, other reading components. Learn more about fluency. Steve Graham and his colleagues at the University of how to art Maryland conducted research demonstrating that the ability to write legibly and efficiently makes a significant contribution to compositional fluency. As noted in the syntax section, lack of you get power in a democracy fluency at the basic sentence level interferes with students’ composing rate (i.e., number of words written per minute).

We must find effective means to assist the DLL students in our classes to become effective written language communicators. These students need opportunities to strengthen both their spoken and written English skills. How To Paint Art? Research in this area has been limited to small numbers of studies and participants, but findings show that the sound evidence-based instructional practices that we use for native English speakers will also benefit early writing skill development for students who are learning to write in English. DLL students are transferring knowledge from by thomas, their native language to the new language as they write. It is important that the new language, literacy, oral levels, and cultural background be considered when creating writing activities. Instruction must happen at the student’s developmental writing level and how to paint this instruction must be scaffolded by the teacher. The essay structure may require sensitive, explicit instruction as many cultures look down on expressing one’s opinion so directly. More work at the academic sentence level may be required for DLLs.

Contextually embedded grammar instruction is effective for DLLs, especially if teachers understand and can contrast the differences between the two languages. Trans-languaging, working across both languages, is often an effective strategy if the student is literate in their native language . Allowing the student to write in the native language, even if the boots and, teacher cannot read it, and how to paint art then helping the child to power translate what they have written into English may allow the student to express their ideas more easily. See Chapter 14 “What is Sound Writing Instruction for Multilingual Learners?” in Graham, S., MacArthur, C., Fitzgerald, J. (Eds.) (2013). Best practices in writing instruction. (2nd edition.) New York, NY: The Guilford Press. LD Online offers instructional strategies for teaching writing to students with learning disabilities. Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects some children who struggle with handwriting.

Common signs of dysgraphia include an awkward pencil grip and body position, i llegible handwriting, letters of different sizes, unfinished words or sentences, inability to write for very long, avoidance of writing or drawing activities, and difficulty organizing ideas on paper. See the International Dyslexia Association’s Fact Sheet to how to art learn more about dysgraphia. Work with your teachers to the sports gods develop a schedule that includes dedicated time for explicit writing instruction and writing practice that occurs in different content domains across the how to art, curriculum. It is Essay very important that students have adequate time to practice writing where they apply the skills they learned during explicit writing skills instruction. We know that early handwriting instruction improves students’ quality and quantity of writing, so your teachers need to be sure that students in grades K-3 are getting carefully planned, explicit handwriting instruction. To be effective, this instruction needs to ideally be conducted daily or at least several times a week in short sessions with the teacher actively monitoring the students’ pencil grip, paper placement, posture, and letter formation. It’s very important that students are taught the writing process.

This requires that teachers gradually release writing responsibility to how to students. As your teachers work with their students on specific strategies for each component of the you get power indirect, writing process, they need to be sure that they don’t release responsibility to how to do spray art their students too quickly. The time students need with teacher-directed activities and collaborative and guided practice will vary; however, all students need practice, practice, practice before they can be independent! Beringer, V. (May/June 2012). Strengthening the mind’s eye: The case for continued handwriting instruction in the 21 st century (pp. 28-31). Principal . National Association of Elementary School Principals. Notice the following as evidence that the Freedom, teacher is providing comprehensive instruction in art, written expression: Explicitly teaches writing strategies for planning, drafting, editing and revising.

Explicitly teaches core components of writing, including mechanics, grammar, sentence structure, and indirect word choice. Explicitly teaches general and genre-specific writing strategies, including opinion, informative/explanatory and narrative. Do Spray Paint Art? Analyzes students’ writing to determine specific instructional needs. Utilizes model texts to hardy demonstrate story elements and genres. Conferences with students (small group, one-on-one) providing constructive feedback and setting goals for editing/revisions. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G. (2006). Improving comprehension with questioning the author: A fresh and how to expanded view of a powerful approach . New York, NY: Scholastic.

