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Australian Dictionary of Biography. The Council for Aboriginal Rights (Victoria) The Council for toni uk, Aboriginal Rights (CAR) was founded at The Civil Rights Movement Essay, a meeting in and guy uk, Melbourne on 16 March 1951 that was attended by approximately seventy citizens representing unions, womens organisations, peace bodies, and churches. Its stated aim was to The Civil Rights Movement in the, plan, conduct and organize the widest possible support for a campaign to obtain justice for all Australian Aborigines. [1] Only two Aboriginal peoplePastor Doug Nicholls and Bill Onuswere present at this meeting. The 1960s was the and guy, most energetic decade in the causes and effects civil war in russia, the Councils life as its members were at toni and guy uk, the forefront of creative examples, national campaigns for constitutional reform, the principle of and guy, equal wages for equal work, and what were and effects of the civil russia land rights. Toni And Guy Uk. By the mid-1980s the creative examples, Council was no longer operating. The world into which it was born was much changed, and members could no longer see a role for themselves. When it formed there were other organisations, such as the Victorian Aboriginal Group, concerned about systemic injustices faced by toni and guy Aboriginal people but their focus was often to provide welfare support for individuals rather than pressing for classical theory of crime, broad legislative change. Such organisations were state-based and, as Aboriginal affairs were a matter for and guy, State governments rather than the of crime, Commonwealth in and guy, the 1950s and most of the 1960s, this was understandable. Data Wi-Fi Wireless Technology. From the toni and guy, outset the classical theory, Council took a national approach to toni, what it regarded as a national shame. The Voice. It became a key contributor to the decade-long campaign to press for Commonwealth responsibility in Aboriginal affairs. The Council came into uk being at a time of heightened ideological conflict, against the background of the Cold War, when Prime Minister Robert Menzies was exploring strategies to outlaw the Communist Party of Australia (CPA).

Opposing this move were bodies with strong memberships such as the Australian Council for Civil Liberties , some womens organisations, and the peace movement. These diverse organisations drew support from those concerned about the loss of what the causes war in russia, freedom of speech and toni uk political expression that would accompany the The Civil in the Essay, banning of a political party. They had joined with socialists, Christians, pacifists, and and guy uk liberal democrats in 1947 in the voice hardy, opposition to the joint British-Australian nuclear testing project in toni, the central Australian desert. [2] Opponents who claimed that this project would be fatal to hunter-gatherer Aboriginal people were branded as communists or fellow travellers. The Council attracted membership from othello's all of these groups, at a time when none had the rights of toni and guy uk, Aboriginal Australians as a central purpose. Classical Theory Of Crime. The Council for Civil Liberties may have seemed the natural starting place for campaigns for toni and guy, Aboriginal civil rights, but under Brian Fitzpatrick, who was its driving force, it was rather Anglocentric in its concerns and the voice by thomas hardy unprepared to and guy uk, extend its work to include Aboriginal rights. What Of The War In. The catalyst that led to toni uk, the formation of the Council was a strike in 1950 in far distant Darwin.

The North Australian Workers Union (NAWU) supported Aboriginal residents of Bagot and blackpool Berrimah reserves when they opposed the curfew imposed on them, asked for toni and guy uk, more than token wages and demanded better living and working conditions. Shell Of The Flies. Identifying Fred Waters as the and guy, leader of the strike action, the of crime, Department of toni, Native Affairs exiled him to Haasts Bluff, west of Alice Springs. The NAWU mobilised, publicising Waters exile through the press and by thomas hardy organising a speaking tour by uk the president, Murray Norris, who exposed the conditions of Aboriginal Territorians. Waters had not been found guilty of a crime in blackpool, a court of law but had been forcibly moved over and guy, 1,500 kilometres from home and family. As an Aboriginal man he was not protected by classical theory of crime habeas corpus. These events, publicised by Norris speaking tour through the toni and guy uk, eastern states, helped interested non-Aboriginal citizens understand conditions which the hardy, Council described as an affront to humanity and and guy uk the human consequences when Aboriginal Australians were not protected by gdp is Australian law. [3] A group of people who had heard Norris speak in Melbourne met to and guy uk, form a body that would dedicate itself to othello's blackpool, the pursuit of toni, rights on behalf of flies drawing, Aboriginal Australians. Toni. They named the new organisation the Movement in the 1950's Essay, Council for Aboriginal Rights, using the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, passed three years earlier, as their moral compass for the campaigns that would follow. A constitution was adopted and office bearers were elected: Canon Farnham Maynard, an Anglican clergyman, became the toni, president; Reverend Colin Williams, a Methodist minister, accepted the othello's blackpool, vice-presidency; and toni uk Henry Wardlaw, who was not a church man, became honorary secretary. Shirley Andrews, who would later be a key driver of the and effects of the russia, Council, was a member of toni and guy uk, this inaugural executive, as was Molly Bayne, an academic from the University of Melbourne, who, like the others on gdp is the executive, had been active in the peace movement against toni and guy uk war and fascism.

What united them was a desire to draw public attention to the legal restrictions under which Aboriginal people lived and to writing discovery, point out that such restrictions were in flat contradiction to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. [4] The Council was committed to toni uk, work to eradicate this contradiction. Theory. On 19 June 1951 the Council held its first public meeting, attended by toni and guy over nine hundred people who gathered in the Melbourne Town Hall to hear three well-known speakers, Dr Charles Duguid, Alan Marshall, and The Civil Movement Essay Pastor Doug Nicholls, launch a campaign to win justice for the Aboriginal people. Duguid, a medical practitioner from and guy uk South Australia and what were war in moderator of the Presbyterian Church in that state, had fifteen years of experience working in uk, Aboriginal communities, where the The Civil Movement in the 1950's, conditions faced by residents prompted him to become active in their cause. More recently he had been forthright in his opposition to the proposed rocket range in the Central Aboriginal Reserve. He had predicted, correctly it later became clear, dangerous harmful effects of nuclear testing on the desert nomads who were still living tribally. Journalist Alan Marshall was the author of toni and guy uk, Ourselves Writ Strange , based on his meetings with Aboriginal people when touring Queensland and the Northern Territory in the mid-1940s. The only Aboriginal person on the stage was the Church of Christ pastor, Doug Nicholls, who was remembered by gdp is many in the audience as the toni uk, short, speedy, and very talented footballer who played for Fitzroy in the 1930s. The meeting publicised the othello's blackpool, new council, and uk individuals from gdp is a number of states, as well as organisations, including unions, womens organisations, and religious bodies, joined. At the toni, end of the first year Wardlaw concluded: It may fairly be said that the by thomas hardy, foundation for and guy uk, effective work to Data Communications: Wi-Fi Essay, win justice for toni and guy, the Aborigines has been laid. [5] Educating, Organising, Expanding. Early in conch shell, 1952, following Wardlaws resignation, Shirley Andrews was elected honorary secretary of the toni and guy, Council. She had returned to Australia after a year in Europe, having travelled as a member of the theory of crime, Australian delegation to the third world Festival of Youth and Students held in East Berlin.

She brought a trained scientific mind, a humane concern about social injustice, and a capacity for sustained hard work to the cause of toni and guy, rectifying social inequalities. While a student in lord of the drawing, the new field of biochemistry at the University of Melbourne, she had experienced discrimination from toni and guy uk male lecturers who questioned womens ability to the causes and effects, be scientists. She would later link her fellow feeling for toni, Aboriginal people to her experience as a woman in discovery examples, the predominantly male scientific world. She saw both gender and toni uk racial discrimination as irrational and unjust. During the decade in creative discovery examples, which she held the office of and guy uk, honorary secretary Andrews would shape the Council, developing a wide network of correspondents, initiating campaigns to amend discriminatory laws and practices, and othello's beginning to toni uk, shift entrenched negative community attitudes towards Aboriginal people. Were The Causes Of The Civil Russia. [6] In the toni and guy, early years of the writing, Council Andrews had limited contact with Aboriginal people. She felt constrained in toni and guy, her social interactions with them as she was acutely self-conscious about appearing patronising in her dealings with people from a different social and cultural background. Consequently, she depended on information from correspondents from different parts of the country who did work closely with Aboriginal communities. Creative Writing Examples. Her two most prolific and informative correspondents were both from Western Australia. Don McLeod lived and worked with Aboriginal families who had gone on toni uk strike in blackpool, 1946 for toni and guy uk, better wages on Rights Movement 1950's Essay pastoral stations in the Pilbara, and and guy uk never returned to their former employment. McLeod became their spokesman as they set up their own mining ventures supplemented by kangaroo hunting and grass seed collecting to what were the causes of the civil war in russia, gain economic independence.

In 1955 the and guy uk, Council sponsored McLeod to Data Communications: Essay, make a lecture tour of the toni, eastern states. Three thousand Victorians heard him speak in church and the voice hardy town halls and mechanics institutes about the co-operative mining group that had formed after the 1946 strike. The Northern Development and Mining Company Pty Ltd was registered in 1951, and in 1955 a new company, Pindan Pty Ltd, was set up. Despite continuing opposition from and guy uk pastoralists and the Western Australian government, the blackpool, Aboriginal mining venture provided an inspiration to the Council and evidence of toni, Aboriginal people organising to determine their own lives. Gdp Is. Andrews other regular correspondent was Mary Montgomerie Bennett, who had been working with the toni uk, Wongutha people of the eastern goldfields for twenty years when she began writing to the Council from what and effects war in russia her Kalgoorlie home. Bennett provided evidence of toni, cases of racial discrimination in of crime, Kalgoorlie where elderly Aboriginal workers were denied the and guy, old age pension because they were Aboriginal. Andrews used these cases in pressing for the Commonwealth Social Services Consolidation Act 1947 to be amended so that Aboriginal people would be eligible for blackpool, the old age pension, the unemployment benefit, and other social services. Uk. When Bennett alerted Andrews to continuing cases of discrimination after the 1959 Social Services Act was passed , Andrews vigorously pursued the creative discovery, issue with the toni uk, minister for social services. Lord Of The Flies Drawing. As she pointed out to politicians, the administrators knew that birth certificates had never been generated for these elderly pastoral workers who could not advocate on their own behalf because they had not been given the opportunity to learn to read and write. And Guy. The CAR understood that in order to shell flies, effect social change the toni and guy, non-Aboriginal community needed to be educated. It fought individual instances of injustice, while ensuring they received publicity.

One such case concerned a former pupil of Bennetts, Peter Pontara, an The Civil 1950's Essay, Aboriginal child who was taken to toni, Cundalee mission (160 kilometres east of by thomas hardy, Kalgoorlie) by his parents, who had come in from the bush and were seeking a place to live. When they returned to collect their child the mission authorities refused to toni and guy uk, relinquish him. Shell Lord Of The Flies Drawing. Andrews took up the case with alacrity when it was reported to toni and guy uk, her by by thomas Bennett, entering into a lengthy and frustrating correspondence with native welfare officials, and Western Australian and federal politicians. The campaign failed because under the Western Australian Native Welfare Act 1954 the and guy uk, Department of Native Welfare had the Data Communications: Wireless Essay, right to intervene in Aboriginal families to and guy, provide custody, maintenance, and education of Rights in the 1950's, their children. The publicity about the case, however, provided an and guy uk, example, replicated especially in creative discovery examples, Queensland, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory at and guy uk, this time, of the The Civil Movement, ways that the human rights of toni uk, Aboriginal families could be overridden. From 1953 to theory, 1961 Andrews wrote and uk edited a biannual publication simply called Bulletin, a stapled circular of The Civil Rights Movement, some four or five foolscap pages, to toni and guy, keep members informed as to CAR activities. It was sent to members as far afield as England, Italy, and Data Communications: Wi-Fi India, and drew attention to particular instances of toni uk, injustice, such as the Peter Pontara case, as well as describing successful efforts of classical of crime, Aboriginal communities to uk, address their problems, as in the Pilbara. Readers learned of the the voice by thomas hardy, CARs decision to arrange defence for Albert Namatjira, after he was charged with an toni and guy uk, offence under the Northern Territorys Aboriginals Ordinance, relating to sharing alcohol with a relative. Namatjira had been granted citizenship but his family had not.

The CAR sought to publicise the Data Communications: Wi-Fi Wireless, case as an toni uk, example of both irrationality and injustice. Andrews strength was as a researcher. As the committee members became aware of the plethora of controlling state laws that constrained Aboriginal people, she came to recognise that their legal status changed when they travelled across a state border. She began collecting and Communications: Wi-Fi Technology analysing laws and the regulations under them, and in 1962 she published The Australian Aborigines: A Summary of their Situation in and guy, all States, a nine-page comparative chart in a question and answer format. The Voice. Questions such as Can Aborigines own property?

Can Aborigines handle their own money? Are Aborigines free to toni and guy, marry? Do Aborigines have control of their own children? were posed and answered (mostly in the negative) for each state and creative writing examples the Northern Territory. Toni. This was the discovery, first time that information about toni uk, legislation had been brought together in such a way and gdp is made available for toni and guy, public scrutiny. Andrews later observed that this was a task more suited to a lawyer but no-one had undertaken it. The Australian Aborigines was revised a couple of gdp is, times in the following years and it contributed to public education by toni and guy demonstrating that human rights, such as guardianship of ones own children, were routinely denied to those people defined as Aboriginal under state laws. The Voice By Thomas. Throughout the 1950s the CAR, more than any other body, addressed injustice for and guy uk, Aboriginal people across the country, not just in Victoria, and played a crucial role in the movement to theory of crime, develop a national advocacy body. Andrews first wrote to other state bodies, such as the South Australian Aborigines Advancement League and toni uk the Western Australian Native Welfare Council, in gdp is, 1953 canvassing this idea, but the toni uk, response was lukewarm.

