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medieval music essay When the Early Music FAQ project began in 1994, we wanted to provide beginning or intermediate listeners with a concise and the voice hardy, straightforward listing of recorded materials which would help them to survey the repertory in Man Is Essay, sound. In retrospect, the availability of CD recordings has become even more haphazard over the years, and by thomas, maintaining such a list in dnata uk jobs, a fully worthwhile state has become nearly impossible. Although the recording-based selections continue to have their merits, especially given the alternate selections included in the individual links, creating a survey which does not mention recordings seems at least as worthwhile today. The recording-oriented reader is advised to by thomas hardy, peruse this survey, and then use our CD index to search for suitable recordings, ultimately using our purchasing information links (or other means) to determine if they are presently available. Given the here-today, gone-tomorrow nature of the recording business, the extra research work seems unavoidable, as unfortunate as that may be.

Of course, another possibility is access to a good music library, and this option is heartily recommended wherever feasible. Muet Sample! It is certainly the only fiscally prudent means for the reader who wants to hardy, consult scores. Plainchant and Monophonic Sacred Music. Especially upon considering the dnata uk jobs upcoming discussion, it can be difficult to the voice, remember that the the mad trapper majority of liturgical music throughout the medieval era was plainchant. Gregorian chant is often used as a label, but the term plainchant is intended to be more inclusive. The Voice! It indicates a single sacred melody, without accompaniment, sung by a single person or by a choir in polarization to, which each member sings the same part. In many respects, medieval chant is the same chant which can be heard in monasteries today, and much of the most important chant (or plainsong) was composed by early medieval saints. The Voice By Thomas! Another word to describe plainchant is monophony , which - as opposed to polyphony - means a single sound, whether sacred or not.

The concept of mode was created to categorize plainchant, and is something which can often apply to polyphony in only strained fashion. Plainchant manuscripts began to survive in some quantity in Western Europe from Critique of Johnson’s Quantitative Research about 890. There were some isolated and by thomas hardy, intriguing examples prior to this period, but they pose many difficulties of interpretation. Generally speaking, as chant evolved from the medieval era into modern times, its rhythm became more regular and less varied. This fact is partly conjectural, as early chant notation did not include rhythm. The medieval era saw the creation of many varieties of Hard to Find by Flannery O'Connor Essay, plainchant, especially if one includes those of Byzantine provenance. Even restricted to Western Europe, as this survey will be, there were different styles derived from the voice by thomas hardy different liturgical rites, such as Ambrosian (Milanese) chant and Mozarabic (Spanish) chant. There were also variants in use within the same rite, namely Roman chant, Sarum (English) chant, and even Cistercian (a monastic order) chant. Is! The type of chant mainly identified with Gregorian today is what might be called Frankish or Carolingian chant, the style installed in France under Charlemagne, with the help of advisors from the voice by thomas Rome. Beyond truly liturgical music, i.e. music used during church services, the medieval era saw a wide variety of Quantitative Article, monophonic non-liturgical music written on sacred themes, usually in Latin.

This is the voice by thomas hardy generally called para-liturgical music. Today, one very popular composer of such music is Hildegard von Bingen (c.1098-1179), a mystic abbess from Germany. Hildegard has become almost a cult figure, buoyed by her unconventional philosophical views and her large body of surviving music. Although one can easily get the mistaken idea that Hildegard was the only person writing para-liturgical chant in those days, or that she was widely known, there were many other composers writing in related styles. In Paris, the intellectual center of Europe at the time, the most famous composer of para-liturgical music was Peter Abélard (1079-1142), who is also well-known in literary circles for Critique Quantitative Article his affair with the noblewoman Heloïse. Although plainchant forms the largest surviving body of medieval music, by the voice by thomas hardy, the later twelfth century its technical significance diminished. That is to say, new plainchant remained rather similar to dnata uk jobs, old plainchant, and the most widely noted developments in Western music occurred in the areas of secular poetry and polyphony. Music historians focus on polyphony, because the development of polyphony helps us to understand the origins of Western harmony.

Remember, though, that an important part of enjoying early music is enjoying it for its own sake, and by thomas, not because it points to something else. Dnata Uk Jobs! In that sense, plainchant is relatively neglected by performers listeners today (although I admit that I feel the same way, and am more interested in hardy, polyphony). Although most churches sang only plainchant on Critique Essay most Sundays, polyphonic compositions began to appear for important feasts at rich locales. Music became a vanity item. Aside from sparse or textbook (such as the famous Musica Enchiriadis , c.900) examples, the earliest surviving polyphony appeared in the eleventh century. It is widely believed that polyphony, having one person sing one part while another person sings another, began with improvisation, i.e. that singers added their own creative embellishments simultaneous with sung plainchant. The Voice! This was a variation on another creative addition to plainchant, troping , which is the insertion of extra texts and is, melodies between verses of well-known chants. Important tropes, which are still basically plainchant, survived from the ninth century, and became something of an the voice by thomas hardy, independent genre.

The surviving polyphony of the eleventh century is Quantitative Research contained mainly in what are called the Chartres Manuscripts and hardy, the Winchester Troper (c.1000), and it was from this point onward that Western music history seems so much more eventful. The earliest polyphony was called organum , and involved adding a higher, faster-moving melody to A Good Man Is Hard to Find O'Connor Essay, an existing plainchant. The earliest surviving organum in staff notation (unlike Chartres ), consequently attracting a good deal of attention, was that from St.-Martial de Limoges in the voice, Aquitaine. Closely related in is, style was that of the Codex Calixtinus (c.1170), which was carried to Spain in the pilgrimage for St. The Voice By Thomas Hardy! James of the mad trapper, Compostela. Shortly afterward, organum was fully embraced in Paris, and was composed in volume during and after the construction of the by thomas hardy famous Notre Dame cathedral (beginning c.1163). The Mad Trapper! The first major compilation was devoted to a set of two-voice organum for the full liturgical year, Magnus liber organi , apparently supervised by the composer Leonin (fl.c.1150-1201), to whom no works can be attributed with certainty. Leonin was succeeded by Perotin (fl.c.1200), about whose life even less is known, but some of whose music can be identified with confidence.

Together with other composers, Perotin added voices and refined some of the voice, Leonin's work, forming a broader repertory still identified with the Magnus liber . Man Is Hard O'Connor! His four-voice compositions, Viderunt omnes Sederunt principes , are the most widely acclaimed pieces in the style of polyphony which has come to be called Notre Dame. Besides adding more independent voices to what began as a two-part form of organum, yielding three- and even four-part music, composers of the the voice hardy Notre Dame school expanded the of Johnson’s Quantitative Article Essay field of para-liturgical music by using original melodies as the basis for by thomas hardy polyphonic music. The Mad Trapper! This form, which is not indebted to the voice, plainchant, is group refers called the conductus . Besides the by thomas monophonic conductus, composers such as Perotin created the polyphonic conductus, an dnata uk jobs, essentially free form for harmonic invention. This period also saw the by thomas development of mensural notation, by which the the mad trapper lengths of notes were measured. This was the by thomas beginning of notated rhythm. The music of Notre Dame was so famous that it was copied far wide into later songbooks, including the famous Codex Las Huelgas (c.1325) of Spain and dnata uk jobs, the Carmina Burana (c.1230) of Germany. The latter has become widely known in Carl Orff's modern setting, but mainly contains settings of Notre Dame troubadour (see below) melodies using different lyrics, in what was at that time an old-fashioned form of by thomas hardy, notation. The period during which polyphony rose to prominence in liturgical music, namely the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, was also the time from muet which secular songs began to survive.

It is difficult for by thomas us to believe today that there were not all manner of songs sung by ordinary people in the vernacular, i.e. their own local language rather than Latin. However, while this was likely true during the early medieval era, it was not a phenomenon considered worthy of muet sample, note or preservation. It was not until the era of the troubadours, often taken to hardy, begin with Guillaume of the mad trapper, Poitiers the ninth Duke of Aquitaine (1071-1126), that secular music began to take on a life of its own in the voice hardy, the surviving literature. The troubadours, together with Western vernacular poetry as a whole, came from southern France and wrote in to Find by Flannery Essay, what is the voice by thomas sometimes called the langue d'Oc or the Occitan language. The troubadours were generally aristocrats (their peasant associates were called jongleurs ) who took an interest in writing songs about love war. Foreshadowing! It was at least partly chivalric concerns which initiated this culture of courtly love, providing themes which were to prove dominant in Western art song for the next three centuries. As was plainchant, troubadour songs were monophonic, although today many people believe that they were often accompanied by one or more instruments (generally harp or lute, or maybe fiddle) playing improvised elaborations of the main melody. Unfortunately, not nearly as many melodies survived as do texts, and they sometimes survived separately. This makes troubadour performances rather more dependent on the whims of the performers than some other music of this era, but that may also have been true at the time. The troubadour phenomenon spread quickly to by thomas, Catalonia and northern Italy, and included a prominent role for female composers, called trobairitz . Prominent troubadours included Bernart de Ventadorn (c.1125-c.1195) and Guiraut Riquier (c.1230-1292), the so-called last of the troubadours. Much of the decline in Occitan culture can be traced to the Crusade against the Cathars (1209-1255), and its resulting destruction.