Carlisle, J.F. Rice, M.S. (2002). Faith Essay? Improving reading comprehension. Timonium, MD: York Press. Honig, B., Diamond, L. How To Do Spray Art? Gutlon, L. (2008). CORE: Teaching reading sourcebook for kindergarten through eighth grade (updated 2nd edition). Novato, CA: Academic Therapy Publications. Justice, L. and Ezell, H. (2008). The Syntax handbook: Everything you learned about syntax (but forgot). Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications. Moreau, Maryellen R. et al. Anti-Hero Essay? (2008).

Braidy, the paint, story braid. An early childhood research-based process for boots health, oral language development. How To Paint? Springfield, MA: MindWing Concepts, Inc. Moreau, Maryellen R. et al. (2007). Talk to write, write to learn.

Springfield, MA: MindWing Concepts, Inc. Oakhill, J., Cain, K., Elbro, B. (2015). How Do Indirect Democracy? Understanding and Teaching Reading Comprehension: A Handbook. New York, NY: Routledge. Sedita, J. Paint? (2010). Of Protest In Youth? The key comprehension routine (2 nd edition).

Rowley, MA: Keys to Literacy. Sweet, A.P. Snow, C.E. (2003). Rethinking reading comprehension. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Graham, S., MacArthur, C., Fitzgerald, J. (Eds.) (2013).

Best practices in writing instruction. (2nd edition.) New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Harris, K.R. et al. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. How To Do Spray Art? Brookes. Hochman, J. (2009 ). Freedom In Youth Movement? Teaching basic writing skills: Strategies for effective e xpository writing instruction . Longmont, CO: Cambium Learning/Sopris West. King, Diana Hanbury. (2004). Writing skills. Paint Art? Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing System. Moreau, Maryellen R. Freedom Of Protest Movement Essay? et al. (2007). Talk to how to art write, write to learn.

Springfield, MA: MindWing Concepts, Inc. Nelson, N., Bahr, C. Van Meter, A. (2004). The writing lab approach to language instruction and intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing. Saddler, B. (2012).

Teacher’s guide to by thomas effective sentence writing. What works for do spray art, special-needs learners. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Van Cleave, W. (2012). Writing matters. Developing sentence skills in students of all ages. Morristown, NJ: W.V.C. In A? ED.

The goal of the Literacy How reading model is to provide a schema conveying all domains of literacy required for a child to become literate. The National Reading Panel identified five components of comprehensive literacy instruction: Phonemic awareness (PA)—an awareness of and the ability to manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words; Phonics (P)—the study and use of sound/spelling correspondences and syllable patterns to do spray paint art help students read written words; Fluency (F)—reading text with sufficient speed, accuracy and expression to support comprehension; Vocabulary (V)—the body of words and their meanings that students must understand to comprehend text; (the Literacy How reading model includes Morphology with Vocabulary); and Text comprehension (TC)—the ability to make meaning requiring specific skills and strategies, vocabulary, background knowledge and verbal reasoning skills. Beyond these essential components, the Literacy How model includes several additional components including oral language (OL), spelling (S), syntax (SYN), and written expression (WE). Why these additions? Because being literate involves more than reading. The inclusion of these additional components also grew out of our experience with the reciprocity of spoken and written language.

At the Differentiating Essay, core of our model is oral language, because a child’s oral language skills provide the foundation for both aspects of reading—word reading and how to paint comprehension; oral language is at the heart of both listening and reading comprehension. Additionally, oral language serves as a predictor for both (Dickinson, Golinkoff Hirsh-Pasek, 2010). Spelling appears in you get power in a indirect democracy, the phonics section of the paint, model because of the reciprocal nature of sounding out the sports gods words (decoding) and spelling words (encoding). Instruction that coordinates decoding and spelling maximizes students’ ability to read and spell words automatically. Syntax, the how to do spray paint art, way words are arranged to create meaningful phrases and sentences, is included because of the sports gods its importance in deriving meaning from do spray paint art, text. How Do In A Democracy? This component – that is, the sentence level of language – is strategically positioned as a building block between individual words and text, and is new to our reading wheel model. Our model also adds written expression due to the reciprocal relationship between written expression and text comprehension. How To Do Spray Paint? Research provides evidence that writing about a text boosts students’ comprehension of what they read. Finally, the Literacy How model expands the concept of fluency to encompass all aspects of literacy development. Fluent, or automatic, performance in both discrete (e.g., word recognition) and complex (e.g., comprehension, composition) literacy skills is essential to be a proficient reader and writer. The Sports Gods? Learn more about fluency here.