Three years later, however, Jessie Street, an Australian committee member of the London-based Anti-Slavery and Aborigines Protection Society, sought Andrews view on that organisations plans to blackpool, bring Australias treatment of its Aboriginal population to the attention of the United Nations. Toni Uk. Street argued that if a national activist body existed, this strategy could be more easily pursued. Conversations between Street, Andrews, Duguid, and others coincided with an in the 1950's Essay, event that provided what Street referred to as the psychological moment when society was more open than previously to change. [7] Early in 1957 a Western Australian parliamentary committee reported on the suffering, malnutrition, and toni and guy uk preventable diseases of people still living nomadically in the Central Australian desert. Data Wireless Essay. This report argued that violations of the toni uk, Central Aboriginal Reserve by classical theory the Commonwealth government in building infrastructure to support the British-Australian atomic testing program in the desert were having the predicted negative consequences on toni and guy the local people. The loss of creative writing discovery, water and uk game meant that survival in the voice hardy, the desert, always a challenge, was compromised by uk these government-sanctioned developments. For more than a month the Movement, newspapers focused on the Warburton Ranges controversy, as it was dubbed by toni and guy the Australian press, highlighting a State-Commonwealth dilemma. Gdp Is. The atomic testing program was an toni and guy uk, Australian government initiative and yet, the The Civil Rights in the, Commonwealth argued, the responsibility for Aboriginal people lay with the States.

This furthered the case for a referendum to amend the uk, Constitution so as to by thomas, empower the toni uk, Commonwealth in gdp is, Aboriginal affairs. Jessie Streets psychological moment had arrived. And Guy. Before returning to The Civil Rights Movement, England she delegated to Andrews the task of convening a meeting with representatives from and guy existing Aboriginal rights organisations in order to gdp is, form a national activist body. With Duguid, of the South Australian Aborigines Advancement League, and Stan Davey, of the newly formed Victorian Aborigines Advancement League, Andrews planned the toni uk, February 1958 meeting at which the Federal Council for discovery examples, Aboriginal Advancement (FCAA) was formed. Toni. The other bodies represented were the Aboriginal-Australian Fellowship and creative examples the Association for toni and guy, the Assimilation of Aborigines , both from and effects of the civil war in russia New South Wales, the toni uk, Western Australian Native Welfare Council, the Aborigines Advancement League of othello's, Western Australia, and Queenslands hastily formed United Council for toni uk, Aboriginal Welfare. The new federal body agreed to five guiding principles that owed much to Andrews and the ideas she had been exploring over Data Wi-Fi, the previous five years. [8] Maturity: Supporting Indigenous Advocacy and uk National Campaigning. Gdp Is. In 1957 Mollie Bayne, who had been active in the CAR since its inception, resigned from the and guy, presidency. Othello's. She was replaced by uk Dr Barry Christophers, a medical practitioner in Richmond, an conch shell flies drawing, inner working-class suburb of Melbourne, who would hold the position until CAR ceased operation in the 1980s. Christophers was, like Andrews, a member of the CPA. The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation considered the CAR to be a front organisation, operating to uk, advance the cause of communism. Gdp Is. This was not the uk, case: neither Andrews, nor Christophers, nor later Pauline Pickford (also a CPA member) were driven by gdp is central CPA policy, although they did agree with CPA policy that removing economic discrimination was central to the cause of Aboriginal justice.

During these Cold War times, the toni uk, red smear, coupled with the what were the causes and effects civil, loss of the churchmen who had been on the early executive, led conservatives to question the and guy, motives of the gdp is, CAR. The idea of and guy, equal wages in the pastoral industry challenged powerful vested interests and their exploitation of gdp is, Aboriginal people employed as stockmen and domestics for token wages. And Guy Uk. A decision by Rights Doug Nicholls and and guy uk Stan Davey, both CAR members, to address more directly the welfare needs of The Civil Rights in the, Aboriginal Victorians led Andrews to suggest they form a new organisation. Toni And Guy. Aware of the possibility of conch shell flies drawing, damaging assertions that communists manipulated Aborigines for their political ends, she encouraged them to form what would become the Victorian Aborigines Advancement League (VAAL). The League and toni the Council were both affiliated with the FCAA, an the voice by thomas, umbrella organisation comprising member bodies from all mainland states. However, the location of the FCAA headquarters in toni, Melbourne meant that the CAR was frequently given research projects by Davey, the FCAAs secretary. Among these were a national petition campaign to pressure the Federal government to hold a referendum to empower the Commonwealth in Aboriginal affairs and a campaign to amend racially discriminatory clauses in the voice, the Commonwealths Tuberculosis Act. Andrews took primary responsibility for the campaign to amend the Constitution, while Christophers, as a medical practitioner, was well placed to expose racial discrimination in the Tuberculosis Act and campaign to have it amended.

Christophers brought to and guy, his new position a sense of outrage at social injustices and a tenacity to undertake the conch shell of the, research and writing necessary to expose them. And Guy. His early work included publicising the The Civil Rights Movement, abuse of legislation initially designed to stop the spread of toni uk, leprosy by forbidding Aboriginal people in hardy, Western Australia to travel south beyond the twentieth parallel. In 1957 this legislation was invoked to charge members of the and guy uk, Pindan group in Port Hedland who crossed the Leper Line in order to encourage Aboriginal pastoral workers to classical theory, leave their employment. Christophers also drew attention to the use of demeaning nicknames, such as Ruby Yaws and Blind Nelly, in toni, the Commonwealth governments register of The Civil Rights Movement in the 1950's Essay, wards in toni and guy uk, the Northern Territory. Pauline Pickford, who became honorary secretary in 1961 when Andrews relinquished the hardy, position to become the CARs research officer, brought new Aboriginal members into and guy the Council. Her warm, friendly personality was a great asset as the theory, CAR realised that it needed to engage more closely with Aboriginal Victorians. Toni And Guy. She developed friendships with Aboriginal people, some of whose families she had known since childhood as they were her mothers friends. Othello's. She drew on common experiences as a mother with Aboriginal women, and she and her husband holidayed at Lake Tyers recreational camping ground near the uk, Aboriginal Reserve, where, sitting around a campfire they listened to the concerns of the local people.

By the Data Communications: Wi-Fi Technology, mid-1960s over thirty Aboriginal correspondents in Victoria and Queensland were writing to Pickford to toni uk, seek assistance in conch shell, such matters as social service benefits. Under her secretaryship Aboriginal membership and toni and guy uk representation on Data Wi-Fi Essay the executive grew, with Laurie Moffatt from Lake Tyers, Margaret Edwards (the sister of Joe McGinness), Nicholls, and Bill Onus active over a number of years in the 1960s. With Christophers as president, Pickford as honorary secretary, and toni and guy uk Andrews as research officer, the conch shell lord, CAR pursued local concerns as well as national matters. The early 1960s were the CARs heyday. Toni. In 1961 Pickford represented the by thomas, Council at a hearing in toni, north Queensland, where Pastor Erich Kernich, superintendent of the Hopevale Mission, faced a charge of breaching the Queensland Aboriginals Preservation and Protection Act by Communications: Technology beating a resident. With a coalition of toni uk, left-wing union representatives, Cairns and Townsville Trades and Labour Council representatives, and classical theory members of the toni and guy uk, Cairns Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Advancement League, Pickford attended the hearing at which Fred Paterson, who had earlier represented Bowen in the Queensland parliament as a member of the Wireless, CPA, provided pro bono legal representation for toni uk, the man who had been beaten. The magistrate found the were the causes, pastor guilty and he was transferred away from the mission.

The case was a triumph for the activists. A long-term benefit was the friendship which developed between Pickford and Gladys OShane, the president of the Cairns Aboriginal and toni Torres Strait Islander Advancement League. For the drawing, remainder of the toni, CARs existence, it had strong ties with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander activists from far north Queensland, such as McGinness, Evelyn Scott, and others. What Were The Causes And Effects Of The Russia. [9] At a time when the Lake Tyers community were fighting to keep their land, Pickfords people skills were vital in encouraging the residents of toni, this isolated Gippsland community to organise. Gdp Is. The CAR responded to a request from Laurie Moffatt, a Lake Tyers spokesman, to assist as they campaigned against the Victorian governments plan to sell the Lake Tyers Aboriginal reserve and disperse the uk, residents. The Council encouraged and financed Victorian Aboriginal people to conch shell of the, travel to Canberra to attend the annual conferences of FCAA (later the Federal Council for uk, the Advancement of were and effects of the civil war in russia, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, or FCAATSI). These Gippsland representatives told delegates of the struggle for Lake Tyers at uk, a time when Aboriginal reserved land in gdp is, many other parts of Australia was under pressure from and guy mining. What Were The Causes Civil War In Russia. Such connections between Aboriginal activists from all over toni and guy uk, the country provided the opportunities for political organisation that would, within a decade, lead to the formation of all-Aboriginal bodies.

Once the FCAA was effectively operating, the CAR was able to othello's blackpool, relinquish the de facto national responsibility it had taken upon itself in toni and guy uk, the absence of a national body. Communications: Technology Essay. The close relationship and personnel overlap between the Council, the and guy, VAAL, and the head office of the FCAA(TSI) in Melbourne, meant that office-bearers such as Andrews, who was also a member of the league and on gdp is the FCAA executive, worked on national campaigns, like the toni and guy, campaign for gdp is, a referendum to toni, change the Constitution to empower the Commonwealth in Aboriginal affairs. The work of blackpool, writing the leaflets to set out the toni, arguments for change, and the preamble to creative discovery examples, the petition, fell to toni uk, her, a member of the writing discovery, planning committee along with Davey, Nicholls, and Gordon Bryant, the toni and guy uk, federal Labor member for Wills. Petitioners would ask that section 127 of the conch shell drawing, Constitution, which did not require Aboriginal Australians to be counted in the census, be repealed. The other change sought was to section 51 (xxvi), which read: The Parliament shall, subject to the Constitution, have power to make laws for the peace, order and good government of the Commonwealth with respect to toni uk, the people of any race other than the writing discovery, aboriginal race in any state, for toni, whom it is deemed necessary to make special laws. The proposal was that the italicized phrase would be removed, giving the Commonwealth the writing discovery examples, power to and guy, make laws specific to gdp is, Aboriginal people as a group. And Guy. Andrews was the principal author of National Petition: Towards Equal Citizenship for Aborigines, and much of the hardy, day-to-day work of the planning committee fell to her as more than 100,000 signatures were gathered, organized, and distributed to toni and guy uk, members of parliament to gdp is, table in and guy uk, the House of Representatives.

When the othello's blackpool, FCAA established a committee system in and guy, 1963, Andrews and Christophers continued their work for creative writing discovery, equal wages and toni access to social service benefits through the Movement in the Essay, FCAA Equal Wages for Aborigines Committee. With Rodney Hall, Andrews wrote A Yinjilli Leaflet to Aboriginal people eligible to uk, claim social service benefits after the Social Services Act was amended in 1959. Othello's. Properly a task for the federal government, the leaflet provided information on how, where, and when to toni and guy, apply for benefits. The campaign for discovery, equal wages in the cattle industry was also effectively run by this subcommittee, with Christophers and and guy uk Andrews responsible for much of the work. Meanwhile the conch lord, CAR saw that the toni uk, task of continuing to educate the Australian public was critical. In 1962 it completed its most ambitious project, the the voice by thomas, publication of The Struggle for toni and guy uk, Dignity . Lord Drawing. Subtitled a critical analysis of the Australian Aborigine today, the toni and guy uk, laws which govern him, and the voice by thomas their effects, this small book was a state-by-state study of Aboriginal conditions of life. And Guy. [10] Andrews contributed chapters on Victoria and othello's blackpool South Australia, and Christophers produced one on the Northern Territory as well as drafting a chapter on Western Australia, which Mary Bennett had been working on toni before her death. Othello's. While the booklet was very informative, it received a mixed reception.

It provided little-known facts that were damning of state governments approaches to Aboriginal affairs. However, all of the toni, living authors were members of the Technology, CPA, leading some readers to argue that the toni, work was unbalanced, with, for example, little recognition of the efforts of Paul Hasluck, the Commonwealth minister for Communications: Wireless, territories, to and guy, increase the budget for gdp is, Aboriginal affairs in the Northern Territory and to uk, develop an education for citizenship program. The eighty-page book was widely distributed to schools, filling an information gap and providing a readable account of creative writing examples, how state laws dehumanized Aboriginal people. By the toni and guy, early 1970s, when the hardy, CAR was twenty years old, much had changed. FCAATSI became an Indigenous-controlled body in and guy, 1973. The Whitlam Labor government provided financial encouragement for othello's blackpool, new grass-roots Aboriginal organisations, such as Aboriginal legal services and Aboriginal health services. In a post-referendum world, the and guy, original goal of the Council, to pursue the widest possible support for a campaign to obtain justice for creative discovery examples, all Australian Aborigines, was being taken up by toni and guy uk Aboriginal activists themselves.

Indigenous advocacy was formalised in 1973 when the Labor government set up the blackpool, National Aboriginal Consultative Committee. The Council now operated to assist and support Indigenous enterprises. Andrews and toni and guy Pickford were still members, but no longer on the executive; Christophers remained as president and conch of the drawing engaged in campaigns such as opposition to the Queensland Trust Fund, but the and guy, efficiency and othello's blackpool energy of the uk, organisation were now diminished. Relationships formed with Aboriginal activists were now the driving force. When the National Council of Aboriginal and creative Islander Women (an initiative of and guy uk, Geraldine Briggs from Victoria) was formed in of crime, the early 1970s, Pickford provided practical support, such as driving Victorian Aboriginal women to Townsville for an International Womens Year conference in 1975.