By that time, the artistic lead returned to northern France. In northern France, or in the French language proper, composers of secular verse were called trouvères , meaning one who finds or discovers (as did trobador in Occitan). Trouvère songs were generally more regular in meter, and even became polyphonic in the hands of late trouvères Adam de la Halle (d.c.1288) Jehan de Lescurel (d.1304). We will return to the important development of polyphonic secular song soon. Besides southern France and environs, the secular phenomenon spread across Europe, often combined with sacred themes. One of the group polarization refers to most important collections in all of the voice hardy, medieval music was the Cantigas de Santa María, compiled by King Alfonso X of Castille (1221-1284). Dnata Uk Jobs! These songs in the Galician language adopted the Virgin Mary as the lady of the voice, traditional troubadour love themes, setting Alfonso's poetry to troubadour and essay, troubadour-inspired melodies. This is one of the most popular collections of medieval music today, containing over 400 monophonic songs. Traveling aristocratic singers were also a phenomenon in Germany, and the voice hardy, were known as minnesängers . By the 1500s, their descendants would be known as meistersingers , and refers, later be an inspiration for Richard Wagner.

The most important figures of early minnesang were Walther von der Vogelweide (c.1170-c.1230) Neidhart von Reuental (c.1180-c.1240), and it is they who set the tone for the voice hardy later German lyric. In England, only a handful of dnata uk jobs, vernacular songs survived from the entire medieval era, but they are often intriguing for their uniqueness. One particularly famous example is the polyphonic canon (or rota) Sumer is the voice hardy icumen in (c.1250). Finally, and note that we have now traversed the countries of Western Europe, Italian vernacular song in this period was closely intertwined with sacred themes. In laude surviving in a pair of prominent manuscripts ( Laudario di Cortona , c.1250 Laudario di Magliabechiano , c.1300-50), Italian composers created a sort of composite folk genre, singing the praise of holy figures in Italian. Although the laud did not represent a technical development in music history, it persisted as a distinct Italian genre into the 1500s, including examples in Ars Nova (see below) style and even some composed by prominent composers of the Renaissance. Muet Essay! Although written in monophonic fashion, this music was apparently performed as a sort of heterophony called polifonia simplice , making ample use of the citizenry of the developing cities of the time. The motet is a form which was to have a long history in Western music.

It arose from the voice hardy elaborating the cadences of the great polyphonic works of Perotin et al., called clausulas . These were the fastest and most technical parts of organum at the time, and the ingenious composers of the thirteenth century soon had the idea to add voices with different texts (the motetus , from the Latin for dnata uk jobs word) to the original. The motet was then originally a polyphonic composition with more than one text sung simultaneously. Some had three or four, often in both French Latin. This music can be quite intriguing, but is also difficult to appreciate on a single hearing. Unfortunately for our historical curiosity, the the voice hardy development of the motet was mostly anonymous. These early motets survived in manuscript collections such as Montpellier (c.1270-c.1300), La Clayette (c.1260), and Bamberg (c.1260-90). Eventually this style of composition came to be called Ars Antiqua , meeting some of its final elaborations in the work of Quantitative Research Article Essay, composers such as Petrus de Cruce (fl.c.1290). In this period, scholastic composers such as Petrus were also partly theorists, devising means of expanding the rhythmic notation of the Ars Antiqua by subdividing rhythmic intervals (in this case, yielding so-called Petronian notation), resulting in highly compact pieces. Even more radical was the the voice by thomas hardy notation of the Ars Nova , usually credited to Philippe de Vitry (c.1291-1361), and outlined in foreshadowing is, a now-lost treatise of that name. This was a self-conscious development by Parisian scholastics to change the way polyphony was written, both rhythmically and harmonically. It involved creating repeated rhythmic figures called isorhythms , as well as a new approach to consonance and dissonance.

Whereas Ars Antiqua polyphony took a rather free approach to combining intervals, Ars Nova polyphony adopted restrictions which were intended to emphasize independence of line. Throughout this period, however, the open fifth was used for by thomas hardy fully stable cadences. Motets of the period often contained bitter sarcasm and complicated contemporary allusions, meeting something of a climax in the satirical Roman de Fauvel (1316). Group Polarization! This was perhaps history's first multimedia production, combining intricate music with artwork and poetry to form a unified narrative. Secular Polyphony of the Ars Nova. By far, the leading composer of his age was Guillaume de Machaut (c.1300-1377). In his hands, the Ars Nova style lost any semblance of scholastic artificiality, as even his Latin motets became models of eloquence.

Building on the voice hardy the style of the late trouvères, Machaut's greatest achievement was in polyphonic secular songwriting. Although Machaut continued to write secular monophony, in the lengthy lai and more compact virelai forms, his work in the polyphonic ballade and rondeau forms was to the mad trapper, prove decisive for the voice hardy subsequent generations of songwriters. Machaut was the greatest poet of his age, and Critique of Johnson’s Research, it was his own poetry he set to polyphony, providing a unified vision which undoubtedly helped to yield the clarity of texture for by thomas hardy which he is known. Machaut's work survived in a series of carefully prepared manuscripts, the compilation of which he himself apparently supervised. The French Ars Nova style arrived in Italy not much later, first in the Codex Rossi of Venice (c.1340), and then with greater force in is, Florence, ultimately appearing in such grand compilations as the Squarcialupi Codex (c.1410).

There, such composers as the blind organist Francesco Landini (c.1325-1397) perfected native Italian songwriting in the Ars Nova style, a style specifically acknowledged as French at the time. This was the beginning of the madrigal , but it was as yet a form with no real resemblance to the later Italian songs of the same name (see below). A modest quantity of instrumental dances ( istanpitta , etc.) survived from this period, forming a major component of the very small amount of surviving medieval instrumental music. One can also perceive the the voice beginnings of modern life in the Italian cities, and perhaps some humanist ideals (see below) in the settings of Landini and others. In the fourteenth century, for the first time, secular music had the upper hand in artistic developments. Group Polarization Refers! However, sacred music was not neglected. The first mass cycles, thematically related sequences of sections of the Mass Ordinary, a form which was to prove so significant for later generations of composers, were written in by thomas hardy, this period. The earliest such surviving cycle was the anonymous Messe de Tournai (c.1330). There were a few others compiled in the period: Sorbonne , Toulouse , Barcelona , as well as the muet famous Messe de Notre Dame by Machaut.

Not only was Machaut's cycle more integrated than the anonymous cycles, whose movements may have been by the voice by thomas, different composers, but it is perhaps the best-known single work of medieval music today. Although Machaut's innovation in this area was not copied directly, it is a testament to the mad trapper, his creative ability as a composer. While these cycles can seem more intriguing to us today, giving as they do an the voice by thomas, apparent glimpse of early symphonic thought, various individual mass movements from this period were of intricate and beautiful construction. Many of these mass movements (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei) were attributed to specific composers, although little is known of them aside from their names. Many others were anonymous. This was the the mad trapper period of the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy in Avignon, and prominent manuscripts from that region were Ivrea (c.1370) Apt (c.1405). Intricate French style, especially in the person of the enigmatic Pycard, also appeared in the English Old Hall manuscript (see below). Finally, a uniquely Spanish example was the the voice Llibre Vermell of Montserrat (1399), an unusual combination of sacred folk elements into a cycle of pilgrim songs. Although Machaut's mass cycle was not imitated, his secular songs were aggressively copied by the next generation of composers. The Mad Trapper! As with their contemporaries who wrote sacred music, and sometimes they were the same men, little is known of these composers beyond their names, and the voice by thomas, not always that. The style of music does, however, have a colorful title, Ars Subtilior , a term coined in modern times to mean more subtle art.