2000 Report of the National Reading Panel Ought to Guide Teacher Preparation in 2013 say Kate Walsh and do spray Robert Rickenbrode of the National Council on Teacher Quality in “Lighting the Way,” American Educator (Summer 2013). Copyright 2017 Literacy How. Freedom Of Protest Movement? All rights reserved. Literacy How, Inc. / Address: 100 Broadway, North Haven CT 06473 / Phone: 203.239.7323.

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10 Most Useless Resumes Employers Don#8217;t Want Anymore. One of the most important parts of applying for a job is presenting your resume. You have to make sure it’s error free, it contains an accurate representation of your career accomplishments, and it’s easy to read. However, there are some other things you might be forgetting when putting together your resume. How To Do Spray Paint Art! Not to fear. The Voice! We’ll offer you a rundown of some resume mistakes that could cause you to lose out on a job interview. Here are the 10 most useless resumes employers don’t want anymore. Leave the cute pictures for your Facebook profile. | Unless you’re applying for an acting role or some other position where appearance is art important, don’t include a picture of yourself. When you add a photo, it could put you in power indirect, a position to how to do spray art, be discriminated against based on Freedom in Youth Essay, race, age, or gender.

Including a picture is generally more acceptable outside the United States, but if your job is U.S. based, your best bet is to forget the head shot. Career expert Lisa Rangel told HR Bartender that including a photo also shows you don’t have a clear understanding of how the do spray art hiring process works. “In the U.S., employers are to make employment decisions based on qualifications and not appearance, race, gender, and other categories protected by labor laws,#8221; Rangel said. #8220;Photos give information that shouldn’t contribute to a hiring decision. Essay! Therefore, resumes in the U.S. don’t need and paint shouldn’t have pictures. Including a photo on U.S. resumes can send a message that the candidate doesn’t understand hiring protocols.#8221; 2. A resume without social media links. Show the interviewer you#8217;re part of the digital age. | We live in boots health and, a digital age now. If you don’t have any social media accounts, now is the how to time to get at least one. Of Protest In Youth! At the bare minimum, you should have a LinkedIn account. This gives potential employers a brief look at your work history. Most employers will conduct a brief internet search to see what you’re all about.

A CareerBuilder survey found 43% of employers check a candidate’s social media profiles. How To Do Spray! If you have little or no online presence, this could raise a red flag. Hiring managers might assume you’re resistant to change and that technology scares you. Don’t ruin your first impression before you’ve even met. Even if you#8217;re a frustrated writer, don#8217;t write your novel. How Do You Get Power In A Indirect! | A resume, unlike a curriculum vitae, should not be several pages long. Job seekers seem to get the two confused, so we’ll break it down for paint, you. A curriculum vitae, which means “course of life” in Latin, is a document that can be two or more pages and contains detailed information about your professional achievements. The goal is to provide an account of your entire work experience. A resume, on the other hand, provides a brief summary of your work history. When a recruiter asks for your resume, they are expecting something brief.

It’s generally best not to submit anything longer than two pages. Freedom Of Protest Movement! Don#8217;t go overboard with keywords. | Now that most employers are using technology to store and track resumes, it’s important to make sure you have the right keywords. However, make sure you don’t overdo it. Applicant tracking systems can flag resumes that use a keyword too many times. In life and in job searching, moderation is key. So if you want a real, live human to get their hands on do spray paint, your resume, don’t go overboard trying to sell yourself. 5. A resume with irrelevant work experience. Only list what is relevant. | Justin Sullivan/Getty Images. Each resume and Prufrock Anti-Hero job application should be tailored to the job you’re applying for.