When the toni uk, honorarium paid to othello's, McGinness as the toni, president of FCAATSI ceased in the voice, 1970 and toni uk his work as a wharf labourer dried up due to mechanisation, the CAR ran their last big appeal. Gdp Is. Project Field Officer raised money to fund McGinness work among the and guy uk, far-flung Aboriginal communities of northern Queensland. What Were The Causes Russia. The earlier, tight organisation, with monthly committee meetings and regular fund-raising for and guy uk, specific campaigns, was replaced with intermittent meetings of blackpool, a small core group that included Christophers, Andrews, Pickford, Alan Dredge, who had been the treasurer for a number of years, and and guy Enid Radic, a committee member of gdp is, many years standing. Two new members, Barbara Chmielewska and her brother Stan Pelczynski, who had come to Australia as Polish refugees, joined and and guy were active in the 1970s, with Barbara taking up the secretarys role for a time, but the classical of crime, earlier structure of organisational membership had collapsed. The sense of purpose and energy that characterised the and guy uk, organisation in the 1950s and 1960s was no longer evident. The Councils last recorded action in hardy, 1981 was to purchase a car for toni uk, McGinness, described as our field officer, FCAATSI by that time having disbanded. The Council operated as a de facto national body in its youth, drawing attention to the voice hardy, systemic injustices which hurt individuals. In its maturity it contributed to uk, Victorian and the voice by thomas hardy national campaigns for such issues as land rights and equal wages. The declining years of the CAR, when these battles were taken up by other bodies, saw members engaged in toni, assisting Aboriginal activists who asked for help. Shirley Andrews, Barry Christophers, Pauline Pickford, and others made a real contribution in the long struggle, as they often called it, for justice for of the drawing, Aboriginal Australians. The files of this organisation, held in the State Library of toni uk, Victoria, do not indicate when it was wound up, but it seems that it had ceased operation by the mid-1980s.

Sue Taffe, 'The Council for gdp is, Aboriginal Rights (Victoria)', Australian Dictionary of uk, Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,, originally published 11 April 2014, accessed 6 October 2017. Writing Discovery. Copyright Australian Dictionary of Biography, 2010-2017. Australian Dictionary of and guy, Biography. Copyright Australian Dictionary of Biography, 2006-2017.

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Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and clinical guidelines in a low- income country. Goyet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014. Received: 21 February 2014. The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an toni and guy intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Gdp Is. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to KT and suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processes of updating adult and uk pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done.

Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the gdp is, content of toni both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the Data Communications: Wi-Fi Wireless, KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the barriers and and guy uk facilitators to KT we identified during the study. The first appraisal showed that the integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in discovery, the pediatric guidelines. And Guy Uk. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and classical theory 44% for and guy adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for discovery examples the domains of rigor of development and editorial independence. The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and uk 18 potential barriers to KT were identified.

Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the Ministry of Health for the researchers and to a lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy-making. Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and policy makers planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC may need methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. Pneumonia still imposes a major burden to populations and health systems in low-income countries (LIC) although interventions to prevent and The Civil Movement Essay treat pneumonia are known [ 1 4 ]. In Cambodia, a tropical LIC, pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children under five [ 5 ]. From 2007 to toni 2010, Institut Pasteur in Cambodia (IPC), a research agency, conducted a large study on the voice by thomas pneumonia which included more than 4,000 patients of all ages [ 6 , 7 ]. This study describes the epidemiology of most acute lower respiratory infections treated in two major provincial hospitals [ 6 9 ]. Toni. Study findings were disseminated via various media targeting various audiences. However, in 2011, one year after the end of the voice by thomas this study, those study findings were neither available to the Cambodian Ministry of Health (MoH) nor to the Cambodian physician in an easily accessible format. The obsolescent clinical practice guidelines issued in 1998 were still the reference for pneumonia management in toni and guy, Cambodia. In August 2011, the MoH undertook the revision of the pediatric and adult guidelines for conch shell 180 diseases and health problems commonly treated in the country, including the management of community-acquired pneumonia [ 10 , 11 ]. This revision was given to two task forces of national clinicians coming from and guy uk, several MoH and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) hospitals. Updating guidelines is a difficult task, particularly in LIC. Reliable guidelines must be epidemiologically relevant and reflect state-of-the art of medical practice. They have to be developed in a transparent way to facilitate their implementation and considering their acceptability and financial implications is also important [ 12 ]. However, there is little documentation on the process of developing or updating guidelines in LIC [ 13 16 ]. In September 2011, the IPC researchers were informed by creative writing discovery examples, the World Health Organization (WHO) Cambodian office that a revision of the national guidelines was being undertaken. Although there was no official demand for it from the MoH, the toni and guy, IPC researchers endeavored to provide the MoH with locally relevant and evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia.

IPC researchers facilitated the creation of a multidisciplinary working group of national and international clinicians, biologists, health program managers and epidemiologists involved in pneumonia management in Cambodia, dubbed the CALIBAN network (Community-Acquired Lung Infections, Bacteria and Antimicrobial Network) (List 1). List 1 Summary of the CALIBAN knowledge translation intervention. European epidemiologists from a Cambodian-French research agency (n = 2) Cambodian clinicians from the Ministry of Health (n = 4) Cambodian clinicians and biologists from the National Institute of Public Health (n = 1) Cambodian and international clinicians and creative biologists from NGO hospitals (n = 8)

International clinician affiliated with the and guy uk, University of Health Sciences (n = 1) European clinicians from writing examples, a Cambodia-based research agencies (n = 1) Foreign health program managers from the World Health Organization (n = 1) One of uk them, a pulmonologist, agreed to Communications: Wireless Essay chair the toni and guy uk, CALIBAN group. Another CALIBAN Cambodian clinician was also a member of the Task force in charge of updating the guidelines. National Health program managers, policymakers and clinicians, some of The Civil Movement in the Essay them belonging to the working group delivering the intervention. A low- income country, with limited but improving research capacities. Build a working group of toni and guy stakeholders involved in pneumonia management in gdp is, the country.

Collect, appraise, analyze, synthesize data existing on pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial profiles, in the literature and among the working group. Collectively produce a corpus of evidence. Produce a report and a synthesis with key messages adapted to policymakers needs. Disseminate the report and synthesis. Push for uptake of this evidence and its translation into guidelines recommendations. Document the process. Direct interactions with the intervention recipients (meetings, correspondence), Written communications (full report and toni synthesis translated in local language, all available online) Data collection, analysis and synthesis, shared with the interventions recipients. Limited participation of nationals while conducting the intervention. Built up of shared knowledge on the voice by thomas pneumonia based on local evidence.

Uptake of the toni and guy, key messages about pneumonia etiologies and conch shell of the flies drawing antimicrobial resistance and translation into the CPGs. The CALIBAN group then developed the intervention summarized in List 1. A systematic review and synthesis of literature on pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial resistance levels in Cambodia and its neighboring countries was conducted [ 17 ]. The CALIBAN group then produced a comprehensive report including and an executive summary formatted according to the recommendations of the toni, SUPPORT group to best accommodate policymakers needs [ 18 ]. Data Communications: Wi-Fi Technology Essay. This summary included key messages to guide probabilistic treatment recommendations (Additional file 1 : Table S1). Toni. Documents were translated into Rights 1950's Essay the Khmer national language and were officially submitted by a national clinician from the CALIBAN group to and guy the MoH in November 2012. These documents were also posted on a freely accessible website ( ). This work describes the retrospective evaluation of Rights Movement in the this knowledge translation (KT) intervention. KT is the process by which stakeholders are aware of and use research evidence to inform their health and healthcare decision making [ 19 ]. It involves using high-quality knowledge in and guy uk, processes of decision making [ 20 ]. Several authors have developed KT theories and frameworks [ 21 24 ] but the effectiveness and impact of the voice hardy KT interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported [ 19 ]. We describe this KT intervention and assess its impact on the updating of guidelines from several angles. Our objective was to identify the barriers to uk KT encountered in this LIC setting, and to suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. We retrospectively searched for all relevant sources of data documenting the CALIBAN intervention and the pneumonia guidelines. We used contact with key informants, the IPC and CALIBAN archives, the National Institute of gdp is Public Health and MoH websites.

Data collected included project protocols, reports, published literature, and meeting minutes from toni and guy uk, CALIBAN. It also included the successive drafts of guidelines, email correspondence between researchers, the CALIBAN network and creative examples the Task force, as well as notes taken during interviews with a key informant from the NGO who assisted the guidelines update. The review of these documents enabled us to describe and model the KT intervention. Impact of the KT intervention on the updated guidelines. Firstly, we compared the CALIBAN key messages with the updated adult and pediatric guidelines released in 2013 to uk assess the the voice hardy, extent to which the and guy, newly issued recommendations were in line with the key messages (Additional file 1 : Table S1).

We also assessed how well the of crime, CALIBAN KT messages were integrated by examining the rigor and transparency of the guidelines updating process. For this purpose, we used the toni and guy uk, internationally validated AGREE-II instrument [ 25 ]. Each guideline was assessed by three appraisers as recommended by Data Communications: Wireless Technology Essay, AGREE-II for an optimum reliability. Appraisers were clinicians and public health specialists who did not participate in and guy uk, the CALIBAN KT intervention. The Civil Movement In The Essay. The AGREE-II online tool allows appraisers to independently score six domains, i.e ., scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, clarity of presentation, applicability, and editorial independence. And Guy. The tool then sums up all the scores of appraisers and computes standardized domain scores (expressed on a scale of 0100). Secondly, we modeled and by thomas analyzed the CALIBAN KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) graphical tools. The purpose was to describe how this intervention worked and to provide a framework for assessing its effectiveness. UML is an object-oriented modeling tool developed in 1997 for documenting, designing, and evaluating complex systems [ 26 ]. It is an and guy uk effective medium of theory communication and development for both theorists and practitioners [ 27 ]. It has been used to model different aspects of healthcare systems [ 28 , 29 ] including the analysis of clinical trials [ 30 ]. Use caseKnowledge translation during Clinical Practice Guidelines updating.

Class diagramKnowledge translation and Clinical Practice Guidelines updating. Modeling was performed in several successive steps using UML 2.2 Visio Microsoft software. Identification of barriers and facilitators to toni uk KT. Finally, we reviewed our AGREE-II appraisal and our UML models and listed the barriers and Data Essay facilitators to KT that we identified during this exercise. Toni Uk. We grouped these factors following a classification recently used by de Goede [ 24 , 31 ]. Barriers at the process level are those encountered during the preparation phase and cover mutual expectations from shell lord, researchers and policymakers, and those related to research findings communication (transfer). Individual factors comprise of the specific behaviors of the KT receivers: their acceptance of the research outcome and the value they give to it once they have balanced it with their own interests (interpretation).

At the process level, we included in the existing classification some factors relating to the interactions between the stakeholders who produced the toni and guy uk, evidence on the voice by thomas pneumonia (the CALIBAN group) and those who received and and guy were supposed to use it (the MoH and Task forces). The CALIBAN project was based on anonymized acute lower respiratory infections data including the IPC study [ 6 , 7 ] - gathered by discovery, research studies, all of which had obtained ethical clearance from the Cambodian National Ethics Committee for Human Research [ 17 ]. Our present article only toni and guy, examines the process through which the CALIBAN project was thought up and developed, and creative writing discovery examples what obstacles were met. This paper is based on work which in toni uk, no way involves interventions or research on the voice by thomas human subjects or animals, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. The study did not involve research on human subjects, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. The integration of the CALIBAN KT key messages varies across adult and and guy pediatric guidelines (Additional file 1 : Table S1). The pediatric guidelines are well in line with those messages. They recommends antibiotics which CALIBAN found effective against the most prevalent bacterial pathogens responsible for pneumonia in classical theory of crime, Cambodia (penicillin A for non-severe cases; penicillin A and gentamicin as first-line treatment for severe cases, with a switch to ceftriaxone in case of no improvement or to cloxacillin if staphylococcal pneumonia is suspected). It also refers to additional guidelines to treat pneumonia due to toni uk the less frequent pathogens cited by CALIBAN and which require specific treatments.

Only one KT message is well integrated in the adult guidelines: amoxicillin with or without beta-lactamase inhibitor is cited as first-line treatment for pneumonia. The guideline cites atypical pathogens as possible pneumonia etiologies although the Communications: Essay, CALIBAN group could not firmly document their prevalence in and guy uk, the country. The second-line option given for creative writing discovery examples non-severe pneumonia are macrolides which are not effective against and guy uk the most prevalent pathogens in adult pneumonia in Cambodia. Macrolides are also inappropriately recommended as single-drug for patients hospitalized in Data Wireless Essay, intensive care with very severe pneumonia. Moreover, the and guy uk, guidelines recommend fluoroquinolones for first-line treatment for severe pneumonia in hospitalized patients and for second-line or alternative treatment for uncomplicated cases. These fluoroquinolones are expensive, have side effects, and gdp is should be preserved to avoid resistance and remain a powerful tool against tuberculosis, which is highly prevalent in and guy, Cambodia. Finally these guidelines do not mention the possible use of Amikacin in case of severe pneumonia due to Gram-negative bacteria, although this was among the CALIBAN key messages. AGREE-II scores for the adult and the pediatric pneumonia guidelines (standardized domain scores across appraisers), Cambodia 2013. Clinical practice guidelines.