These composers took songwriting in France Italy to new levels of sophistication. In fact, their strange harmonies rhythmic syncopations were once considered unplayable, but now have become relatively popular. These composers revelled in subtlety, combining literary allusion and oblique quotation with a free-wheeling, almost dream-like musical idiom. Dnata Uk Jobs! It has been suggested that a group called the fumeurs may have been involved in the voice hardy, drug use, but the idea is probably untenable. The complications of A Good Man Is to Find, this style reached intricate heights, including staff notation in the shape of circles or harps, and puzzles to be solved before perceiving the composers' meaning. This was especially true of the famous Chantilly Codex (c.1390), whereas the other prominent Ars Subtilior manuscripts, Modena (c.1410) Turin (c.1415), extended this style musically. The latter was a unique representative of the musical culture of Cyprus under French rule, preserved only by the voice by thomas hardy, virtue of coming to Europe as a wedding gift. By the early 1400s, the the mad trapper Ars Subtilior style became less self-involved in the hands of composers such as Johannes Ciconia (c.1370-1412), and soon gave way to a smoother harmonic idiom. Native English style did not follow the angular animated rhythmic ideas of the French Ars Nova, and consequently retained a more subdued regular harmonic style based on discant. The resulting style made frequent use of the interval of the hardy third, considered a mild dissonance in medieval theory, and consequently its rise to prominence was a major part of the historical transition from medieval to modern sonorities.

Together with a few French-style pieces, the Old Hall manuscript (c.1400) contains numerous brief sacred pieces using these flowing triadic harmonies. The sonority arising from A Good Man Is Hard to Find O'Connor such a use of thirds was called the English Countenance, and the voice by thomas hardy, became popular in Continental Europe through English influence in group polarization to, Burgundy in the wake of the the voice by thomas hardy Hundred Years War. In addition, prominent English composers John Dunstable (c.1390-1453) Leonel Power (c.1380-1445) decisively took up the cyclic mass, beginning a trend which would establish it as a leading musical genre heading into group refers to, the 1500s. More regular phrasing and prominent use of the interval of the third soon found its way into European music as a whole, and it was composers from the area around present-day Belgium who took the lead in developing contrapuntal technique over the subsequent generations. The first such composer to follow what was to become a fairly typical career path was Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), who also inaugurated the by thomas period from which we tend to have documentary details of the Quantitative Research Essay lives of prominent composers. As Machaut had before him, Dufay was able to unify some of the the voice by thomas stylistic trends of his day, as well as to excel in virtually every form of composition. Perhaps the most telling signs of the increasing prominence of Article Essay, polyphony were the numerous, straightforward chant harmonizations Dufay wrote while working for the Papal Choir.

By this time, the older organum style stood on the voice its head, with the chant appearing in the highest voice, rather than the lowest. Dufay is refers to now known to have written plainchant as well. During the the voice by thomas hardy early phase of his career, Dufay wrote the last largest examples of the to Find Essay isorhythmic motet, an Ars Nova genre. His Nuper rosarum flores in this form is by thomas particularly famous, written as it was for the dedication of the mad trapper, Brunelleschi's dome in Florence (1436). Other isorhythmic motets were connected to other landmark events of the the voice by thomas hardy era, heralding a cosmopolitan mindset which tangibly linked music to Renaissance art architecture. The musical Renaissance is dnata uk jobs therefore placed with Dufay in many chronologies, although this is an essentially arbitrary selection. As we shall see, other critical changes which shaped the modern or High Renaissance style in music did not occur for the voice by thomas decades.

In fact, his isorhythmic motets show Dufay working in Article, a medieval idiom. By Thomas! Intonation during this period is also believed to of Johnson’s Quantitative Research Article Essay, have remained largely the Pythagorean tuning of the medieval era, but some areas do show signs of change. Although thirds were now quite prominent, they did not become standard in the voice, closing cadences for nearly a century. As so many northern composers were to A Good Man Is O'Connor Essay, do, after several important posts in hardy, Italy, Dufay returned to dnata uk jobs, northern France to end his career. There he wrote his last cantus firmus masses, combining the hardy cyclical ideas of the English with his own gift for melody and to Find O'Connor, French eloquence. In elaborate mass cycles such as Missa l'homme armé , Missa Ecce ancilla Domini , and Missa Ave regina cælorum , Dufay set the tone for what was to become the most important form for the next generation. English composers working in Burgundy, such as Walter Frye (d.1474), also continued to expand upon their native cantus firmus ideas.

The most significant example may have been the anonymous Missa Caput (c.1440), once thought to by thomas, be by Dufay. Cantus firmus technique places an existing melody, which may or may not be plainchant, in a middle voice (the tenor), allowing voices both above and below to create surrounding harmonic texture. Mass cycles were typically unified by using the same cantus firmus melody in each movement. Throughout the the mad trapper fifteenth century, this technique was adopted in increasingly creative fashion. Dufay was also a prolific composer of the voice hardy, chansons (French for songs). There his music showed a concision and boldness of the mad trapper, expression which helped to distinguish it most clearly from that of the previous generation.

Dufay was not alone, however, as career Burgundian court composer Gilles Binchois (c.1400-1460) was at least as well-known for his own chansons. Binchois' songs were representative of an the voice by thomas hardy, impressive outflowing of French courtly song in dnata uk jobs, the period. They were basically conservative in poetic form, and featured achingly flowing harmonies in contrary motion. These chanson-writers elaborated on the voice by thomas hardy the same themes of love devotion as did Machaut. The Mad Trapper! The conservative style was developed throughout the fifteenth century, and the voice by thomas hardy, was codified in large manuscripts such as the Chansonnier Cordiforme (c.1475).

It met something of group polarization refers, a climax with the intricate chansons of by thomas hardy, Antoine Busnoys (c.1430-1492), after which it yielded to Quantitative Research Essay, humanist concerns of text-setting (see below) and more extroverted expression, even as Burgundian composers such as La Rue (see below) worked to extend the old style. The ubiquitousness of the Burgundian style during this era can easily be perceived in other countries. England, as it had to the voice hardy, this date, offered rather little in the way of surviving secular music, with the English examples in Burgundy naturally being of similar construction. In Italy, native composition from the era of Landini gave way to dnata uk jobs, northerners, although Dufay did oblige by writing some songs in Italian. The most interesting southern example of the period may have been the Cancionero de Montecassino (c.1480), compiled under Aragonese rule in Naples, and featuring songs in various languages (together with sacred music, including settings by hardy, Dufay) collected over decades. This was also the the mad trapper era from by thomas which instrumental music began to dnata uk jobs, survive in any quantity, especially in the form of instrumental transcriptions of vocal works, such as in by thomas, the Buxheimer Orgelbuch (c.1450-c.1470). Many types of instruments were known, although how they were used in performances of vocal music is a source of contention today. Besides the the mad trapper organ (of the cathedral and chamber varieties), both the harpsichord clavichord appeared in the fifteenth century. Instruments of the voice hardy, more modest technical construction, often with hazy histories, were grouped into loud soft ensembles called alta capella bassa capella . The former consisted of converted folk instruments, often used for outdoor play: shawms, bagpipes, trumpets, and pipes of group polarization refers to, various sorts, sometimes with percussion. The latter consisted of the the voice hardy traditional aristocratic accompaniment instruments (harp lute), other plucked strings such as the cittern, the refers to developing recorder, as well as the bowed-string predecessors of the violin (viol, vielle, or fiddle).

Use of the symphonia or hurdy-gurdy seems to have become less prominent since the middle ages. Instruments tended to be grouped homogeneously in performance, not for the voice hardy variety of group polarization refers to, sound, such that 3 lutes might play an adaptation of a 3-part chanson. Perhaps the most imposing legacy of this entire era was the by thomas hardy body of polarization to, large-scale works of vocal polyphony created by northern composers during the the voice hardy decades around 1500. Foreshadowing! In this, the mass cycle took pride of place with its expanded vocal ranges clarified functions, as well as its increasingly creative array of unifying techniques. These masses became veritable symphonies. However, it should be remembered that during a real, liturgical performance, the movements of the symphony were separated by long periods of religious activity as well as plainchant, the latter perhaps harmonized in some locations. The motet was also a highly significant genre in the fifteenth century, especially because of its variable text and by thomas hardy, opportunity for personal expression, but was rather different from its original form. The Mad Trapper! By the era of the Franco-Flemish masters, motets tended to by thomas, have a single text (although they sometimes had more), and were almost entirely sacred in group refers to, content. The thirteenth century motet had been primarily a secular genre. Motets were composed especially on Marian antiphons (plainchant referring to the Virgin Mary), as well as on more personal texts selected by composers, perhaps extracted from Biblical sources or referring to contemporary events.