Take the time to how to do spray art, make sure the jobs and experience you have listed align with what the employer is requesting in and Religion Essay, the job description. No matter how impressive your performance was as a short-order cook at how to art your local diner, it won’t matter if it’s completely unrelated to boots health and, the job you’re trying to get, and you’d be hard-pressed to demonstrate transferable skills. 6. A resume listing your interests and hobbies. What you do during your free time is your business, so don’t include it on your resume. | Do you like to take long walks on the beach or knit quietly by the fireplace?

Are you the hot dog eating champion in your town? Chances are hiring managers don’t care about this. What you do during your free time is your business, so don’t include it on your resume. Unless your interests and do spray paint art hobbies are directly related to the sports gods, the job you’re applying for, it’s best not to mention it. You can elaborate on your career goals and objective when you get to the interview. How To Paint! | Objectives generally aren’t necessary anymore. Differentiating Faith And Religion! You can elaborate on your career goals when you get to the interview.

The only time an objective might be appropriate is when you are making a significant career change. How To Paint! This might give the the sports gods interviewer a better understanding of why you’re applying for the job and could reduce your chances of getting passed over for how to art, an interview. Prufrock Anti-Hero Essay! As an how to paint alternative, career expert Kimberly Myers recommends including a professional summary. Let your resume breathe. | The Sports Gods! Hiring managers and recruiters are reading dozens of resumes a day. How To Paint! Do yourself #8212; and them #8212; a favor, and let your resume breathe.

Although it’s best to keep your resume to one or two pages, don’t try to win the page-count contest and squeeze everything onto one page. It’s better to have a readable resume that’s two pages than one with a layout so tight it looks like a newspaper. Boots! 9. A resume with too much white space. Do Spray! Too much white space is by thomas hardy bad. | If you don’t have a lot of work experience, you might have a difficult time formatting your resume. You might be tempted to do spray, use a lot of space to stretch out the formatting. Unfortunately, including too much space will likely draw attention to Prufrock, the fact that you lack inexperience. If you have volunteer experience, your best bet is to include that with the rest of do spray your work history. Hardy! Just make sure to identify it as such. Just say no to old resumes. |

As you gain more experience, you should be taking the how to do spray paint time to by thomas, update your work history. Once you’re in how to do spray paint art, the interview (if you get that far), it’s unlikely you’ll have the time to email an updated version of your resume. Even if the interviewer allows you to do that, it just looks unprofessional. Failure to keep your work experience updated sends the message that you’re not serious about your career.

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Essay, Research Paper: Russia And CIS. When the Soviet Union fell in 1991, due to many pressures both internal and. external, the ex-soviet satellites were given their independence, much to. Russia's dismay. A new trend towards sovereignty made it difficult for the. largest country in the world to deny it's former members the right to separate.

However, even with the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Russia is still heavily involved with the how to do spray, matters of its former soviet members. This then leaves the question, are those former states truly sovereign? In the. following pages we will examine the many reasons as to why this question is. currently being posed. Firstly, we will look at Russia's history on the. international scene and how they have not really changed their agenda throughout. the last century, up into the present.

Along with the brief history, we shall. elaborate on the reasons why the by thomas, CIS was founded. Furthermore, modern day Russia. seems to feel the need to how to do spray, impose itself upon these new sovereign states for. various reasons that we will elaborate upon. Essay. Lastly, the members of the CIS see. Russia as both a friend and foe to do spray paint art, the organisation, which will be shown by. looking at their interests and why they have divided views. However, to fully. understand the complexities that are the Russian Empire, let us take a step back.

in time to when Peter the Great was building a country of grandeur. In the early. 18th century, Peter the Great continued the expansion set forth by his. predecessors, and fought a long war against the sports gods, the seasoned Swedish army. With the. final defeat of their army, Peter gained control of several small countries,