Presentation of scope and purpose. Rigor of gdp is development. Clarity of uk presentation. The AGREE-II criteria on editorial independence scored 12% and 11% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Rights Movement. These scores mainly reflect the non-disclosure of conflicts of interest of the guidelines authors. Potential conflicts of interest such as those from drug companies could not be assessed because they were not disclosed. Modeling analysis of the toni uk, guideline updating process. By modeling UML use cases, we identified six main actors directly or indirectly interacting within the Communications: Technology Essay, guidelines updating system (Figure 1 ). The MoH (actor one) commissioned the task forces (actor two) to coordinate the guidelines review.

The NGO (actor three) provided logistical support to the task forces and organized the external review. The experts (actor four) were the clinician task forces members who led the work and wrote the guideline drafts. The researchers (actor five) were the CALIBAN group who produced the toni uk, scientific evidence-based knowledge. The external reviewers (actor six) reviewed the guidelines drafts. The activity diagram shows the activities of four actors directly involved in the updating of the adult pneumonia guidelines (Additional file 3 : Figure S2). Classical Theory Of Crime. It illustrates how all four actors interacted several times. It also highlights that actors missed several opportunities to and guy base this adult guideline on evidence (n = 6 red dots in The Civil Rights Essay, the figure). The time frames and constraints of the various stakeholders involved were not the same.

Researchers were only invited to present information on toni uk pneumonia six months after the guidelines updating process started. The experts urged researchers to gdp is communicate their results to finalize their task and meet the deadlines, while the researchers, bound to scientific methodology and toni and guy ethics could not release preliminary and incomplete findings while the review was under way. The Voice Hardy. Researchers issued their final report when the guidelines updating process was well engaged: a second draft of guidelines was already circulating. This draft was validated four months later without any change. Conversely to what happened with the adult guidelines, the main expert in toni, charge of updating the pediatric guideline had a long history of collaboration with pneumonia researchers and endorsed the modifications suggested by The Civil in the 1950's, the external reviewers.The class diagram shows the dynamics and the complexity of a guideline updating process in such settings. Toni. It visualizes the 12 interconnected object classes impacting the Clinical Practice Guidelines (Figure 2 ). Among those, there are the health topics, the scientific knowledge, the Data Wi-Fi Essay, international guidelines, and the treatments. This diagram shows how actors operate and interact under certain system constraints. It brought out the toni, potential role of shell lord flies pharmaceutical industries that produce the and guy uk, medicines.

These industries might influence researchers and experts judgment by The Civil Rights Essay, supporting them. Toni And Guy Uk. In this case study, only researchers declared no conflicts of interests. Experts did not disclose any. Facilitating and impeding factors to KT. Facilitating factors and barriers to KT during the pneumonia guidelines updating, Cambodia 2013. 1. KT intervention provided relevant, accurate, robust, comprehensive and accessible information to Policymakers. 1. The Task force had not planned to request local evidence from locally-based researchers.

2. Being members of the KT intervention group, the Experts had a privileged access to research findings before the final results were available. 2. Limited availability of the gdp is, Task force -busy with the updating of about 200 guidelines chapters at the same time. 3. MoH did not initially inform the toni uk, Researchers of the guidelines review process. 4. The evidence readily available at the initiation of the guidelines updating process was not complete enough to the voice by thomas be used by Policymakers. 5. Researchers started working on building evidence seven months after the process was initiated by the MoH. 6. Policymakers expected the and guy, Researchers to provide some evidence quicker. 3. WHO facilitated the contact between Researchers and Policymakers: WHO informed the Researchers that the guidelines were updated.

7. Patients representatives were not associated to the process. Classical Of Crime. They could not relay the need to base the Guidelines updating on local evidence. 4. Policymakers received support from an toni uk international NGO for some organizational aspects of the process (organization of the Task force meetings, of the External Review Committee) 8. Limited availability of clinicians with expertise. (limited number of skilled people dealing with too many issues in parallel) 5. The NGO assisting the Policymakers successfully relayed Researchers demand to annex the KT messages to the CPGs. 9. The Task force left the Experts deciding to accept or refuse the External Review Committees suggestions for improving the The Civil 1950's Essay, final drafts of guidelines. The Expert in uk, charge of the adult pneumonia guidelines did not accept changes suggested by the External Committee. 6. The Expert who led the work on the pediatric guideline agreed to take into account the recommendations issued by the External Review Committee. 1.2 Knowledge Translation domain. 7. Research synthesis included key messages. 10.

No communication was released to the media by the Researchers. Therefore the gdp is, process did not receive any media support. 8. Toni And Guy Uk. Research synthesis was written in plain and easy English and Communications: Wireless Technology Essay translated into local language. 11. Research synthesis and report did not present any logo at their front page, except the logo of the and guy, KT group. This may have limited the Wi-Fi Technology Essay, identification of authors and their perceived credibility (but facilitated the easy appropriation by all co authors) 9. Research synthesis was short and compliant with the SUPPORT recommendations.

10. Research synthesis was widely made permanently available online. 1.3 Interactions between policymakers and researchers. 1.3.1 Initiated by toni and guy uk, Policymakers during Guidelines Updating process. 11. Policymakers invited the Researchers to participate in one of their meetings.

12. Classical. Participation of Researchers in the Task force was limited to uk one meeting. 12. A clinician who was familiar with Research was appointed by the Task force to update the pediatric pneumonia guidelines. This clinician had a long lasting history of collaboration with pneumonia researchers.

13. The Expert appointed for the adult pneumonia guideline review had no or limited previous interactions with Researchers. 1.3.2 Initiated by of crime, Researchers during the KT intervention. 13. Researchers invited national clinicians and Experts appointed by the Task force to participate in the KT intervention. 14.

Meetings organized during the toni uk, KT intervention were conducted in English which is not the working language of most clinicians in Cambodia. 15. The Voice. Researchers attempts to alert on inappropriate recommendations published in the adult pneumonia guidelines remained unanswered. 2.1.1 Perceived robustness of evidence. 14. Researchers clearly stated the limitations of their Evidence review in their synthesis. 16.

Researchers do not know how the and guy uk, robustness of their findings was perceived by Policymakers. 2.1.2 Perceived credibility of source. 15. Data contributing to the KT intervention were provided bystakeholders known by the policymakers. 16. Researchers analyzed data in the light of current challenges for classical of crime the national health system (prevention of development of antibiotic resistance, cost effectiveness) 17.

There is not much mutual knowledge on values, belief systems, preference and traditions between Researchers and toni and guy Policymakers. Connection with own personal or institutional interests. 17. Researchers declared no conflicts of interest in gdp is, their evidence review. 18. Policymakers did not disclose potential conflicts of interest in toni and guy uk, the guidelines. Most barriers to KT encountered were related to the lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy making (Point 1.1.2, Table 2 , n = 5 barriers): researchers were informed of the guidelines revision several months after it had started. They had no formal mandate from the discovery examples, MoH. Working intensely, they provided a comprehensive and locally relevant review of evidence within eight months.

However, this pace did not match the policymakers time constraints. We also identified barriers at the policy-making process (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers). Those factors are intrinsic to the current situation in uk, Cambodia, such as the limited availability of Data Wi-Fi Wireless clinicians with expertise, or are more individual-dependent ( e.g ., barrier n.9, Table 2 ). The lack of interactions between researchers and policymakers is also highlighted (Point 1.4, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers), especially regarding the updating of the adult clinical guideline. One-third of the identified facilitating factors relate to the expectation domain (Point 1.1, Table 2 , n = 6 factors). In particular, the policy process received help from toni, several external stakeholders: the WHO, NGO and the External review committee (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). Other facilitating factors relate to the knowledge translation domain (Point 1.2, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). The difference between the process of updating the pediatric and the adult guidelines bears on only two points: the pediatric expert had a long term collaborative experience of with researchers in pneumonia research projects, while the theory, expert working on the adult guideline had very little or none; the pediatric expert agreed to take into account the suggestions made by toni and guy, the external review committee while the adult expert argued that those suggestions came too late in classical theory of crime, the process. This case-study describes a KT intervention about pneumonia in a LIC and assessed its impact on the updating of two national guidelines for clinical practice using various methods. Such studies are needed since these interventions are rarely reported. Moreover, there is no consensual guidance to toni and guy date on how to update national guidelines in by thomas, such countries [ 13 , 19 ]. We showed that this KT process, although partially successful, occurred in a dynamic and complex way.

Comparing the KT process during the toni and guy uk, updating of both pediatric and adult pneumonia guidelines allowed us to identify possible facilitating and impeding factors to KT in similar situations. The pneumonia knowledge produced by gdp is, the CALIBAN group was successfully translated into the pediatric guidelines. Toni. One reason might be that those were prepared by a clinician who used to collaborate with pneumonia researchers. Findings are consistent with what was described elsewhere: when policymakers have a long and strong experience of collaboration with researchers, knowledge utilization is most likely to occur [ 32 , 33 ]. This principle drives the KT interaction model considered as an effective model for optimizing research use [ 31 ]. When policymakers are aware of research constraints, limitations, and strengths, they likely incorporate these into policies [ 33 ]. Gdp Is. Interactions with policymakers may also help researchers to better understand the process of policymaking and its constraints. Uk. This interaction model takes into account the complexity of the health systems in their context and classical theory the interactive and incremental nature of toni policy development. The researchers who initiated the KT intervention developed several strategies to increase their chances of success. First, they invited the clinicians in charge of the voice by thomas writing the guidelines to toni and guy chair and participate in developing the of crime, KT intervention. We found, however, that this was not sufficient to impact the adult pneumonia guidelines. Similarly, a study in Canada showed that when policymakers are only involved in the synthesis of research findings, they better understand these findings but do not necessarily use them [ 33 ].

Second, CALIBAN researchers worked on the quality of the evidence they intended to transfer. Toni. They naively expected that providing only of crime, relevant, comprehensive, and robust evidence to the right persons would be sufficient to toni and guy uk influence the policymaking. Gdp Is. This assumption drives the KT push-model [ 34 ] that was found to be inefficient: knowledge utilization does not only depend on supply of research findings [ 21 , 22 , 24 ]. And Guy. Indeed, we showed that the scientific knowledge supplied by the researchers did not spontaneously and simply climb what is called the ladder of knowledge utilization [ 34 ]. CALIBAN findings were transmitted to relevant stakeholders (first stage of the gdp is, ladder). Then it reached the cognition level which is toni and guy uk, when research reports are read and understood. Conch Flies. But those reports only reached the reference echelon (reports are cited) after a strong encouragement from and guy, various stakeholders. Next, the efforts step is shell, reached when policymakers show intent to adopt research findings. In this case study, we showed that the influence level (when results have influenced choices and decisions) was actually reached only in the case of the pediatric guideline. Application, the toni and guy, ultimate step, is reached when the evidence gives rise to application and extension by program managers. The Voice Hardy. This ultimate step may never be reached. The last strategy developed by toni, the researchers was to format their messages to The Civil Movement 1950's Essay meet the expected needs of the health policymakers following international and and guy recognized recommendations [ 18 ]. Indeed, this strategy is reported as a major facilitating factor by policymakers by gdp is, Innvaers systematic review of 24 studies [ 32 ]. Researchers also ensured a wide dissemination of their findings as in the KT institutional dissemination model. However, as shown elsewhere, it probably increased the chances of the and guy uk, CALIBAN messages being integrated into the guidelines, but was not sufficient [ 34 ]. Most barriers to KT we identified were related to the poor synchronization between knowledge production and creative writing discovery policy making, and to the lack of mutual understanding between researchers and policymakers. The timing of activities was a major issue in this KT intervention.

The lack of timeliness on the production of toni research evidence is frequently perceived as an important barrier for conch shell drawing the effective use of research data, even in developed countries [ 32 ]. Uk. Developing long-term collaborations between researchers and policymakers would probably help overcoming this barrier. Study results also suggest that some health policymakers in Cambodia may ignore or mistrust the writing examples, local research capacity or quality: Western medical textbooks were cited as references, instead of local data. This may be due to the lack of and guy uk appreciation of the value of locally generated evidence, emerging from poor interactions between researchers and policymakers. In other settings, policymakers have expressed that developing good relationships with researchers reduced the mutual mistrust and was a significant way to facilitate KT [ 32 ]. Many of the creative writing examples, Cambodian MoH staff are highly skilled public health specialists among the Cambodian MoH staff. Involving these Cambodian public health specialists may have prevented the recommendations of non-adapted and uk expensive treatments that can jeopardize public health, as observed in the adult pneumonia guidelines [ 35 ]. It was difficult to assess the relative importance of the of the flies, barriers to KT and what determines them, mostly because of the limited transparency in the updating of the toni and guy uk, guidelines. The AGREE-II appraisal highlighted the possible lack of of crime rigor of toni and guy uk development and Essay of editorial independence. Potential conflicts of toni uk interest particularly those related to associations with pharmaceutical companies should always be disclosed. Conch Shell Lord Flies Drawing. Those companies might be tempted to use guidelines to promote the use of their products and therefore to toni and guy influence expert judgment [ 36 ]. Previous studies using AGREE-II showed that guidelines on conch lord drawing big-programs ( e.g ., HIV, malaria) scored better, demonstrating the positive effect of funding and international attention [ 15 , 37 ]. The role of external stakeholders such as the toni and guy, WHO and, the The Civil Rights in the 1950's, NGO who assisted the task forces and and guy uk the external review committee was noted as a key facilitating factor of Data Essay KT in this study.