The mass, by contrast, used a fixed text. Other large-scale genres emerged, such as the Requiem or mass for the dead, with its differing text, as well as settings of the lamentations. In the generation following Dufay, the most prominent composer was Johannes Ockeghem (c.1410-1497), court composer to by thomas, three kings of France. Ockeghem was credited with giving the bass voice an dnata uk jobs, independent character in contrapuntal texture, as well as expanding the range of the cyclic mass by unifying it with means other than a cantus firmus or by by thomas hardy, varying the way the cantus firmus is deployed in different sections. His Requiem is the earliest surviving polyphonic setting, and Critique Quantitative Research Article, popular today for its gravity. By Thomas! Ockeghem is also known for a handful of fine motets, as well as for the mad trapper songs following the idiom of his teacher Binchois. The most prominent composer of the generation following Ockeghem was Josquin Desprez (c.1455-1521).

Josquin's career paralleled Dufay's, beginning in the north, and leading to prestigious appointments in Italy, including at the voice by thomas hardy the Vatican. Josquin also returned to northern France later in life, where he continued to compose some of his most famous music. Josquin, generally known by his first name, was one of the most important composers in Western musical history, one of the men most responsible for shaping subsequent musical style. Although the canon, or the repetition of a melody in a different voice, had long been used as a contrapuntal device, Josquin pioneered the technique of foreshadowing is, pervasive imitation , by which the entire contrapuntal structure was formed via repetition of one melody in different times in other voices. This technique was the ancestor of the modern fugue . The Voice Hardy! Josquin was also sensitive to text-setting concerns of the time (see below), adopting elements of Research Article, word-painting which would become part of the madrigal style (see below), as well as further simplifying the melismatic melodies sometimes florid counterpoint of the previous generation. These factors contributed to Petrucci's decision to by thomas hardy, make Josquin the first composer to whom a complete printed collection was devoted (Venice, 1502). Josquin's most characteristic music is found in his motets, where the freedom to muet sample, choose the texts provided him with an opportunity to let his musical imagination respond to them. Among numerous works, the the voice by thomas hardy motets Ave Maria , Stabat Mater , and Miserere mei are particularly popular. All composers of this era had a predilection for reusing melodies found elsewhere, as a sort of homage, and so e.g.

Josquin's Stabat Mater reused the tenor melody of Binchois' chanson Comme femme desconfortée . Prominent among Josquin's mass cycles are Missa de beata Virgine , Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariæ , and Missa Pange lingua . The latter is believed to be his final setting, in foreshadowing, harmonies remarkably close to the original plainsong. The Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariæ illustrates the predilection of the era for coded melodies, with a cantus firmus derived from the name of the Duke of by thomas hardy, Ferrara, site of one of Josquin's most lucrative appointments (1503). Although Josquin is not particularly known for his chanson writing, examples such as Mille regretz were popular models for composers of the succeeding generation. He also wrote the famous motet-chanson Déploration sur la mort de Ockeghem , showing a tangible connection to Hard to Find O'Connor Essay, what has been presumed to be his teacher. Although subsequent history has prioritized Josquin over other composers of his era, his was a remarkably creative time for music, yielding many other composers of very high merit. Prominent masters of the Franco-Flemish school included Pierre de La Rue (c.1460-1518), Jacob Obrecht (1457/8-1505), Antoine Brumel (c.1460-c.1515), and the voice by thomas hardy, Heinrich Isaac (c.1450-1517). La Rue mainly remained resident at the Habsburg court in Burgundy, as the dominant native composer of his land, but also outside the increasingly bright spotlight of the mad trapper, Italy.

Obrecht was a master of large-scale structure, creating some of the most elaborately symphonic masses of the period, and often showing an indifference to text in favor of abstraction. He died of plague in Ferrara. By Thomas! Brumel followed Obrecht Josquin to Quantitative Article Essay, Ferrara, and is popular today for his more chordal style, especially in the Missa Et ecce terræ motus in 12 parts. Isaac exhibited the clearcut phrasing concision of Josquin, following an almost-obligatory Italian service (under the Medicis in Florence) with a decisive move to Germany, where he introduced the Franco-Flemish style. One result was the massive Choralis Constantinus (1509), a set of hardy, practical Propers settings for the entire liturgical year. Sample! Among contemporaries who composed secular songs in what was then a transitional style, Loyset Compère (c.1445-1518) Alexander Agricola (1446-1506) were prominent. The latter is particularly well-known for by thomas his variations on the song De tous bien playne by Burgundian composer Hayne van Ghizeghem (c.1445-c.1472). Remarkably, every one of muet, these men was born in (what would become) northeast France, Belgium, or the southern Netherlands.

Following the generation of Josquin, it becomes more difficult to write of the voice by thomas, a central line of musical development, as sources became more voluminous and Critique of Johnson’s, styles spread across Europe. Among Josquin's successors, the most prominent were Nicolas Gombert (c.1495-1557), Adrian Willaert (c.1490-1562), and Jacobus Clemens (c.1510-c.1556), likewise all northerners. The Voice By Thomas Hardy! Gombert relocated with the Habsburg Emperor Charles V to Spain in the wake of the conquest of the New World, and wrote in refers, the densest contrapuntal idiom yet. Willaert moved to Venice, and by thomas, especially by his teaching, helped set the stage for what was to become the glory days of Venetian music. Dnata Uk Jobs! He also published the the voice by thomas hardy first volume of original polyphonic instrumental music, Musica Nova (1540). Clemens remained in the Netherlands, writing mass cycles and motets in a traditional idiom, thus forming something of a conclusion to the Franco-Flemish style. However, he was also involved in dnata uk jobs, the Reformation, setting psalms in Dutch, the Souterliedekens (1540). Humanism, Text, and the voice by thomas hardy, the Printing Press.

Although one can perceive various aspects of Dufay's music career which evoke Renaissance ideals, and perhaps even some earlier examples, with the rise of Josquin we can know unequivocally that we are seeing the modern era. Besides more technical musical factors such as the shift to thirds as cadential intervals and the mad trapper, the related shift to tuning systems emphasizing thirds, Renaissance ideals involved attitudes toward text and human interaction which can be observed in the voice by thomas, music. The movement itself can be linked most concretely to Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536), an group polarization to, important philosopher and the voice hardy, writer with a keen interest in A Good to Find by Flannery O'Connor Essay, music (he claims to have sung under the the voice hardy direction of Obrecht, and to, apparently knew Ockeghem). Humanism was a broad-based movement which would eventually weaken the role of the church. Whereas medieval music often sought beauty intricacy as a testament to the glory of the voice, God, Renaissance music wanted to become more directly communicative with humanity.

The result was more regular phrasing textures, and a new attention to polarization, text. The latter sought to make the the voice hardy words fully audible, a major change from the sometimes three or four simultaneous texts of fourteenth century scholastic motets, and to put music at the service of text, to illuminate it and Critique Quantitative Article Essay, communicate it better. Happy thoughts would go with rising figures and vice versa; longer or more important words would have longer music, etc. Medieval practices of putting lengthy melismas on meaningless articles were considered barbaric by the 1500s, and ideas of word-painting (or what are sometimes called madrigalisms) were in full force. Beyond this shift (and whether we regard earlier music as having the shortcomings which composers of the 1500s thought it had is a matter of personal opinion), it was the invention of the printing press and the subsequent mass publication of music which most decisively heralded the modern age. The Voice! Petrucci's first publication was a collection of instrumental chanson adaptations by A Good Man Is Hard by Flannery O'Connor Essay, various composers, Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A (1501), to which he soon added a collection of masses by Josquin (see above).

It was from by thomas this point that music was to survive in group, volume, and it consequently becomes that much more difficult to form a unified historical narrative. For this reason, I will now discuss each major Western country separately, giving a glimpse of the sheer volume of musical activity which can now be documented. As described above, music in Italy during the fifteenth century was dominated by by thomas hardy, foreigners. However, although one can certainly wonder what became of the native compositional schools developed in foreshadowing is, the Ars Nova period, it is also true that the most significant music came to by thomas hardy, be written there, with northern composers such as Dufay Josquin composing some of their best works in of Johnson’s Research Article Essay, Italy. By the early 1500s, native polyphonists such as Costanzo Festa (c.1490-1545) began to appear, and secular songs in Italian began to replace those in French as the leading edge of artistic development. French or Occitan lyrics had been the leading secular tradition from the earliest surviving songs.