Latvia, Lithuania, Ingria and Estonia. Upon his return from the war the paint art, Russian. senate voted that he bear the title of the Great and Emperor, his acceptance of. the last title marked the official inauguration of the Russian Empire. The Sports Gods. Peter the. Great continued to fight wars in hopes of expanding Russia's borders and its. economy, regardless of cost, which eventually led to mistrust within the empire. Russia was indeed a world power, influencing and controlling its neighbours. Having built such a vast empire was only part of Peter's public appeal, he was a. very ruthless but enlightened leader, the do spray, kind that appealed to the Russian.

people. In one of the the voice by thomas hardy, bloodier cases, he had 1000 members of a coup d'#1081;tat. assassinated, a punishment that he himself helped administer. Upon his death, many school children were then raised to see Peter as a hero, and a model. leader. Perhaps then it is not so surprising that in how to do spray art, the decades to of Protest Movement Essay, follow, his. accepted ruthlessness would be passed down into the next generations of leaders, this time having stricter doctrines within the how to paint, regimes. As Karl Marx's ideas of. socialism spread across a desperate nation several men stepped forward to Faith, end. the oppression and starvation of their beloved country. The Russian revolution.

in 1917 seemed to be a refreshing change compared to the imperialism of the old. regime and so countries such as Ukraine, Poland and Belarus joined willingly, hoping to find guidance for their country. Regardless of the many positive. changes in the late 1920's, Joseph Stalin gained sole control of the how to paint, Soviet. Union and the voice by thomas hardy, was more or less as ruthless as Peter the great himself. He began. expanding and militarising the how to, union, putting the state above each and every.

man. In the Freedom Essay, Ukraine, profitable farms were condensed into how to art, collective farms. hoping to support industrialisation, and as a result there was a great famine. and an hardy, estimated 5 to 7 million Ukrainians died. Even in Ukraine's darker. period, because of their many natural resources, they were still considered very. important to the Soviet Empire, almost its backbone. The Ukraine was not the. only country to be used by the Soviets.

Since the USSR spanned eight time zones, the land occupied was enormous; in fact it was the largest in the world. How To Paint. With. such diverse landscapes there came many different natural resources which were. used to how do you get power in a democracy, feed and house the population of the how to do spray art, Soviet Union as well as push the. economy forward with its exports. The trees blanketing one-third of the of Protest Movement Essay, Soviet. Union constituted more than one-quarter of the earth's forest cover, subsequently making it one of the main exports, coming second only to the mining. industry. The mineral deposits and precious metals in the Ukrainian and Siberian. areas brought in the most revenue for the Soviets. Now it is quite evident that.

one of the reasons that the USSR prospered was that upon its vast amount of land. were several different resources which they had every right to exploit, allowing. access to the whole of the union, rather than one single area within. As the. Soviet Union weakened, its last secretary general, Mikhail Gorbachev, decided. that it was time to end the socialist era in 1991.Many countries, who had relied. upon the omnipresent Soviet government for so long, were lost.

New governments. were appointed in each new state, and so, the how to do spray art, roller coaster began. At first it. seemed as if a great weight had been lifted from the minds of the the sports gods, people in. Eastern Europe, but it was soon apparent that a new accord would have to be. signed to protect the minorities within the neighbouring states and distribute. the Soviet armed forces, among other things. The newly elected Russian.

president, Boris Yeltsin, the how to paint, Ukrainian president, Leonid Kravchuk and the. Supreme Soviet Chairman, Stanislav Shushkevich, met in the secluded Minsk forest. in December of 1991 to discuss the terms for the new accord. The Voice By Thomas Hardy. However, as time. would later prove, there was a wide gulf in the understanding between the. fathers of the commonwealth. Boris Yeltsin would manoeuvre for. Russian supremacy over how to, the organisation.

Leonid Kravchuk would insist on an. amicable separation between equal and you get power in a democracy, sovereign independent states. Do Spray Paint. Stanislav. Shushkevich would argue for Belarusian neutrality and a multinational, rule-of-international-law organisation that would enable Belarus to. sow the Essay, first seeds of a separate national identity. Since these countries. had been linked so closely together for such a long time, they shared many. common bonds, some of which Russia was not ready to let go.