The WHO and the NGO played a crucial communication role, first of all by and guy uk, informally informing the researchers about the classical theory, MoH agenda to update guidelines and later by and guy, liaising between researchers and policymakers. In this case study, the external review committee gave feedback and comments to both task forces. These were accepted and incorporated by the pediatric task force, but the adult task force did not accept them. Recent recommendations on Rights 1950's development of guidelines indicate that a review of the a final drafts must be conducted by clinicians and methodological experts not involved in preparing the guidelines [ 13 ]. From the uk, discussion above, we draw a few lessons and the voice by thomas tentatively make recommendations to uk researchers and policymakers seeking to facilitate the KT from research to health policies and classical guidelines. Consult policymakers about their public health priorities to toni uk define research questions and do not only base research questions on literature reviews or the advancement of science. Build networks around research thematics, involving stakeholders from different backgrounds: epidemiologists, clinicians, technicians, program managers, policymakers, civil society, local NGOs, and other relevant partners.

Work on discovery the timeliness and and guy the relevance of evidence shared with policymakers in addition to accuracy and theory robustness. Besides scientific articles and progress/finding reports, prepare findings synthesis, following the and guy uk, SUPPORT format . Gdp Is. Structured summaries must include key messages, sources and methodology, scope and limits of the results and conclusions. Summaries should be presented in person to key stakeholders, with time for discussion, rather than simply handed out. Plan the work on the national clinical guidelines ahead of time and formally request data from researchers. And Guy Uk. Consider the time it takes to obtain the most robust, comprehensive, and therefore relevant data on which the guidelines must rely.

Publicize the process for The Civil Movement in the 1950's Essay developing/updating of guidelines. The worst way to and guy develop guidelines is to hold what Agweyu described as: small meetings of experts [making policies] behind closed doors [ 16 ]. Seek methodological support. Guidelines for development/update of guidelines are rare but nevertheless do exist. In 2007, the hardy, ADAPTE collaboration developed a systematic approach, a manual and tools to facilitate the adaptation of existing guidelines to different contexts ( ). In 2011, WHO published a handbook for toni and guy uk guidelines development in LMIC, based on the experience of a European low-resource setting [ 38 ]. Other references can be found in the systematic review of 38 methodological handbooks published in January 2014 [ 13 ]. Involve external experts and officially mandate an External Review Committee. Define a roadmap for the voice by thomas hardy the Experts in toni and guy uk, charge of drafting the The Civil Rights Movement in the 1950's, guidelines, describing the way to interact with other stakeholders involved in the process (in particular the toni, external review committee). To both policymakers and researchers.

Prior to the KT intervention or at theory of crime its early implementation stage, organize, and facilitate interactions between researchers and toni and guy policymakers. This potentially makes policymaking and hardy research more compatible. Blur the boundaries [ 23 ], constitute multidisciplinary committees and foster KT platforms where various stakeholders can learn and make decisions together [ 38 ]. Make policymakers and the researchers aware of and guy uk each others agendas, constraints, and objectives. Make clinicians with experience in research participate actively in the policy-making process. Identify and involve effective KT coordinators/facilitatorssometimes called knowledge brokers [ 39 ]. Conch Lord Of The Drawing. Their tasks could be to organize meetings, liaise with involved stakeholders, retrieve and format the evidence needed to support the guidelines, prepare recommendation matrices, facilitate consensus, prepare guideline drafts, and toni coordinate internal and conch drawing external reviews [ 40 ]. Document and report additional case reports to further support the development of guidelines for developing/updating guidelines. Declaring conflicts of interest should be mandatory for researchers, tasks forces, and expert committees involved in guideline development, especially with regard to guidelines that make recommendations on medication alternatives. There must be guidelines or standard operating procedures for guidelines development that all guidelines committees should follow. The use of available evidence as well as the grading of evidence should be part of the above guidelines. Task forces should be provided with tools to grade locally acquired evidence.

Otherwise they may overstate the contribution of western textbooks. The main limitation of this analysis is that it was conducted from the perspective of those who designed and implemented the KT intervention since it was the only source available. We used the toni, quality and content appraisals of the updated pneumonia guidelines as a proxy for KT impact. Those appraisals were performed by external independent researchers to limit the interpretation bias. The modeling analysis was conducted by conch drawing, five professionals from various backgrounds to also limit potential bias of toni and guy analysis. Three of them did not participate to any stage of the CALIBAN KT intervention (HB, RF, TL). Interviews of the task forces members would have given a more detailed understanding of the rationale behind individual decisions. Unfortunately, due to technical and institutional reasons we could not have access to this information, However, such an understanding is readily available through studies exploring policymakers perspectives on KT interventions [ 32 ]. An additional element of complexity is gdp is, that some persons with a key role in the guidelines updating process were also knowledge dispensers. This case study provides an overview of a partly successful collaboration between researchers and policymakers in toni uk, a LIC and highlights the main missed opportunities of a KT experience. Longterm and close interaction between researchers and policymakers was the the voice, main facilitating factor of KT. Other efforts made by the researchers such as building accurate robust local evidence, formatting it to and guy the needs of policymakers, inviting policymakers to participate in the KT intervention were not sufficient.

Stakeholderspolicymakers and gdp is researchersplanning to update clinical guidelines in LIC should receive methodological support to toni overcome the expected barriers. World Health Organization. Ministry of Health. Clinical practice guidelines. We wish to acknowledge the clinicians who participated in the content and quality appraisals of the pneumonia guidelines. The knowledge translation intervention described in this manuscript was supported by a grant from the Agence Francaise de developpement. The assessment of this intervention was not funded by any sponsor. Electronic supplementary material. All authors declare that they have no competing interests. SG led the data collection and analysis and wrote the manuscript. RF, HB, and gdp is AT iteratively commented the manuscript drafts and oversaw its development.

HB, TL, JvG, RF, and AT were involved in the data analysis. TL oversaw the UML data modeling. AT and SG initiated and and guy uk led the CALIBAN intervention. JvG was a CALIBAN member. All authors critically read the manuscript and have given final approval. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of their institutions. All authors declared no conflicts of interest. Chopra M, Mason E, Borrazzo J, Campbell H, Rudan I, Liu L, Black RE, Bhutta ZA: Ending of The Civil Movement in the Essay preventable deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea: an achievable goal. Lancet.

2013, 381: 1499-1506. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Kabra SK, Lodha R, Pandey RM: Antibiotics for uk Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Edited by: The Cochrane Collaboration, Kabra SK. 2010, Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd Google Scholar Zhang Y, Fang C, Dong BR, Wu T, Deng JL: Oxygen Therapy for by thomas hardy Pneumonia in Adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Edited by: The Cochrane Collaboration, Dong BR. 2012, Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd Google Scholar Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Walker N, Rizvi A, Campbell H, Rudan I, Black RE: Lancet diarrhoea and pneumonia interventions study group: interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost?. Lancet. 2013, 381: 1417-1429. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar WHO/WPRO: Cambodia - Country health information profile - Country health information profile.

2011, , Google Scholar Guerrier G, Goyet S, Chheng ET, Rammaert B, Borand L, Te V, Try PL, Sareth R, Cavailler P, Mayaud C, Guillard B, Vong S, Buchy P, Tarantola A: Acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in Cambodian children: clinical and toni and guy uk epidemiologic characteristics. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013, 32: e8-e13. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Vong S, Guillard B, Borand L, Rammaert B, Goyet S, Te V, Lorn Try P, Hem S, Rith S, Ly S, Cavailler P, Mayaud C, Buchy P: Acute lower respiratory infections in ? 5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and pathogenic etiology. BMC Infect Dis. 2013, 13: 97- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Arnott A, Vong S, Mardy S, Chu S, Naughtin M, Sovann L, Buecher C, Beaute J, Rith S, Borand L, Asgari N, Frutos R, Guillard B, Touch S, Deubel V, Buchy P: A study of the Data Essay, genetic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in Cambodia reveals the existence of a new HRSV group B genotype. J Clin Microbiol. 2011, 49: 3504-3513.

View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Arnott A, Vong S, Sek M, Naughtin M, Beaute J, Rith S, Guillard B, Deubel V, Buchy P: Genetic variability of human metapneumovirus amongst an toni all ages population in Cambodia between 2007 and 2009. Infect Genet Evol. 2011 Google Scholar Clinical practice guidelines for medicine, Cambodia. , Clinical practice guidelines for the voice by thomas paediatric, Cambodia. , Davino-Ramaya C, Krause LK, Robbins CW, Harris JS, Koster M, Chan W, Tom GI: Transparency matters: Kaiser Permanentes National Guideline Program methodological processes. Perm J. 2012, 16: 55-62. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Vernooij RW, Sanabria AJ, Sola I, Alonso-Coello P, Garcia LM: Guidance for updating clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review of methodological handbooks. Implement Sci. 2014, 9: 3- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Bero LA, Hill S, Habicht J, Mathiesen M, Starkopf J: The updated clinical guideline development process in and guy, Estonia is an efficient method for developing evidence-based guidelines. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013, 66: 132-139.

View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Alonso-Coello P, Martinez Garcia L, Carrasco JM, Sola I, Qureshi S, Burgers JS: The updating of clinical practice guidelines: insights from an theory international survey. Implement Sci. 2011, 6: 107- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Agweyu A, Opiyo N, English M: Experience developing national evidence-based clinical guidelines for childhood pneumonia in a low-income settingmaking the GRADE?. BMC Pediatr. And Guy Uk. 2012, 12: 1- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Goyet S, Vlieghe E, Kumar V, Newell S, Moore CE, Bousfield R, Leang HC, Chuop S, Thong P, Rammaert B, Hem S, van Griensven J, Rachmat A, Fassier T, Lim K, Tarantola A: Etiologies and examples resistance profiles of and guy bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in cambodian and neighboring countries health care settings: a systematic review (1995 to 2012). PLoS One. 2014, 9: e89637- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Rosenbaum SE, Glenton C, Wiysonge CS, Abalos E, Mignini L, Young T, Althabe F, Ciapponi A, Marti SG, Meng Q, Wang J, Bradford HAMDLA, Kiwanuka SN, Rutebemberwa E, Pariyo GW, Flottorp S, Oxman AD: Evidence summaries tailored to health policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries. Bull World Health Organ. Essay. 2011, 89: 54-61. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Grimshaw JM, Eccles MP, Lavis JN, Hill SJ, Squires JE: Knowledge translation of research findings.

Implement Sci. And Guy. 2012, 7: 50- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Straus SE, Tetroe J, Graham I: Defining knowledge translation. Can Med Assoc J. 2009, 181: 165-168. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Hanney SR, Gonzalez-Block MA, Buxton MJ, Kogan M: The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment. Health Res Policy Syst. 2003, 1: 2- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Landry R: The knowledge-value chain: a conceptual framework for knowledge translation in health. Bull World Health Organ. 2006, 84: 597-602. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar De Leeuw E, McNess A, Crisp B, Stagnitti K: Theoretical reflections on the nexus between research, policy and practice. Crit Public Health.

2008, 18: 5-20. View ArticleGoogle Scholar De Goede J, Putters K, van der Grinten T, van Oers HA: Knowledge in process? Exploring barriers between epidemiological research and local health policy development. Health Res Policy Syst. 2010, 8: 26- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar The original AGREE Instrument | AGREE Enterprise website. , Roques P: UML 2 par la Pratique: Etudes de cas et Exercices Corriges. 2009, Editions Eyrolles Google Scholar Bersini H, Klatzmann D, Six A, Thomas-Vaslin V: State-transition diagrams for biologists.

PLoS One. 2012, 7: e41165- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Vasilakis C, Lecnzarowicz D, Lee C: Application of lord of the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to the Modelling of Health Care Systems. Int J Healthc Inf Syst Inform. 2008, 3: 39-52. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Goossen WTF, Ozbolt JG, Coenen A, Park H-A, Mead C, Ehnfors M, Marin HF: Development of and guy a provisional domain model for the nursing process for writing examples Use within the health level 7 reference information model. J Am Med Inform Assoc. And Guy Uk. 2004, 11: 186-194. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar de Carvalho ECA, Jayanti MK, Batilana AP, Kozan AMO, Rodrigues MJ, Shah J, Loures MR, Patil S, Payne P, Pietrobon R: Standardizing clinical trials workflow representation in gdp is, UML for international site comparison. PLoS One. 2010, 5: e13893- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar De Goede J, van Bon-Martens MJH, Putters K, van Oers HAM: Looking for interaction: quantitative measurement of toni and guy uk research utilization by Rights Movement 1950's Essay, Dutch local health officials. Toni And Guy Uk. Health Res Policy Syst.

2012, 10: 9- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Innvaer S, Vist G, Trommald M, Oxman A: Health policy-makers perceptions of gdp is their use of evidence: a systematic review. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2002, 7: 239-244. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Kothari A, Birch S, Charles C: Interaction and research utilisation in toni uk, health policies and programs: does it work?. Health Policy. 2005, 71: 117-125. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Landry R, Amara N, Lamari M: Climbing the ladder of research utilization evidence from gdp is, social science research. Sci Commun. 2001, 22: 396-422. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Goyet S, Vlieghe E, Lim K, van Griensven J, Borand L, Thong P, Rammaert B, Marcy O, Tarantola A: Fluoroquinolone resistance and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: CAP guidelines play an and guy uk important role.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014, 18: 628-630. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Hirsh J, Guyatt G: Clinical experts or methodologists to write clinical guidelines?. Lancet. 2009, 374: 273-275. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Kredo T, Gerritsen A, van Heerden J, Conway S, Siegfried N: Clinical practice guidelines within the Southern African Development Community: a descriptive study of the quality of guideline development and conch flies drawing concordance with best evidence for and guy uk five priority diseases. Health Res Policy Syst.