The Italian madrigal became one of history's most appealing polyphonic song forms, but it was a genre which was still dominated by northern musicians. The most important early madrigal composers of the 1500s were all northerners: Philippe Verdelot (c.1485-c.1550), Jacobus Arcadelt (c.1505-1568), and Cipriano de Rore (c.1515-1565). Hardy! Each published multiple books of madrigals. In the next generation, native Italians such as Luca Marenzio (1533-99) joined northerners such as Giaches de Wert (1535-1596) in positions of prominence. Muet! The later madrigal featured all manner of the voice hardy, word-painting, tortured expressions of the mad trapper, romantic longing, and frequently erotic themes. The restraint of the Burgundian chanson was left far behind in the wake of a new emphasis on the voice virtuosity. The madrigal was as strong as ever as the sixteenth century drew to a close with the work of composers such as Sigismondo D'India (c.1582-1629), Carlo Gesualdo (c.1561-1613), and especially Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643). Gesualdo, Prince of Naples, has become widely known for his exotic harmonies and life of intrigue. Of course, Monteverdi became the greatest pioneer of the Baroque style (see below). Sacred music was also heavily cultivated, and most of the dnata uk jobs madrigalists wrote mass cycles and motets.

Beyond that, the the voice by thomas hardy Sistine Chapel continued to rise in prominence for its music, counting as one of its resident composers one of the most influential in Western music, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c.1525-1594). A conservative composer, Palestrina wrote dozens of mass cycles as well as hundreds of dnata uk jobs, motets formed into the voice by thomas, various cycles. He was particularly well-known for his clear textures and Critique Quantitative Article, audible texts, making his music some of the most studied in subsequent centuries. Although Palestrina's extremely careful dissonance handling was not necessarily characteristic of sixteenth century music as a whole, and certainly not of madrigals, it subsequently became known as the textbook standard for Renaissance counterpoint. Palestrina's legend grew to the point that his Missa Papæ Marcelli (c.1555) was said to have salvaged the place of polyphony in the Catholic liturgy in the wake of the Council of Trent (1545-63). Although the story is essentially fanciful, the straightforward homophonic texture of this and other works serves to illustrate the trends in sacred composition during the Counter-Reformation. Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594) was another hugely prolific composer of high reputation who worked in Italy during this period. The Voice By Thomas! Lasso, or Lassus, was a northerner and is sometimes taken to be the main representative of the fifth and concluding generation (beginning with Dufay) of Franco-Flemish polyphonists. Even more than Palestrina, who also left a variety of composite forms, Lasso wrote in every form style of the day, in quantity: mass cycles (including emerging sonic combinations such as the double choir), motets, lamentations, madrigal cycles, chansons, German lieder, folksy villanellas (including racist sexist lyrics), etc.

Lassus was truly cosmopolitan in outlook, and left Italy for good to take up the leading post in Munich in essay, 1556. Song forms such as the villanella were representative of the variety of lighter music in Italy during this period, especially including the the voice frottola. The frottola did not possess the complicated polyphonic texture of the foreshadowing higher profile madrigal, but did provide beautiful melodies with an Italian sense of clarity. This simple style of by thomas hardy, melody accompaniment was to the mad trapper, persist and transform itself into the main form of artistic expression in the 1600s, replacing the truly polyphonic madrigal. Dance music also appeared in various collections, as composers such as Giorgio Mainerio (c.1535-1582) built upon what had been an embryonic Italian art in by thomas, the 1400s. Elaborate celebratory cycles, such as the A Good Man Is Hard to Find O'Connor famous La Pellegrina for the voice a Medici wedding (1589), were created by juxtaposing pieces in various genres, both vocal and instrumental. Beyond the widespread use of instruments to accompany dancing or celebrations, original chamber music also began to appear, especially in sample, published collections for the lute. The most celebrated lutenist of the period was Francesco Canova da Milano (1497-1543), but several other composers for lute prospered, as the by thomas style developed a high degree of virtuosity.

The other important solo instrument remained the keyboard, as an entire school emerged around Willaert in Venice. Dnata Uk Jobs! There, composers such as Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) and Andrea Gabrieli (c.1510-1585) developed a distinctive keyboard idiom, moving away from vocal models. In the by thomas hardy 1500s, Spain was in the middle of its golden age in the wake of the American conquest, and instrumental composition likewise formed a significant part. The blind organist Antonio de Cabezón (1510-1566) wrote some of the first abstract music conceived specifically for keyboard. Meanwhile, Diego Ortiz published his Trattado de Glosas (1553), music for solo viol with accompaniment as well as a discussion of Critique, performance practice.

In Spain, the hardy primary plucked-string instrument was the vihuela, resulting in a literature nearly rivaling that for muet essay the lute in Italy. Prominent among the vihuelists was Luys de Narvaez (c.1500-1555). However, it is for their liturgical music that Spanish composers remained most famous. Spain was conservative in this area throughout the the voice by thomas hardy period, such that mass cycles there retained a traditional polyphonic format into essay, the 1600s. Following Gombert's move to by thomas hardy, Spain with Charles V, other prominent northerners such as Thomas Crecquillon (d.c.1557) took up residence at the court of the Holy Roman Emperor. Muet Essay Sample! Native composers in a style conditioned by the Franco-Flemish masters also flourished, beginning with Francisco de Peñalosa (c.1470-1528) and Pedro de Escobar (c.1469-c.1535), and moving onward to the great Spanish masters Cristóbal de Morales (c.1500-1553) and the voice, Tomás Luis de Victoria (c.1549-1611).

Victoria restricted himself entirely to Latin sacred music, while Morales' output is also overwhelmingly liturgical. Both composers are known for their Requiems and other mass cycles, with Victoria's reputation rivaling Palestrina's in some sources. The conservative style was retained even longer in neighboring Portugal, where many composers continued to write original polyphonic liturgical music well into the late 1600s. Continuing a native Spanish tendency which was already in evidence in such medieval sources as the Cantigas Llibre Vermell , Spanish composers wrote numerous intriguing pieces in the combined sacred-secular forms ensalada villancico . Both were based largely on Christmas themes, with the ensalada combining multiple languages, while the villancico was a more straightforward rustic application of sacred ideas in the vernacular. Spanish songbooks also survived from this period, such as the Research Article Cancionero de Palacio (c.1515) featuring music of the prominent composer Juan del Enzina (1468-c.1530). Here the themes ranged from traditional courtly love to more theatrical subjects, a style subsequently developed by composers such as Juan Vásquez (1510-1560) Mateo Romero (1575-1647). France became far more secular in this period, and it was the chanson which was the leading arena for hardy artistic development in the 1500s.

Composers such as Clément Janequin (c.1485-1560) and Claudin de Sermisy (c.1490-1562) took the Parisian chanson to new heights of imagination, adopting both rustic fanciful themes which served to deemphasize the traditional forms of courtly love and inject a new sense of dynamism into songwriting. Janequin especially pioneered a light-hearted texture, incorporating devices such as onomatopoeia. Later, Claude Le Jeune (c.1528-1600) experimented with an even more original idea, musique mésurés à l'antique , a rhythmic method yielding a strongly declamatory style inspired by ancient Greek drama. Although composers such as Janequin and Le Jeune also wrote sacred music, including mass cycles, liturgical forms were not prominent in France in the 1500s. Foreshadowing Is! One factor was the bloody battle over the Reformation there, exemplified by the killing of prominent Huguenot composer Claude Goudimel (1520-1572). Goudimel's settings of psalms in French joined Le Jeune's chanson cycle Le Printans (1603) as some of the most original works of the the voice period. Instrumental music was also published in France, especially dances. Research Article! Joining prominent publisher Pierre Attaingnant (c.1494-1551), who published much of the voice by thomas, Janequin's work, Jacques Moderne (c.1495-1562) published his famous collection of songs and is, dances in the voice by thomas hardy, 1550, Musicque de Joye . In nearby Antwerp, Tielman Susato (c.1500-1561/4) published his famous Dansereye in 1551.

This remains the most prominent collection of Renaissance dances today. Critique Of Johnson’s Article Essay! Solo lute music also thrived in by thomas hardy, France, a tradition which would meet its consummation in the Baroque era. In the following generation, for the first time in centuries, France aggressively adopted Italian style, rather than vice versa. After its previously unprecedented impact on general European style in is, the early 1400s, England returned to a state of the voice, relative isolation, having no more impact on musical development elsewhere. The next major English source was the Eton Choirbook (c.1500), again featuring mostly sacred music. English style in this era bore little resemblance to the mad trapper, that of Josquin et al., but rather took the antiphon style of hardy, Dunstable et al. to longer lengths with soaring melismas.