When the accord was. created and how to art, the parties had all agreed to the terms, things appeared to be fine. However, it took little time to realise that Russia was unsatisfied with the. direction in which things were heading and the sports gods, proceeded to place itself at the head. of the arena.

Moscow was sick and tired of complying with the opinions of its. partners and how to paint art, decided to exercise the right of Big Brother to the CIS. They. continued on boots health and to forbid CIS members to how to art, pursue independent external policies. Yeltsin called it committing to their first priority, the CIS, and to. refrain from Freedom in Youth participation in unions or blocs against any or all of how to paint art the. states. There is an actual clause stating that if any member of the power in a indirect, CIS. forms an alliance outside the given states then they will be forced to withdraw. from the commonwealth, however, it is no surprise that clause does not apply, nor will ever apply, to Russia. As stated in president Kravchuk's electoral.

slogan, Russia does not intend to develop its relations with CIS countries. on the basis of international law. (. ) the further integration with the. Commonwealth is leading to paint art, the watering down of CIS countries sovereignty, subordination of the interests to those of Russia, and the recreation of a. centralised superpower. We have seen that Russia has always had interests. in her neighbouring countries, sometimes turning violent, sometimes not, but. always causing tension. The many borders surrounding the largest country in Prufrock Anti-Hero Essay, the.

world preoccupy its government for safety reasons. During the do spray paint, Soviet reign, and. most importantly during the by thomas, cold war, the Soviet states surrounding Russia were. a security barrier, a guarantee the west wouldn't creep up to do spray art, the Kremlin. unnoticed. However, there have been offers by NATO to several of the in Youth Movement Essay, countries. of the CIS for membership, consequently enraging Russia, who does not want the. western organisation sitting on its doorstep. How To Do Spray Art. NATO argues that it is not. expanding to spite Russia and has even offered them a seat, which, was evidently.

refused. Freedom In Youth Movement Essay. Even though there is tension with the occident, North America is how to do spray, not. what preoccupies Yeltsin the and, most. With the do spray paint, bombings in of Protest in Youth Essay, Kosovo this past year, we can see that Moscow's concerns fall mostly in Europe. Because of the Kosovo. bombings there have been threats by how to art, Moscow to form negative alliances with. Yugoslavia, Ukraine, Iran and China if there were to be a NATO enlargement? L'expansion de l'OTAN qui montre sa d#1081;termination #1072; dominer la plan#1080;te.

pour les prochaines cinquante et une ann#1081;es obligera la Russie #1072; recr#1081;er son propre potentiel militaire ?, #1081;crit Vladimir. Kouznetchevski, qui ajoute : ? On ne peut arr#1082;ter cette expansion que par. la force.? However, an you get power, alliance of that kind would alienate them from the west, as well as financial aid. Albeit Russia's current preoccupation with the how to, eastern. European NATO expansion and the bombings in Kosovo, it has never had the. intention to join the neither European Union nor NATO. Moscow has been offered, at several occasions, a place at the EU to calm tense nerves, but like with. NATO, it refused.

To join itself to either would mean subjecting Russia to the. discipline and will of its former rivals, so they have chosen to Prufrock, counter it. They have participated in several European security meetings and are no stranger. to dealings with the EU, but are too proud to accept membership. To compensate. for this over sized ego on the global market, they depend on the members of the. CIS, who are also encouraged to avoid contact with NATO as well. At. times Moscow has been known use pressure tactics on the countries to get its.

way. It would seem that Russian influence is as important to Moscow as the. nation's security. In the Caucasus, Moscow is supporting both Karabakh and. Abkhazia, two nations who have had longstanding disputes.

This move allows. Russia to play both sides and still remain influential. Their fear is this; if. quarrelling countries are able to resolve their conflicts, then Russia will have. no say and will see its power and influence over the region diminish.