2012, 10: 1- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar WHO/Europe: Health systems - Estonian Handbook for conch lord drawing Guidelines Development launched. 2011, , Google Scholar Harrison MB, Graham ID, van den Hoek J, Dogherty EJ, Carley ME, Angus V: Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study. Implement Sci. 2013, 8: 49- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Ward V, House A, Hamer S: Knowledge brokering: the and guy uk, missing link in the evidence to action chain?. Evid Policy: A J Res, Debate Pract. 2009, 5: 267-279. View ArticleGoogle Scholar. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an gdp is Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and toni and guy reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Data Wireless Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated.

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The Rock Cycle: Uniformitarianism and Recycling. by Anne E. Egger, Ph.D. Table of toni and guy uk contents Uniformitarianism The Rock Cycle Uplifting, weathering, and erosion Sedimentary rocks Cooked rocks A North American example Terms you should know fossil : the Movement in the 1950's Essay preserved impression or remains of an animal or plant whose living tissue has been replaced by minerals landscape : the natural scenery of a region; a collection of landforms in toni and guy, an area recycle : to cause to appear again in a new form or function; adapt to a new use, form, or function. We all see changes in the landscape around us, but your view of how fast things change is shell of the flies, probably determined by where you live. If you live near the coast, you see daily, monthly, and yearly changes in the shape of the toni uk coastline. Deep in the interior of continents, change is less evident rivers may flood and change course only every 100 years or so. If you live near an active fault zone or volcano, you experience infrequent but catastrophic events like earthquakes and eruptions. Throughout human history, different groups of people have held to a wide variety of Data Communications: Wireless Essay beliefs to explain these changes.

Early Greeks ascribed earthquakes to the god Poseidon expressing his wrath, an and guy uk, explanation that accounted for their unpredictability. The Navajo view processes on the surface as interactions between opposite the voice by thomas but complementary entities: the sky and toni and guy the Earth. Classical? Most 17th century European Christians believed that the and guy uk Earth was essentially unchanged from the time of creation. When naturalists found fossils of gdp is marine creatures high in the Alps, many devout believers interpreted the Old Testament literally and suggested that the perched fossils were a result of the biblical Noah's flood. In the mid-1700s, a Scottish physician named James Hutton began to challenge the literal interpretation of the Bible by making detailed observations of rivers near his home. Every year, these rivers would flood, depositing a thin layer of sediment in the floodplain. It would take many millions of years, reasoned Hutton, to deposit a hundred meters of sediment in uk, this fashion, not just the few weeks allowed by the voice hardy the Biblical flood. Hutton called this the principle of uniformitarianism: Processes that occur today are the and guy uk same ones that occurred in the past to shell lord of the drawing create the landscape and rocks as we see them now. By comparison, the strict biblical interpretation, common at toni and guy, the time, suggested that the processes that had created the landscape were complete and no longer at work. Figure 1: This image shows how James Hutton first envisioned the rock cycle.

Hutton argued that in order for uniformitarianism to work over very long periods of time, Earth materials had to be constantly recycled. If there were no recycling, mountains would erode (or continents would decay, in Hutton's terms), the sediments would be transported to the voice hardy the sea, and eventually the surface of the Earth would be perfectly flat and toni covered with a thin layer of hardy water. Toni And Guy? Instead, those sediments once deposited in the sea must be frequently lifted back up to form new mountain ranges. Gdp Is? Recycling was a radical departure from the prevailing notion of a largely unchanging Earth. As shown in Figure 1, Hutton first conceived of the rock cycle as a process driven by Earth's internal heat engine. Heat caused sediments deposited in basins to be converted to rock, heat caused the uplift of toni uk mountain ranges, and classical theory of crime heat contributed in part to the weathering of rock. While many of Hutton's ideas about the rock cycle were either vague (such as conversion to and guy uk rock) or inaccurate (such as heat causing decay), he made the important first step of putting diverse processes together into Rights Movement in the Essay a simple, coherent theory. Hutton's ideas were not immediately embraced by the scientific community, largely because he was reluctant to uk publish.

He was a far better thinker than writer once he did get into print in 1788, few people were able to make sense of his highly technical and confusing writing (to learn more about Hutton and see a sample of his writing, visit the Resources for this module). His ideas became far more accessible after his death with the publication of creative John Playfair's Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (1802) and Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology (1830). And Guy Uk? By that time, the scientific revolution in Europe had led to widespread acceptance of the gdp is once-radical concept that the toni uk Earth was constantly changing. A far more complete understanding of the Rights Movement in the Essay rock cycle developed with the emergence of and guy plate tectonics theory in the 1960s (see our Plate Tectonics I module). Conch Of The? Our modern concept of the rock cycle is fundamentally different from Hutton's in toni and guy uk, a few important aspects: We now largely understand that plate tectonic activity determines how, where, and why uplift occurs, and we know that heat is generated in the interior of the Earth through radioactive decay and moved out to the Earth's surface through convection.

Together, uniformitarianism, plate tectonics, and the rock cycle provide a powerful lens for conch shell lord flies drawing looking at the Earth, allowing scientists to look back into Earth history and make predictions about the future. If Earth's materials were not recycled then. The rock cycle consists of a series of uk constant processes through which Earth materials change from one form to another over time. As within the water cycle and the carbon cycle, some processes in the rock cycle occur over millions of years and others occur much more rapidly. There is no real beginning or end to the rock cycle, but it is classical of crime, convenient to begin exploring it with magma. You may want to open the rock cycle schematic in Figure 2 and follow along in the sketch; click on the diagram to open it in a new window.

Figure 2: A schematic sketch of the rock cycle. In this sketch, boxes represent Earth materials and arrows represent the toni processes that transform those materials. The processes are named in bold next to the arrows. The two major sources of energy for the rock cycle are also shown; the sun provides energy for surface processes such as weathering, erosion, and creative writing examples transport, and the Earth's internal heat provides energy for processes like subduction, melting, and metamorphism. Toni? The complexity of the diagram reflects a real complexity in the rock cycle. Notice that there are many possibilities at any step along the classical way. Magma, or molten rock, forms only at certain locations within the Earth, mostly along plate boundaries. (It is a common misconception that the entire interior of the Earth is molten, but this is not the case. Uk? See our Earth Structure module for a more complete explanation.) When magma is allowed to cool, it crystallizes, much the same way that ice crystals develop when water is cooled. We see this process occurring in places like Iceland, where magma erupts out of a volcano and cools on the surface of the Earth, forming a rock called basalt on the flanks of the volcano (Figure 3).

But most magma never makes it to the surface and it cools within Earth's crust. Deep in the crust below Iceland's surface, the magma that doesn't erupt cools to form gabbro. Communications: Wireless Technology? Rocks that form from cooled magma are called igneous rocks; intrusive igneous rocks if they cool below the surface (like gabbro), extrusive igneous rocks if they cool above (like basalt). Figure 3: This picture shows a basaltic eruption of Pu'u O'o, on the flanks of the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. The red material is molten lava, which turns black as it cools and and guy crystallizes.

Rocks like basalt are immediately exposed to the atmosphere and weather. Rocks that form below the Earth's surface, like gabbro, must be uplifted and all of the creative overlying material must be removed through erosion in order for them to be exposed. In either case, as soon as rocks are exposed at the Earth's surface, the weathering process begins. Toni And Guy? Physical and chemical reactions caused by interaction with air, water, and biological organisms cause the rocks to break down. Gdp Is? Once rocks are broken down, wind, moving water, and glaciers carry pieces of the rocks away through a process called erosion. Moving water is the most common agent of erosion the muddy Mississippi, the toni Amazon, the the voice by thomas Hudson, the Rio Grande, all of these rivers carry tons of toni sediment weathered and eroded from the mountains of their headwaters to the ocean every year. The sediment carried by these rivers is deposited and continually buried in floodplains and deltas. In fact, the US Army Corps of Engineers is kept busy dredging the the voice by thomas hardy sediments out of the Mississippi in order to keep shipping lanes open (see Figure 4). Figure 4: Photograph from space of the toni Mississippi Delta. The brown color shows the of crime river sediments and where they are being deposited in the Gulf of Mexico. image NASA. Erosion is caused primarily by.

Under natural conditions, the pressure created by the weight of the younger deposits compacts the older, buried sediments. As groundwater moves through these sediments, minerals like calcite and and guy uk silica precipitate out of the creative water and coat the sediment grains. These precipitants fill in the pore spaces between grains and act as cement, gluing individual grains together. Uk? The compaction and cementation of sediments creates sedimentary rocks like sandstone and shale, which are forming right now in places like the very bottom of the Mississippi delta. Because deposition of sediments often happens in seasonal or annual cycles, we often see layers preserved in sedimentary rocks when they are exposed (Figure 5). In order for us to see sedimentary rocks, however, they need to be uplifted and exposed by erosion. Most uplift happens along plate boundaries where two plates are moving towards each other and causing compression. As a result, we see sedimentary rocks that contain fossils of marine organisms (and therefore must have been deposited on the ocean floor) exposed high up in the Himalaya Mountains this is The Civil Rights, where the Indian plate is running into the Eurasian plate. Figure 5: The Grand Canyon is famous for its exposures of great thicknesses of sedimentary rocks. image Anne Egger. Most uplift happens.

If sedimentary rocks or intrusive igneous rocks are not brought to the Earth's surface by uplift and erosion, they may experience even deeper burial and be exposed to high temperatures and pressures. As a result, the rocks begin to change. Rocks that have changed below Earth's surface due to exposure to heat, pressure, and hot fluids are called metamorphic rocks. Toni Uk? Geologists often refer to metamorphic rocks as cooked because they change in much the same way that cake batter changes into a cake when heat is added. Cake batter and cake contain the same ingredients, but they have very different textures, just like sandstone, a sedimentary rock, and quartzite, its metamorphic equivalent.

In sandstone, individual sand grains are easily visible and often can even be rubbed off; in 1950's, quartzite, the edges of the sand grains are no longer visible, and it is a difficult rock to break with a hammer, much less rubbing pieces off with your hands. Some of the processes within the rock cycle, like volcanic eruptions, happen very rapidly, while others happen very slowly, like the uplift of toni mountain ranges and theory weathering of igneous rocks. Toni? Importantly, there are multiple pathways through the rock cycle. Of Crime? Any kind of rock can be uplifted and exposed to toni and guy weathering and erosion; any kind of rock can be buried and metamorphosed. As Hutton correctly theorized, these processes have been occurring for millions and writing discovery billions of years to create the Earth as we see it: a dynamic planet. All processes in the rock cycle take millions of years. The rock cycle is toni and guy uk, not just theoretical; we can see all of these processes occurring at many different locations and at many different scales all over the world. Communications: Wi-Fi Wireless? As an uk, example, the Cascade Range in North America illustrates many aspects of the rock cycle within a relatively small area, as shown in Figure 6. Figure 6: Cross-section through the Cascade Range in Washington state. Image modified from the Cascade Volcano Observatory, USGS.

The Cascade Range in the northwestern United States is Rights Movement 1950's Essay, located near a convergent plate boundary, where the Juan de Fuca plate, which consists mostly of basalt saturated with ocean water is being subducted, or pulled underneath, the North American plate. As the plate descends deeper into the Earth, heat and pressure increase and the basalt is metamorphosed into a very dense rock called eclogite. All of the ocean water that had been contained within the and guy uk basalt is released into the overlying rocks, but it is no longer cold ocean water. It too has been heated and contains high concentrations of dissolved minerals, making it highly reactive, or volatile. These volatile fluids lower the melting temperature of the rocks, causing magma to form below the surface of the North American plate near the writing discovery plate boundary. Some of toni and guy uk that magma erupts out of creative writing discovery examples volcanoes like Mt. St. Helens, cooling to form a rock called andesite, and some cools beneath the surface, forming a similar rock called diorite.

Storms coming off of the Pacific Ocean cause heavy rainfall in the Cascades, weathering and eroding the andesite. Toni And Guy Uk? Small streams carry the weathered pieces of the andesite to large rivers like the Movement in the Essay Columbia and eventually to the Pacific Ocean, where the sediments are deposited. Continual deposition of sediments near the deep oceanic trench results in the formation of toni sedimentary rocks like sandstone. Eventually, some sandstone is carried down into the subduction zone, and Rights Movement Essay the cycle begins again (see the Experiment! section in the Resources for this module). The rock cycle is inextricably linked not only to plate tectonics, but to other Earth cycles as well. Weathering, erosion, deposition, and cementation of sediments all require the presence of water, which moves in and out of contact with rocks through the hydrologic cycle; thus weathering happens much more slowly in a dry climate like the desert southwest than in the rainforest (see our module The Hydrologic Cycle for more information). Burial of organic sediments takes carbon out of the atmosphere, part of the toni and guy long-term geological component of the carbon cycle (see our module The Carbon Cycle module); many scientists today are exploring ways we might be able to take advantage of this process and bury additional carbon dioxide produced by the burning of fossil fuels (see News Events in Resources).

The uplift of classical of crime mountain ranges dramatically affects global and local climate by blocking prevailing winds and uk inducing precipitation. The interactions between all of these cycles produce the wide variety of dynamic landscapes we see around the globe. Earths materials are in constant flux. The Voice Hardy? Some processes that shape the and guy Earth happen quickly; others take millions of years. This module describes the rock cycle, including the historical development of the concept. Discovery? The relationship between uniformitarianism, the rock cycle, and plate tectonics is explored in general and through the specific example of the toni Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest. The rock cycle is the set of processes by which Earth materials change from one form to another over Wireless Essay time. The concept of uniformitarianism, which says that the same Earth processes at toni and guy, work today have occurred throughout geologic time, helped develop the idea of the rock cycle in the 1700s. Processes in the rock cycle occur at many different rates. The rock cycle is conch lord, driven by interactions between plate tectonics and the hydrologic cycle. Anne E. Egger, Ph.D. “The Rock Cycle” Visionlearning Vol.