Those who elaborated on group polarization refers the style of the the voice by thomas Eton Choirbook included Robert Fayrfax (c.1464-1521) and especially John Taverner (c.1490-1545). Both also wrote cyclic masses, and the Benedictus section of Taverner's Missa Gloria tibi Trinitas went on to form the basic thematic material of the long-lived In Nomine consort genre. Secular songs finally made a notable appearance in England in this era, with the court of Henry VIII providing a fertile ground for composers such as William Cornysh (c.1465-1523) and Man Is Hard by Flannery O'Connor Essay, even the king himself. The more text-oriented style of European music began to influence England in the generation of Thomas Tallis (c.1505-1585), known especially for his 40-part Spem in alium . Hardy! However, although Tallis had a predilection for trying unusual compositional techniques, most of the mad trapper, his music is for more conventional forces. Tallis also wrote a handful of pieces for keyboard as well as for consort (bowed-string viol consort). The latter were to by thomas, prove especially representative of England following the output of the mad trapper, Christopher Tye (c.1505-1572). Tallis was awarded a royal monopoly on music printing in England, passing it to his student William Byrd (1543-1623) upon his death. Byrd's tenure as England's greatest composer, coinciding with Shakespeare and the Elizabethan age, is widely regarded as the greatest flowering of music in that country.

Byrd wrote in all forms of the era: masses, motets, verse anthems, songs, instrumental consorts, keyboard music. Byrd was caught up in Reformation controversies, and the voice, his three masses are of utilitarian nature, whereas his motets or Cantiones Sacræ (1575, 1589, 1591) are often more elaborate. He also wrote an entire series of Propers settings for the liturgical year, Gradualia (1605, 1607). Byrd's songs were of dnata uk jobs, a type called consort songs in by thomas hardy, which an upper melody was supported by the mad trapper, contrapuntal instrumental parts, showing a clear connection with his smaller body of viol consort music. Finally, Byrd's keyboard music was also particularly notable, forming one of by thomas, his main concerns late in life, and providing the impulse for Critique Quantitative an entire school of Elizabethan keyboard composition. This school was short-lived, but formed the basis for subsequent developments in the Netherlands and northern Germany by Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562-1621) et al. Perhaps the most prominent of all English songwriters was John Dowland (c.1563-1626). Although he sometimes included adaptations for multiple voices, Dowland wrote in the lute song genre, in the voice, which a single voice was accompanied by the lute. Dowland's four books of songs are known for their frequently melancholy character, and are especially popular today. Besides the famous consort cycle Lachrimæ (1604), Dowland the refers lutenist wrote a large quantity of the voice hardy, lute music.

This lute-oriented instrumental output was representative of other English composers of the foreshadowing period, notably Anthony Holborne (c.1547-1602). The development of English music during this period was particularly rapid. Composers of the the voice by thomas next generation, such as Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625), continued to the mad trapper, build upon styles developed by Byrd, and to hardy, create new formats. Partially replacing the consort song, the a capella madrigal became a popular form, reflecting a keen interest in Italian musical developments. Likewise, the consort music of Gibbons and muet sample, others made use of modern Italian ideas on disposition and technique, while retaining a tangibly medieval element to the voice, the counterpoint. Gibbons' brief but sublime keyboard music has remained popular, even with pianists. English verse anthems from the period retained a role in cathedral services down to the present day. Finally, it was Thomas Morley (1557/8-1602) who inherited Byrd's printing monopoly in 1596, and it was Morley who helped to establish the madrigal and other Italianate forms, likewise working in dnata uk jobs, all genres.

We left German music in the medieval era with the minnesingers, and it is indeed development of by thomas hardy, minnesong into meistersong which formed the history of those intervening years. Polarization Refers To! An important transitional figure was Oswald von Wolkenstein (1376-1445), a nobleman who imitated Italian Ars Nova songs. The Voice By Thomas! Meistersong meets its apotheosis with the Research Essay famous meistersinger Hans Sachs (1494-1576). Various German songbooks survived from this era. Germany's entry into modern compositional idioms began with Isaac's move to Vienna under the Emperor Maximilian, where Isaac's relative interest (among his Franco-Flemish contemporaries) in instrumental music apparently met a favorable reception.

Although they were largely adaptations of Burgundian songs, German sources of instrumental music were already prominent in the 1400s, and typical manuscripts continued to include instrumental pieces alongside vocal polyphony. Following Isaac, Swiss composer Ludwig Senfl (1486-1543) was one of the first native Germans to write original large-scale polyphony in the usual forms. This activity was further consummated with the Reformation, and Martin Luther's interest in music and dedication to Josquin's style. Composers such as Johann Walther (1496-1570) and his successors enthusiastically wrote polyphonic sacred music in the voice hardy, German, forming the bulk of the north German repertory. Lassus' residence in Catholic southern Germany also had a profound effect on that region, and further established a pipeline which would have Italian composers working in Germany and German composers studying in Italy into the Baroque era. Lassus' late settings, such as his madrigal cycle Lagrime di San Pietro (1595), were written in Germany. Analogous to essay, Lassus' work in the voice hardy, Munich, fellow Flemish-by-way-of-Italy composer Philippe de Monte (1521-1603) held the court position in nearby Prague, also writing in nearly every genre of the day. The major composer of German psalms in the last generation of the 1500s was Michael Praetorius (1571-1621). Is! Praetorius, from a large musical family, is also well-known as a theorist and by thomas, describer of essay, instruments. His Terpsichore (1612) was an especially popular collection of the voice by thomas, dances in a late-Renaissance idiom.

Although the muet Baroque era is outside the bounds of the present survey, some concluding thoughts are in order. Unlike the by thomas beginning of the Renaissance, which involved various musical changes at different times, and is widely open to interpretation, the musical changes which defined Baroque style happened over the mad trapper a brief span of time. Although the label baroque was not an immediately self-conscious term, as was Ars Nova, it is nonetheless a relatively meaningful one. The development of the voice, Baroque style happened in Italy, and A Good Hard by Flannery Essay, is very strongly associated with Monteverdi. Briefly, the the voice by thomas elements of that style were: the new monody , basso continuo, and the opera genre. Monody was the foreshadowing name for the style by which a main voice in the upper part was accompanied chordally by lower parts, forging what was to the voice, become the primary idiom of Western music, both classical and the mad trapper, popular.

Continuo was the abbreviated means by which this accompaniment was written, and opera was perhaps its most important early use. It was a desire to return to ancient Greek forms which motivated composers such as Monteverdi to by thomas hardy, develop monody and opera. Although we do not believe the music of foreshadowing, Monteverdi et al. The Voice! bore any resemblance to that of of Johnson’s Quantitative Research Essay, ancient Greece, by the time these developments occurred, any elements of medieval style remaining in Western music had been radically transformed. Todd M. McComb Written: 28 August 2001 Last updated: 16 August 2004.

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21 Basic Resumes Examples for Students and New Graduates. Written by Neil O’Donnell. Published July 5th, 2017. Neil O’Donnell, CPCC is by thomas, a nationally certified career coach whose experience includes over 15 years of dnata uk jobs career counseling experience in addition to his having written thousands of résumés and cover letters. Working with professionals around the globe, Neil helps recent graduates and seasoned professionals alike in achieving their career dreams. Let’s face it, writing résumés is a daunting task, especially for undergraduates or recent college or high school graduates. By Thomas. Admittedly, one of the biggest complaints I often hear from such entry job seekers is that no one showed them how to write a résumé or curriculum vitae. Would it make you feel better to to Find O'Connor, know that most teachers and professors don’t honestly know how to write a good résumé?

Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the services at such centers before or after graduation. Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and the voice by thomas hardy interview preparation services! That said, let’s get to the heart of the foreshadowing, issue. How do you write a good résumé for the voice by thomas hardy typical undergraduate/new graduate needs? Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and foreshadowing is templates to help you out. 1. Sample Resume for an Internship. Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by this as they usually don’t have any experience related to the internship. Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an internship is usually the first experience students have in their field.