Overall, Russia's crisis management has been known to be self-serving, resembling more. the tactics of how to do spray paint dividing and ruling than integration. Georgia and Armenia are. currently addressing the possibility of the sports gods peace settlements, but they are both. hoping that Russia's direct role in their business is finished, as unlikely as. it seems. One of the reasons for which Moscow is so busy with external affairs. is that its own country is in shambles. La corruption financi#1080;re.

sans limites, la d#1081;gradation nationale et le cataclysme #1081;conomique. dans lesquels se d#1081;bat la Russie depuis l'arriv#1081;e au pouvoir de M. Boris Eltsine en 1991 n'ont pas de pr#1081;c#1081;dent dans l'histoire du. capitalisme au XXe si#1080;cle. En huit ans, les apparatchiks du pr#1081;sident, la nouvelle oligarchie et leurs mentors am#1081;ricains ont ruin#1081; le. pays. Experts have compared modern Russia to Chicago in the 1920's because. of the extreme crime rate. It is well known that Russian Mafia play a large part.

in the running of the do spray paint, country, with influence in the surrounding areas as well, and as such the Between and Religion, people have lost faith in their government. There is not only do spray art, a. problem with crime however, the in Youth Essay, economy is much worse. Boris Yeltsin is do spray, trying. to strengthen his appeal to voters by giving them what they want, a strong. Russia. Throughout Russia's history, there has always been a legacy of strength. and power. How Do. When the USSR failed and the government became democratic, the people. believed that it would bring them prosperity. However, it brought them.

corruption, in do spray art, the greatest sense of the word. As mentioned above, inner turmoil. and bankruptcy are tearing Russia apart. Unpaid salaries are among the dozens of. hardships the Russian population is facing, but seeing as they are a democratic. nation, the impoverished masses are voters, and by thomas, will decide Yeltsin's fate.

He. is trying to win over how to paint art, his people by getting Russia involved in international. situations. Take for Prufrock Essay, instance the conflict in Kosovo; there have always been. tensions between Moscow and Yugoslavia, but Yeltsin rallied his people against. the American bombings. Regardless of the tension, the masses are focusing their. anger towards anti-American propaganda because it is all they have. La. crise des Balkans agit sur l'#1081;volution du paysage politique russe de mani#1080;re.

multiforme. Si, jusqu'ici, le th#1080;me du ? complot am#1081;ricain contre. la Russie ? ne rencontrait qu'un #1081;cho assez mod#1081;r#1081;, la crise. du Kosovo survient dans un contexte en pleine #1081;volution. Moscow. needs to fuel the fire to keep people's faith. How To Art. Pour beaucoup de Russes, la.

guerre men#1081;e par l'OTAN confirme la volont#1081; des Am#1081;ricains de. mettre leur pays #1072; genoux. D'autant qu'ils sont sensibles #1072; leur. isolement croissant. The recent conflict in Differentiating Between Faith, Chechnya is yet another.

instance where Russia refuses to let go. They have asked for their independence. on countless occasions since the reign of Peter the Great and have always been. refused. Just recently, there has been some activity around the paint, Russian-Chechnyan. border causing panic throughout the state. In Youth Essay. Unfortunately though, Moscow has. played the situation to it's fullest, bombing their own civilian buildings and.

placing the blame on Chechnyan terrorists, subsequently winning over how to do spray art, the Russian. people. Just like in the Russian Tsarist and Stalinist periods, Yeltsin is using. force to appeal to the Russian public. Instead of giving the small nation their. independence, the Yeltsin government has pushed them over once again, only this. time bombing civilians and creating thousands of casualties. Moscow is. disregarding the the sports gods, suggestion for how to do spray, peace by CIS members and Freedom of Protest in Youth Movement Essay, justifies the bombings. for its own gain.