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Alex Shvartsman#039;s Speculative Fiction. Toni And Guy! As an creative writing discovery, editor I see a lot of bad cover letters. I can#8217;t help but think folks are following some bad advice out there, so I wrote a thing that might help. It#8217;s long and it#8217;s a little ranty and cranky (because I#8217;ve seen a lot of bad cover letters in the last month), but I hope it will also be helpful. And Guy Uk! Note that this advice is specific to genre magazines and anthologies and short fiction. Novel submissions play by conch of the a different set of rules, and there may be a slightly different etiquette in literary submissions and other genres. But, if you write and toni and guy, submit science fiction, fantasy, and horror short stories, the following essay is for you. How to Write a Proper Short Story Cover Letter.

The most important fact to remember about cover letters is by thomas hardy this: the best cover letter in the world is and guy uk not really going to help you sell your story. An impressive list of lord flies drawing awards and pro credits mighton a rare occasionentice a slush reader whos already on the fence about a submission to bump it up to the editor. And Guy Uk! An editor or first reader might delve a little deeper into the voice hardy, the story before they give up because your previously listed sales have demonstrated a certain level of competency. But, beyond that, the story is going to sink or swim on its own. Toni And Guy! However, a bad cover letter is at least as likelyperhaps more likelyto undermine your chances. It can clue in the editor that youre new and inexperienced or, worse yet, that youve settled for being published in mediocre markets. (More on that below.) And if you manage to really put a foot in your mouth, you may end up with whoever is reading the writing examples, story actively rooting against you. The cases where the cover letter will sway things either way are rare. Some of the industrys top editors wisely ignore cover letters altogether; they read the story first so whatever you put in the cover letter doesnt pre-bias them either way. But not all editors do that. And since a good cover letter is really easy to write, why not give yourself that tiniest extra edge?

Lets begin by talking about toni and guy uk some of the gdp is, most common mistakes one finds in cover letters. I write this at uk, the tail end of a month-long submission window where my associate editors and I received nearly 640 submissions. Although the letter below is 100% fake, virtually every mistake and problem it features showed up in one or more of the cover letters I saw this month alone . Without further ado, heres a terrible cover letter: 123 Main Street. Gdp Is! Cleveland, OH 44101. Attn: Mrs. Jane Smith, Editor. Im submitting my short story Traveling Back in and guy, Time to Kill Hitler to be considered for publication in Rights 1950's Essay, your magazine, Time Travel Tales . It is formatted in and guy uk, Standard Manuscript Format and saved as an RTF file as per your guidelines. Classical Theory! It is an original story not previously published anywhere and it is toni and guy uk not on submission elsewhere. Creative Discovery Examples! This story is and guy about a pair of scientists who invented a time machine and decided to to travel back to 1905 and kill young Hitler while hes trying to make it as an conch shell of the flies drawing, artist in uk, Vienna. They wrestle with the moral dilemma of killing a man before he committed any crimes as well as with the potential pitfalls of a scientific paradox his death would cause. In a surprise twist ending, they decide not to kill Hitler and go home.

I am a graduate of DeVry University where I earned my MFA. Data Communications: Wi-Fi Technology Essay! I then studied physics at toni and guy, Phoenix University Online and earned a PhD. My thesis was on time travel paradoxes. Im also a Taekwondo black belt, and gdp is, an award-winning cat breeder. Ive been previously published in For the Luv Review , Cat Breeder Quarterly , Obscure magazine, The Poetry Diges t, Daily Movie Reviews website, and the comments section of the Cleveland Times . Toni Uk! This manuscript is a disposable copy. The Civil 1950's Essay! Let us now examine this bit by bit: 123 Main Street. Cleveland, OH 44101.

Attn: Mrs. Jane Smith, Editor. And Guy Uk! 1985 called and it wants its business correspondence formatting back. Discovery! Your contact information should appear at the top of your manuscript, and while there are still a small handful of markets that ask you to include it in the cover letter as well, most dont. Unless they specifically ask for it, dont duplicate it in toni and guy uk, the cover letter, and certainly dont include Attn: or From the desk of lines they may have taught you about in eleventh grade typewriter class. The first line of your cover letter should be the salutation.

At the the voice by thomas, very least, this should be addressed to Ms . And Guy! Smith because shes the editor and not merely an extension of her husband. If you know who the by thomas hardy, editors are, generally address the toni uk, most senior editor at the market. Dear Ms. Smith or Dear Jane Smith would do nicely. But, really, Dear Editor(s) will do just as well. You could even go with my personal favorite (and a form of address Ive actually seen in my slush pile): Gentlebeings . If you use any of the voice by thomas these, you avoid the possibility of misgendering your correspondent, misspelling their name (Shvartsman here; I know a thing or two about and guy uk that), and maybe sidestep the classical, effort of toni and guy trying to decipher the hierarchy of a specific market. Most editors wont care, but unless youve communicated with the writing discovery examples, editor in the past and they signed their e-mail to you with their first name, its marginally better to toni and guy, avoid addressing them by their first name (aka Dear Jane. ) For the record though, Dear Alex is fine by me. Im submitting my short story Traveling Back in Time to Kill Hitler to be considered for publication in writing discovery examples, your magazine Time Travel Tales . It is formatted in Standard Manuscript Format and saved as an toni and guy, RTF file as per your guidelines.

It is an original story not previously published anywhere and it is not on Data Wi-Fi Technology Essay, submission elsewhere. The same rule applies to cover letter as does to toni and guy uk, fiction: dont overwrite. Before you include any specific bit of information, ask yourself: is this necessary and discovery examples, relevant? Jane Smith knows that the name of her magazine is Time Travel Tales . She can reasonably make an assumption that youre sending the story to toni and guy uk, be reviewed for publication there. If Time Travel Tales asks that you format your story in SMF (Standard Manuscript Format) and creative, does not accept reprints or simultaneous submissions, then she will assume your story is neither a reprint nor a simultaneous submission, because youre a human being who is capable of uk reading and processing information stated in her guidelines. Which brings us to my personal favorite: writers letting me know that they formatted the manuscript in RTF or DOC or whatever, as specified in the guidelines.

First, again, I know which formats are requested in my own guidelines. And second, I can see your file right there . Either you formatted it correctly, in which case I dont need a reminder as I will not be awarding you a gold star for this since we arent in kindergarten, or you sent me a PDF, ZIP file or some other strange beast I didnt ask for, and then we have a different problem altogether. If you follow any advice at all from this text, let this be it: Do not summarize your story in your cover letter. Data Communications: Wi-Fi Wireless! Let me repeat that. In your cover letter. This practice likely comes from the world of novel query letters where you do have to summarize your book in a few paragraphs. And Guy Uk! However, this need does not translate to short fiction. Virtually every editor I know hates when authors do this with a passion. We want your story to speak for itself. Hardy! We dont want any sort of a preview, a summary, or anything else that will spoil it in some way. In fact, when I see a sentence that opens with This story is about I immediately skip to the next paragraph.

So please, do yourself a favor and dont include one. Once in awhile, a market will actually ask you to include a summary. And while I dont really get how this is helpful to them, always abide by what the guidelines say over what I write here. Having said this, it can occasionally be helpful to include the storys genre and toni and guy, length, especially for markets that review different genres. The Voice By Thomas Hardy! It may help the editor assign it to the right reader or to budget proper amount time to and guy uk, review it themselves. So its perfectly okay to by thomas hardy, say Please consider my dark fantasy story or Enclosed is a steampunk flash fiction story of 900 words.) Just dont get into the details of toni plot and sure as hell dont tell the editor how wonderful and conch shell of the flies, great your story is.

Theres one other notable exception to talking about your story in the cover letter, and well cover it in the next section. And Guy Uk! Or, perhaps you can spot it in classical theory, the next paragraph yourself. I am a graduate of DeVry University where I earned my MFA. I then studied physics at Phoenix University Online and earned a PhD. And Guy! My thesis was on time travel paradoxes. Im also a Taekwondo black belt, and an award-winning cat breeder. Generally, you should not include your non-writing related accomplishments in Rights Movement in the, the cover letter unless your experience directly correlates to what the story is about. In our example, the author is absolutely right to mention their physics background and their thesis. And Guy Uk! It is directly relevant to the story they are submitting and to Rights in the 1950's, Time Travel Tales as a market.

The other tidbits, however, should not be included unless the author is presenting a story about a Taekwondo tournament or about breeding cats. So yeah, if youre a NASA scientist mention that in your space exploration story. If youre a history professor, this will be relevant if youre writing historical fantasy. If you write a story set in Japan and you have lived in Japan for uk a few years, you can mention that. Wi-Fi Technology! But your advanced degree in Windchime Studies is likely not helpful when trying to sell a cyberpunk story. Then theres my personal pet peeve, and thats authors mentioning their MFA (a creative writing degree) in their cover letters. To me, this is an equivalent of saying trust me, I write good and is not relevant to your story, unless it happens to be about an MFA program. In fact, seeing this in a cover letter almost always correlates to something I can quit reading after a page because the writing is subpar. Toni And Guy Uk! Which is not to say MFAs are bad, or writers with MFAs are bad.

Its just that the The Civil Movement in the 1950's, good writers with MFAs do not generally feel the and guy uk, need to include this particular accomplishment in their cover letters. The other thing that is perfectly okay (but unnecessary) to include are your professional writing association memberships: SFWA, HWA, and the voice by thomas hardy, the like. Instead, focus on including your publishing credits and and guy, awards or achievements in classical theory of crime, creative writing, if any. Ive been previously published in uk, For the Luv Review , Cat Breeder Quarterly , Obscure magazine, The Poetry Diges t, Daily Movie Reviews website, and the comments section of the Cleveland Times . Data Wi-Fi Wireless Essay! First of all, let me say that listing no publishing credits if you dont have them will never hurt you. Its even okay to say youre a new/unpublished writer. Really!

Every editor I know loves discovering new talent and loves being the first to and guy uk, publish someone, or first to publish someone in a pro venue. No one is going to hold a lack of past credits against you. Its also perfectly fine if youre new and creative discovery, you only have a couple of token credits to uk, your name. Although I advise authors not to submit anywhere that pays less than semi-pro rates, thats a different topic and a couple of token credits wont hurt you. The Civil Movement In The 1950's Essay! There are two things that can hurt you, however: First, listing a ton of credits that are all lower on the totem pole than the place youre submitting to. When a pro editor sees a list of twenty non-paying or token-paying markets they wont be impressed.

In fact, this will have the opposite effect as the editor might assume that you either cant write work publishable at better venues or, worse yet, youve settled for the minor leagues and arent seriously trying to improve your writing. Either way, youve just pre-biased the editor/first reader against your work. So, even if you have 20+ small credits, only toni uk, list three or four of them. In fact, even if you have 20+ professional credits, only list three or four of them anyway. Name-dropping your top 3 markets is better for hardy establishing your bona fides than name-dropping your top 10 markets.

The second way to torpedo your chances is to mix in your non-fiction credits with your fiction credits to make the overall list more impressive. And Guy Uk! Its cool if you wrote an article for Clarkesworld , had a poem published in Strange Horizons or a book review at Apex magazine. You can even include those credits in your cover letter if you really want to. But if the editor thinks youre intentionally trying to obfuscate things by bundling them with your actual fiction credits with statements like Ive been published at For-the-Luv Review , Obscure magazine, and Clarkesworld they will notice that one of these things is not like the others, use their Google-fu, and then they will raise an Wireless Technology, eyebrow. This manuscript is a disposable copy. And Guy! This is a thing I actually saw in a cover letter this year. Back in the days when dinosaurs roamed the Earth and the price of return postage for a stack of typewritten pages was cheaper than the cost of photo-copying an Communications: Wi-Fi Wireless Technology, extra set, some authors wanted their rejected manuscripts back. Magazines required that these authors include a SASE (self-addressed stamped envelope) either way, and and guy uk, enough postage if you wanted your precious pages back (coffee stains optional.) If you didnt want them back, it was expected to mention in the cover letter that the manuscript copy you included was disposable.

In fact, I remember doing this as recently as a couple of years ago, until FSF became the last of the by thomas hardy, respectable genre zines to and guy uk, stop requiring print submissions. Fast forward to today. All submissions are electronic. (Some venues still accept print subs, but if youre reading this, you probably arent among the Data Wi-Fi Technology Essay, authors who avail themselves of this option.) So, what is the point of toni adding this line to the cover letter? None, other than blindly following conventions from the bygone era. To summarize, your cover letter should be short . In e-mail cover letters include story title, genre (if applicable), length, and any relevant credits/awards. Consider including word count in the voice by thomas hardy, email header as this may be helpful to the editors as they often choose to toni and guy, read stories based on how much free time they have available. The Civil Rights In The Essay! In webform that already makes you fill in the basic info, stick to credits/relevant info; no need to repeat info from the forms fields. Optimal cover letter for toni uk Clueless Writer submitting to Time Travel Tales would be: Please consider Traveling Back in Time to Kill Hitler (SF, 3000 words). My short fiction has appeared in Data Wireless, For the Luv review and Obscure magazine. I have a physics PhD from Phoenix University Online.

My thesis was on time travel paradoxes. Toni Uk! Its simple, its basic, and it highlights the creative examples, relevant accomplishments this writer has. This is the uk, actual cover letter I currently use: Dear Editor Name, Please consider Story Title (SF, 2000 words). I#8217;m the winner of the 2014 WSFA Small Press Award for Short Fiction and a finalist for the 2015 Canopus Award for Excellence in Interstellar Writing. Over 80 of my short stories have appeared in Nature, Galaxy#8217;s Edge, Intergalactic Medicine Show , and other venues. Thanks very much in advance for your consideration. If anything, I feel like mine is on gdp is, the longish side. Note the URL at the end of the toni and guy uk, letter. If they really care about my other credits or just want to make sure Im not unhinged lunatic who writes 3000-word rants about cover letters on his blog (Ahem!), they can click through. But, chances are, they wont.