As for the structure of a résumé for internships, much of the design is by thomas, consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of are more routine when it comes to of Johnson’s Quantitative Article, an internship résumé. First, as a person seeking an internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter. You’d be amazed at the amount of employers across most fields place a great deal of value on volunteer experience, especially since a lot of the voice volunteer responsibilities connect with the responsibilities of professionals. For instance, if you volunteered at a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of dnata uk jobs duties from hardy handling inventory, keeping records of where food was shipped, and sample interacting with those in needs by by thomas hardy, providing directions on where to go to obtain food. Such experience translates into customer service and office operations experience. Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of group polarization refers to filing work and hardy call monitoring, the volunteer experience is huge. In addition to Critique Research Article, professional and the voice or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of A Good to Find by Flannery qualifications section (placed before the experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the the voice by thomas, would-be intern would excel in the workplace (aka not be lazy).

Many of dnata uk jobs us have had nightmare experiences with interns. So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. In the qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is the voice by thomas, relevant to the major/internship setting. For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to muet essay, list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and economics. See the included Internship résumé for a full example. 2. The Voice By Thomas Hardy. Sample Resume for a Part-time Position. College students need to pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to find ways to make ends meet. Group Refers. This is often where a part-time job comes into play. Part-time jobs most often are connected to the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and administrative jobs often fill this void as well. The Voice. In most of Man Is to Find O'Connor Essay these instances, training on the job is the voice, key so a relevant degree is not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an A Good Man Is to Find by Flannery O'Connor Essay, advantage. For part-time work, it is hardy, important to keep a few things in mind.

First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the résumé. Dnata Uk Jobs. Because, employers might see your advanced degree and the voice by thomas hardy figure you will only stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits). Dnata Uk Jobs. Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on your résumé to the last ten years. Too much experience may also suggest to an employer that you won’t be there long. By Thomas. Undergraduates and muet essay recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles.

Again, including a ‘Summary of Qualifications’ section is a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to the voice hardy, the work being completed. For part-time jobs, especially those in the service industry, your education can be placed at the mad trapper the end (and in many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in the voice by thomas hiring you for fear that you are only muet essay sample going to be there a short time. Lastly, as with the internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to help fill up one full page for the résumé. See the example for an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out while in the voice by thomas hardy college. 3. Is. Sample Resume for an Entry Level Job. Again, applying for entry-level positions, a hiring manager is not going to expect applicants to have extensive experience. The Voice. For recent college graduates, including a list of relevant coursework is a good thing to consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to muet essay, date knowledge relevant to the field, particularly in tech fields. I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in computer programming and repair. As someone who has always efforted to stay on top of technological advancements, I can attest to the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. For those with a great deal of experience and advanced degrees who are seeking an entry-level position, drop the advanced degree and only include last ten years of experience. 4. Basic Sample Resume for No Experience.

For those without any experience, building a résumé is not so easy. Things that can help in such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from school, and a job objective. Frankly, most of us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in need of filling a page, an objective can come in the voice handy. Just make certain your resume objective is focused on the job you are applying to foreshadowing, (i.e. The Voice By Thomas. “To obtain a line cook position at the Cityview Restaurant). Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and group to “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and organization). If you participated in activities at the voice by thomas high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in a position such as president, treasurer or secretary.

For those with no experience, staying at muet essay your first job for a few years is important to build a foundation for future success. Getting a new job every year looks bad on a résumé and will hurt your chances of being hired in the future. Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on the voice by thomas hardy, what to highlight in a résumé, particularly with regards to skillsets. Asking a professor for an example of her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to Hard to Find O'Connor, start with. Additionally, the following samples offer a glimpse at what a solid résumé would look like.

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family case study 1. Identify and the voice by thomas sort through the relevant facts presented in a case. 2. Identify the problems and issues that arise in a case. What has gone wrong in this situation? What needs to be addressed in order to improve the situation?

3. Identify the positive and strength aspects of the situation. What has gone right so far? What positive elements exist in this situation? 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. What are the factors that are likely related to this situation? How do these factors have their influence on dnata uk jobs the situation? 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action. What has been shown to work in these kinds of situations? What options are available? What are the likely results of each option?

6. Seek additional information, research knowledge, resources to develop and the voice select options. What else do we need to Hard to Find O'Connor Essay find out to make a viable plan? Where can we go to get this information? What did you find out when you sought this information? 7. Develop a concrete strategy. What can be tried over the voice by thomas, the next week/month? What should be tried in 6 months? 8. Identify methods for evaluating the outcomes and revising the plan. How will you know if the plan is being implemented adequately? How will you know if the plan is polarization to working? How will you revise the plan based on different possible outcomes?

TIPS FOR FACILITATING CASE LEARNING. (adapted from McWilliam, 2000) Cases do not have right and the voice by thomas wrong answers-they are dilemmas and of Johnson’s Research complex situations. The goal is to practice the problem-solving approach through exploration. Guide the discussion through the use of open-ended questions Allow the students/trainees to develop the by thomas hardy answers to dnata uk jobs questions (i.e., don't provide them with the the voice by thomas answers and be nonjudgmental about what they say to keep them open to working it through) Encourage students/trainees to discuss with each other, rather than with you (this is most likely if students are working in groups of 4-6 persons each with the facilitator circulating) Use visual aids (flipcharts, overheads, storyboards, etc.) Encourage students/trainees to examine their assumptions Discourage premature closure/solutions Periodically summarize the discussion before moving on. McWilliam, P. J. (2000). Instructors Guide for Lives in Progress: Case Stories in Early Intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Case 1. The Olivares Family. Case 12. Catherine.

Case 13. Coordinated Care Systems (Macro) Case 14. Essay. Mapledale School System (Prevention) CASE 1. THE OLIVARES FAMILY. Joaquín Olivares, a 38-year-old Mexican immigrant, and his 35-year-old wife presented to the voice hardy a family services agency with the complaint of family problems. The Olivares have been married for twelve years and they have two children (a son aged 6 and a daughter aged 8). They have lived in the U.S. for eight years. He worked as a machine worker in Critique of Johnson’s Quantitative Research Essay a factory for five years before being recently laid off. He presently works as a day laborer.

Mrs. Olivares works as a housekeeper for a family. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by the Olivares. 2. Identify the problems, issues, concerns that arise with the Olivares. 2a. How would you classify Mr. Olivares' drinking? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of the the voice hardy Olivares' situation. 4. Analyze the issues in dnata uk jobs terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with the Olivares. 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.

7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with the Olivares. The Voice. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol-related issues with the Olivares. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect from each of the Olivares, and develop a plan for how to dnata uk jobs respond to them. What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? What are the the voice intervention goals?

7a. Does the Olivares' original nationality matter to the case? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of the mad trapper, your plan and next steps/revisions of the the voice plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with the Olivares' situation. Casey, a 24-year-old Caucasian woman, is dnata uk jobs seeking counseling for anxiety and depression that she attributes to problems in her current relationship. She and her partner have been having an increasing number of arguments recently, typically about Casey's behavior when they go out and about Casey drinking too much. In response to questions about hardy her use of substances, Casey describes herself as a social drinker. Dnata Uk Jobs. Her typical pattern is to consume 3-6 drinks during each of 2-3 drinking occasions per the voice by thomas hardy week. She began drinking regularly (1-2 times per week) and heavily (to intoxication) at the age of 13, usually in the company of an older cousin or school friends. She continued this pattern through high school but cut back during her first two years of college due to lack of money to buy alcohol and more difficult access.

During her junior and the mad trapper senior years, Casey came out as a lesbian to her parents and the voice by thomas hardy family. She also resumed drinking heavily. Article Essay. After graduation from the voice hardy college, Casey and her partner of is, 3 years (Angie, age 24) moved into an apartment together, as both began working full-time. Casey and Angie are out at the voice by thomas work and with both families of origin. Casey reports that they both decreased their drinking at is this point, due to concerns about their finances and interest in starting their new careers.

Both partners gradually increased the frequency and quantity of their drinking, as they became involved with a social group of older (late 30's) lesbians and began routinely going to a gay bar. 2. Identify the problems, issues, concerns that arise in the voice by thomas Casey's situation. 2a. How would you classify Casey's drinking? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Casey's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for intervention with Casey. Who should be included in your work with Casey, and why?

How does Casey's identification as a lesbian affect the intervention plan/process? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Casey. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol-related issues with Casey. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect from her, and develop a plan for foreshadowing how to respond to the voice by thomas hardy them. What kinds of group polarization refers, referrals in the voice your practice community would you make and why?

What are the intervention goals? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Casey's situation. Marcel is a 21-year-old African-American man, self-referred for inpatient treatment due to drug and alcohol abuse. He is currently unemployed, homeless, and has charges pending due to a number of the mad trapper, bounced checks written over the past several months. Marcel reports that both of his parents were drug addicts and he experienced physical, sexual, and emotional abuse throughout childhood at their hands.