It would seem that the how to do spray art, CIS only matters when it will profit. Russia. The members of the the sports gods, CIS also have issues with Russia. It is known that. Moscow uses the Commonwealth for its own purpose but its members are not wholly. ignorant. Some countries need Russia, or have been led to believe they do, and. some know they do not need Russia but can't seem to do spray art, shake them off. During the. Soviet period many Russians emigrated all over boots health and, its territory, settling families.

and lives. Today that is causing many problems with countries that would choose. to oppose Russia, the Ukraine for instance. There are nearly 15 millions. Russians within Ukraine's borders, and as such they are a heavy minority. Paint Art. They. represent enough of a pull for the government not to disregard them in matters. of the state. Russia has much say in the sports gods, Ukrainian dealings because of that specific. minority, albeit president Kravchuk's disapproval. It is known amongst the.

ex-Soviet states that the Russians overlook other nationalities with an how to do spray, undue. degree of ethnic superiority, creating tensions. Ukraine has a problem with this. but can say nothing because of the how do you get in a indirect, repercussions it would cause between them and. Russia, especially since there is how to paint art, enough tension there already. The Ukraine also. relies heavily on Russian fuel and Prufrock, has strong cultural links so it wouldn't be. able to find allies elsewhere without being cutoff of a vital supply. In 1995,

Russia threatened to call the Ukraine a bankrupt country and demand their debt. be paid off in Ukraine assets. Moscow is using its imports, exports and past. debts to manipulate other countries. Another country stuck in do spray, Russia's economic. grasp is boots, Kyrgyzstan. The Kyrgyz government believes that to be truly independent.

economically, they must depend on Russian support. The president stated, If we break these relations, there is a risk that the Kyrgyz will return. to their traditional nomadic life as cattle breeders. They rely on fuel. material, lubricants and equipment provided by Russia, which, if they were to be. taken away, would greatly affect Kyrgyz agriculture. Also, reforms in the. mid-Asian state also depend on how to do spray paint Russia, or so believe the president of Kyrgyz, it will be impossible to achieve reforms in Kyrgyzstan without close.

cooperation with Russia. There is a fear throughout many mid-Asian. countries that if they turn their interests to the south or west for economic. purposes, they will lose all support from Russia. This does not leave them much. choice in Anti-Hero Essay, the matters of their states. They have been dependant on their. northern ally for such a long time that it would appear they know no better than. to agree with whatever decision comes their way. We can see that through. manipulation and how to, the image of power, Russia tends to you get power in a, get its way, all the do spray paint art, while.

impeding on the sovereignty of Anti-Hero its neighboring states. Russia today is not that. different from the how to paint art, Russia back in the 19th century, doing what it can to form a. superpower, at which they are the head country. Even as Russia is in its darkest. economic period they have not let go of their pride, rallying the people to. support the Essay, Kremlin's decisions, as well as manipulation the other countries.

into believing Russia is the beginning and the end of do spray paint art eastern European politics. Many scholars believe that the CIS is in fact Russia is piecing together its. former federation, a fallen power desperate to hold on to everything it has, or. can have for that matter. Russia does not have to be strong to hardy, possess power, Kissinger once wrote that the how to paint, perception of you get power democracy power is as manipulative as power. itself, something the Kremlin knows well.

Current academic works have already. begun replacing the term Commonwealth of Independent States with a much simpler. term, Russia. It will be interesting to see in the coming years where such a. country will be. With the failing economy and internal politics turned inside. out by crime, one would think not to far, but Russia still has enough kick to.

get by and maybe what the critics say is true, with the how to do spray paint, help from the west, Russia will rebuild its empire to one day stand again. Summer 1999 2-Brzezkinski, Zbigniew- Sullivan, Paige, Russia and Prufrock Essay, the. Commonwealth of Independent States- Documents, Data and how to do spray paint art, Analysis, Library of. Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, New York, 1997, 855 pages 3-LE MONDE. DIPLOMATIQUE - Ukraine, une soci#1081;t#1081; bloqu#1081;e MAI 1998 - Page 8. 4-LE MONDE. DIPLOMATIQUE - Temp#1082;te politique en Russie JUIN 1999 - Page 10 5-Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2000, Interactive software, 1999 6-The National.

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