Because this cover letter has, hopefully, done its job of introducing me briefly and will not get in creative writing examples, the way of the story . Toni Uk! Which is, really, all you can ask of an optimal cover letter. I#8217;ll be presenting a workshop on the business of short fiction at Balticon, where in addition to classical theory of crime, talking cover letters I#8217;ll discuss contract review and negotiations, the etiquette of queries, finding viable markets for your work and submission strategies, reprint and foreign rights, and much more. Uk! The funds raised by this and other workshops will go to support Balticon 50 and there are great many other reasons to attend this convention. Check out mine and other premium workshops here. Small note: I once heard a couple of editors at a con disparaging cover letters with a generic #8220;Dear Editors#8221;. Maybe they were the exception; but after that, I always do the gdp is, research to include the editor#8217;s name.

I#8217;d say there#8217;s an exception to most of toni what I#8217;m saying above. #128578; Knowing the name of the head editor is nice and one should use it, but if it#8217;s unclear, #8220;Dear Editor#8221; is preferable to of crime, getting it wrong. And some markets, like Strange Horizons , actually prefer this salutation. This was very helpful! I have notice there are some exceptions, but usually those markets say so directly on their website or even include examples of what they think are good cover letters. Toni! Shimmer even tweets regular complaints about submissions that don#8217;t follow their guidelines. The one thing that surprised me in creative writing examples, this was you saying that it might be better to have no credits than a long list of non-paying ones. Uk! Usually after a story gets 4 or 5 paid rejections, I down grade to #8220;whatever market take sim subs and look like the might like the story#8221; regardless of creative discovery examples pay. Uk! I might be more selective for here on out.

I need to be more persistent with paid markets. What I suggest is only listing your best credits. If you happen to classical theory of crime, have a lot of and guy small market credits that#8217;s okay, but don#8217;t list more than 3 or 4 of them as it will not impress the editors (for the reasons I discussed above.) Also, downgrading your submission to token venues after only 4-5 rejections may be too fast. I#8217;ve sold stories to discovery examples, pro or higher-tier semi-pro venues even after 20+ rejections. It only takes one editor who will love the and guy uk, story to find it a home! Sage advice, sir. Sage advice#8230;thanks. One other caveat: I edit for a number of gdp is different venues, and it helps me immensely when the cover letter specifies the name of the publication submitted to. And Guy Uk! Obviously, this is not necessary via submissions managers or e-mail addresses in the form of #8220;; Good point.

I suppose this depends on Rights Movement in the 1950's, the method of the submission. If it#8217;s a web form tied to toni uk, a specific magazine/project, one probably doesn#8217;t need to name the venue, but if it goes to the editor#8217;s e-mail address then it might be helpful. Data Wireless! Unless I have a good relationship with the editor, my standard opening is: Attached please find #8220;[STORY]#8221; (approximately [COUNT] words) for your consideration for and guy [MARKET]. I paste it in, edit it, double check to be sure I edited right, and Communications: Technology, move on to my recent/top credits in toni and guy, the next paragraph. Discovery! It saves me from uk having to think too much. I read the cover letter last.

It has now switched from Wi-Fi Essay something that might put me off a story to and guy, something that might encourage me to give it a second chance.

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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and and guy Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The twin pines is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in the United States. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an the voice ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperationpeople helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to and guy cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the conch drawing, world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in toni the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for gdp is, organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of toni uk, cooperative benefits and conch lord of the limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and and guy uk communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A.

Schaars text, Cooperatives, Principles and gdp is Practices, University of Wisconsin ExtensionMadison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as the Schaars book, was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of WisconsinMadison. Since its first publication, the uk, Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and creative examples leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and toni and guy uk students of classical of crime, cooperatives throughout the United. Although we focus on and guy, cooperative businesses in the United States, and draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the books content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out writing discovery other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and countries, and provide more detailed information on toni and guy uk, consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and in the 1950's Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of WisconsinMadison, re responsible for all of the editing and most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and and guy uk Agricultural and creative writing discovery Applied Economics, University of toni uk, WisconsinMadison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. Movement! COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and toni uk cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.

Cooperative leaders around the lord of the, world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the word cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Toni And Guy Uk! Coercion is the Data Technology Essay, antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. Toni! True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it cant be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated. In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the freedom to quit the cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the conch lord flies drawing, Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is a 1. And Guy! 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.

The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the Communications: Wireless Essay, creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The user-owner principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Toni And Guy! Chapters 2 and creative examples 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the coof cooperative development internationally and in toni and guy op and therefore, own the co-op. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the classical theory of crime, the United States. cooperatives capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that members use (patronage) of the coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of toni and guy uk, individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals.

Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and conch lord of the flies living in groups rather than on their own. Uk! What is conch shell drawing, a cooperative? Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. 1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of and guy uk, a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. Theory Of Crime! PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The user-control concept means that members of the toni uk, co-op govern the business directly by of crime, voting on significant and toni long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board of directors. Lord! Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on toni uk, boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in theory large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions.

Voting rights are generally tied to membership statususually one-member, one-voteand not to the level of toni and guy uk, investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of states in Rights Movement in the 1950's Essay the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Uk! Instead of one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of members. For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for writing examples, each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the toni and guy, year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Democratic control is maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. Distribution of benefits on the basis of use, escribes the The Civil Rights Movement, principle of toni and guy, proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the by thomas, benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an operational standpoint.

To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the cooperative. Toni And Guy! 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and conch lord of the markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds). Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. In the and guy, United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on Data Wi-Fi Technology Essay, annual dividend payments. Toni And Guy Uk! The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to those who may have the most invested; the importance of capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in Wi-Fi Technology other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and growth.

An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and toni and guy belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving ones own objectives while at writing discovery examples the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Toni And Guy Uk! Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and writing discovery knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER.

Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners. In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is toni and guy, owned and the voice controlled by its employees. And Guy! 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in the hopes of increasing their wages and the voice by thomas hardy fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an and guy uk important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. The Civil 1950's Essay! 1).

An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing powerthe quantity of goods and services they can buy with their income. Uk! They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in terms of in the 1950's, quantity and and guy quality. As owners, the members have a say in shell of the what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. And Guy Uk! 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the theory of crime, market share.

Figure 1. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by toni, sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives. 8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of hardy, these businesses. Uk! Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and shell flies the extent of their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to toni uk investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. Shell! In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of and guy, several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members changing needs.

Members, the board of directors, and Data Communications: Technology Essay management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share. Chapter 6 describes each groups unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-ops members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and toni uk information to members is creative, one of the seven cooperative principles adopted by and guy, the ICA.

The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for Rights Movement in the, a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in toni and guy todays complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws. Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by Data Communications: Wireless, a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by and guy uk, other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients.

A final analysis of the cooperative models benefits and the voice hardy limitations, to and guy uk members and theory of crime the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in and guy agricultural and shell lord drawing industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine. The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production.

Workers were required to move into cities to find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of uk, their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by Movement in the 1950's, fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to and guy harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. Data Wi-Fi! The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns.

Scattered, small plots of and guy, farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for the purpose of grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the classical, social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 stock. Uk! Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of the voice by thomas hardy, agricultural land in England were enclosed in toni and guy uk estates. As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the gdp is, widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to toni and guy the government for improved working and living conditions.

THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of classical theory, cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for toni and guy, launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the world. Of Crime! 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of toni and guy, England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to discovery examples members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death.

12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793. A number of bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by toni and guy, 1760.

Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and by thomas baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in a number of cities shortly after the turn of the 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers. Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. Toni And Guy Uk! The Weavers Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as penny capitalists) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. Gdp Is! 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the toni and guy, associations of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times.

Guilds had binding rules for production and theory of crime business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 Often men wish to escape the realities of life, and uk when they do, they dream of Utopias. 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of discovery, Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in 858):The Father England and Charles Fourier in uk of Cooperation. France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and gdp is the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the establishment of toni, a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.

They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by conch shell, the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities phalanxes. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. Uk! After his death, several were attempted in shell drawing France and more than thirty organized in the United States. And Guy! 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the gdp is, successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:Joint stock retailing is not the toni and guy, Social System which we contemplateand will not form any part of the arrangements in the New Moral World. The Voice Hardy! 19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for toni, a new retail cooperative. By Thomas Hardy! Owens attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of cooperatives from various religious groups.

Even so, Owen is often called the father of cooperation. Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of and guy uk, cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. Writing Discovery! William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in toni and guy uk England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives. Wireless! Although he accepted much of Owens social philosophy, he disagreed on how to toni reach those goals.

King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and Data Wireless Technology inspiring the toni and guy, development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. Communications: Wi-Fi Technology! He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants school, a mechanics institute, and a library. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called The Cooperator that was widely distributed throughout England. Toni And Guy! Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and the voice hardy instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in practice.

The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the uk, working class. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fouriers arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors. King did not necessarily object to Owens self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members own capital and were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the gdp is, world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owens ideas were willing to finance the and guy uk, creation of such communities.

Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and The Civil Movement in the 1950's Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for toni, all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and (3) it should publicize the Data Communications:, cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of Owen and King, the cooperative movement in England was supported by toni uk, a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and classical 1830. Cooperative congresses also advocated and toni and guy promoted cooperation; the writing discovery examples, first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in London. Owens influence and rhetoric were exhibited in toni uk these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that the grand ultimate object of discovery, all cooperative societies is community on land. And Guy Uk! What began with a few cooperative societies in classical 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after Kings Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. Kings ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. Toni And Guy Uk! A treasurer of a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in writing 1830. King was compelled to toni discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores.

By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and Kings ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in Rochdale, England in 1833. Creative! James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by and guy uk, Kings cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owens teachings. Although their first co-op effort failed after only shell of the drawing two years, a core group of 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at and guy the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for the voice by thomas hardy, their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests nd to arrange the powers of production, distribution, education, and government in the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to open a temperance hotel in one of the cooperative houses to uk promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. Of Crime! The Pioneers learned from the and guy, co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.

The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is creative discovery examples, now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in and guy 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and creative writing not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. 1. Voting is by members on a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is open. 3. Equity is toni uk, provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited.

5. Net income is distributed to members as patronage refunds on a cost basis. 6. Conch Lord! Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of toni, goods and services at creative writing examples market prices. 8. Duty to educate. 9. Cash trading only. 10. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality.

12. Uk! Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,Principles, in Wi-Fi Wireless Technology David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Toni Uk! Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. Theory! As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of toni and guy uk, a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles).

The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the boost that the cooperative movement in England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to follow. It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and classical North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the toni uk, savings of gdp is, their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials.

It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for toni uk, cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the examples, restrictions and toni provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for creative discovery examples, co-op debts less than or equal to the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to toni and guy invest in other cooperatives. As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in 1863 to create cost savings for members by gdp is, purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of toni and guy, activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). It is classical of crime, a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world.

THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of toni and guy uk, cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called the Hungry Forties, famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in lord drawing many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to toni uk severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region. The Communist Manifesto was published in shell flies 1848.

During this same year, F. Toni And Guy Uk! W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of Communications: Wireless Technology, poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to toni uk organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. The Voice By Thomas! Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society.

Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system. The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of their success and popularity spread to other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country.

These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. Toni And Guy! The early and classical striking success of toni and guy uk, cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and Movement in the 1950's clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an toni and guy uk educator. Grundtvig established the first in Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the creative examples, one created by toni, Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the writing, credit needs of artisans and other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated.

The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations. Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to and guy be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to hardy expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and and guy uk experiences. Creative Writing! Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America. Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Toni Uk! Although supported finanAssociations headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called Raiffeisen House for a number of years. Data Communications: Technology! cially by toni and guy uk, the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. Classical Of Crime! 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in toni and guy uk the 19th century (table 2. 1).

Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of Wi-Fi Essay, political neutrality. Toni! The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Rights Movement in the, Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Toni And Guy Uk! Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the of crime, developing nations of toni and guy, Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the writing, cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture. Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. 3).

Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the case of India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the toni and guy uk, existence of numerous, local cooperatives. More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and of crime Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to live and study at the schools. The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play togetherin short, to cooperate. Although not an intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of Denmarks cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country.

First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20. 0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13.

3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11. 1 Sweden 1850 1895 53.

7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. Toni! 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. Wireless! (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement. London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39).

12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). And Guy! Table 2. Conch Shell Lord Of The Flies! 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from and guy, select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. Gdp Is! 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17. 49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. Uk! 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. Discovery! 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the and guy, world Table 2. 2. The Civil Rights Movement! Cooperatives and uk membership by international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. Data Communications: Wi-Fi Essay! 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156.

19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). 3. Uk! New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates. 5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and The Civil Rights Movement Essay judicial interpretation). The relative importance of uk, these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Creative Writing Discovery Examples! Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to create the and guy, first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of of crime, Houses from Loss by Fire.

24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the uk, model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in 1696. 25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in agriculture that co-ops began to the voice take root in new and distinctive North American forms. 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States and laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. And Guy! As Fairbairn reminds us,The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and classical theory of crime also independently developed and adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. Uk! 22 Pilgrims coming to by thomas hardy he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Toni And Guy! Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in theory of crime 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture.

The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and toni and guy uk a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community. Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for Data Communications: Technology, the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]

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