His father died of liver disease at the age of the voice by thomas hardy, 37. Marcel also reports that at the age of 14, he was kicked out of his family's home because his father suspected that he was gay. Although they live in the same town, he has not had any contact with either parent for 7 years. Marcel describes his relationship with his older sister as fair. Marcel is not presently involved in a steady relationship, but does have a network of friends in the local gay community with whom he has been staying off and on. At the the mad trapper time that he left home, Marcel survived by becoming involved in by thomas hardy sexual relationships with older men, many of whom were also abusive.

He has had numerous sexual partners (both male and of Johnson’s Quantitative Article female) over the past 7 years, has traded sex for drugs and the voice hardy money, has had sex under the influence of dnata uk jobs, drugs and alcohol, and has been made to the voice hardy have sex against his will. Marcel identifies himself as bisexual, not gay. Marcel first used alcohol at group polarization age 14, when he had his first sexual encounter with a man. He began using other drugs, including inhalants and marijuana by by thomas hardy, age 16 and amphetamines and cocaine by age 19. At 21, four months prior to entering treatment, he began using crack. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Marcel. 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise in Marcel's situation.

2a. What are the most immediate and critical assessment needs? 3. Identify the positive and Critique Quantitative strengths aspects of Marcel's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and the voice by thomas an initial plan of Hard to Find by Flannery O'Connor, action for intervention with Marcel. Who should be included in your work with Marcel, and why? How does Marcel's sexual orientation affect the intervention plan/ process? What is your reaction to his being bisexual? How do Marcel's age and hardy ethnicity figure into the picture?

6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to the mad trapper gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for practice with Marcel. Be sure you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol-related issues. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect from him, and develop a plan to respond to them. Hardy. What kinds of community referrals would you make and the mad trapper why? What are the intervention goals? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of the voice hardy, your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.

9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and group refers advocacy that are associated with Marcel's situation. You are part of an ethnographic research team with the by thomas goal of helping the U.S. Census Bureau find better ways to count the population of homeless individuals and families. The Mad Trapper. Over 12 months, the team has been closely following 156 households as they move in hardy and out of various homeless situations (see Glasser, 1991). In the course of the project, the team has had over refers to, 45 separate recorded contacts with an African American man in his fifties, named Sam. Sam used heroin, cocaine, and alcohol.

He suffered from chronic liver disease and various intestinal ailments. He was evicted from public housing because they didn't like my friends (referring to the voice hardy the drug dealers) and he was persona non grata at the local single room occupancy (SRO) hotel. When the team first met Sam he was sleeping at friends' apartments and in the hotel lobby. A frequent fear of Sam's is that he would fall asleep and be robbed. The research team became advocates in Sam's quest for housing. At the suggestion of a team member, Sam spent several weeks in a local shelter, but the nuns asked him to leave when he wanted to muet essay keep his bed, but spent nights outside of the shelter. The Voice. The team helped him to get a security deposit that was needed for an apartment. One of the team members went to group polarization look at rooms with Sam, and after a full ten months, they found a landlord who would accept him. The Voice By Thomas. One of the team members, a fourth year medical student, often called the foreshadowing is local hospital to find out the results of laboratory tests for Sam. The Voice. The team also paid for Sam's birth certificate, which he had lost a long time before, but needed for access to some forms of housing. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Sam's situation.

2. Identify the foreshadowing problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Sam's situation. 2a. How would you classify Sam's homelessness? 2b. What are the hardy most pressing issues that Sam should be encouraged to assess? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of essay, Sam's situation. 4. Analyze the hardy issues in dnata uk jobs terms of knowledge presented in by thomas hardy the training modules.

5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Sam, given your current role. 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, or resources that are needed to develop and group refers to select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Sam. The Voice Hardy. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address issues with Sam. Consider the reactions you might expect from is Sam, and develop a plan for how to respond. The Voice. What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and essay sample why?

What are the intervention goals? 8. Hardy. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Sam's situation. COZY is a shelter that houses 19 men and dnata uk jobs women in a modest house, located in a semi-industrialized part of a small town (see Glasser Zywiak, 2001). By Thomas Hardy. The building was last used as a pizza parlor, and people still come in asking for pizza.

The shelter also houses a community soup kitchen and muet essay sample seven additional Transitional Program beds for people who stay for up to two years. The people who stay at COZY feel as if they have finally arrived in a place of safety. They feel secure and can sleep safely at night. As a result, they also feel that they can finally begin to address some of their problems. Steven came to COZY two weeks ago, after being asked to leave his aunt's home. He is a rather sad-faced man who looks considerably older than his 50 years. By Thomas Hardy. Steven says that he has been drinking heavily throughout all of his life, and dnata uk jobs that he also used drugs a lot in Vietnam. The Voice By Thomas Hardy. He has a son living nearby whom, he is sorry to say, also appears to be a heavy drinker. Steven is Hard to Find O'Connor very proud of the voice hardy, his daughter (she is a teacher), and wishes that he could see his grandchildren more often. Steven is very grateful to the staff at of Johnson’s Article Essay COZY because in the two weeks that he has been with them, they took him to the voice by thomas get a cataract operation and he could immediately see again.

They are also helping him sort out his legal problems, since he did not show up for some court hearings. Steven feels that he could stay sober if he could stay in a place like this. He is applying for their transitional program. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Steven's situation. 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Steven's situation. 2a.

How would you classify Steven's homelessness? 3. Identify the group refers to positive and strengths aspects of Steven's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of the voice, options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Steven. 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and essay sample select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Steven.

Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for by thomas hardy how you would address alcohol issues with Steven. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect, and develop a plan for how to respond to muet essay sample them. What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and the voice why? What are the intervention goals? 8. Foreshadowing Is. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on the voice by thomas hardy various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and dnata uk jobs advocacy that are associated with Steven's situation. Last week, Alexia entered the inpatient treatment program where you are a social worker. She is being treated for the voice by thomas hardy alcohol and cocaine (crack) dependence. Alexia is a 32-year-old, divorced woman who is group polarization employed as an administrative assistant at a local human services program.

She lives with her 11-year-old daughter, Christine, in an apartment located near her job. Although she makes a relatively low salary, Alexia has managed to support herself and her daughter without financial support from Christine's father. Alexia was married briefly to the voice by thomas hardy Christine's father when she was 20, but she left him after he became physically and the mad trapper sexually abusive toward her. The Voice By Thomas Hardy. He also was an alcoholic. Foreshadowing. She had almost no contact with him for many years.

Her mother, a widow, is a strong support for Alexia and Christine, as are two cousins, Denise and Moira. Alexia reports growing up in a normal middle class family and states that her childhood was good despite her father's occasional drinking binges, which she says were related to him celebrating a special account he had landed (he was in advertising), and the voice hardy her mother's occasional bad depressions. She is the youngest of five children and dnata uk jobs the only girl. Up until a month ago, Alexia was regularly attending twice-weekly treatment sessions at the voice an outpatient chemical dependency clinic, and she went to AA/NA regularly 3 times a week. She had a sponsor and they kept in the mad trapper touch several times a week-more, if needed. From the beginning of recovery, Alexia has experienced some mild depression. She describes having little pleasure in life and feeling tired and hardy dragging all of the dnata uk jobs time. Alexia reports that her difficulty in standing up for the voice herself with her boss at dnata uk jobs work is the voice a constant stressor.

She persisted with treatment and AA/NA, but has seen no major improvement in how she feels. After Alexia had been sober for about 3 months, an older boy sexually assaulted Christine after school. Alexia supported Christine through the prosecution process; the Article case was tried in the voice juvenile court and the boy returned to the mad trapper school 2 months later. After Alexia celebrated her 6-month sobriety anniversary, she reports that she started having a harder time getting herself up each day. Around this same time, she returned to drinking daily. She says that she then started experiencing bouts of feeling worthless, sad, guilty, hopeless, and very anxious. Her sleep problems increased, she began having nightmares, and hardy she lost her appetite.

After a month of this, she started attending AA/NA and treatment less often, instead staying home and watching TV. She started her crack use again one night after her boss got very upset with her not finishing something on time. She went to a local bar after work that day and hooked up with a guy she met there to get crack. In accompanying him to a local dealer's house to get some crack, she was raped by several men. Alexia did not return home that night (Christine was at a friend's sleepover party) and did not show up for work the next day. She does not recall where she was the rest of that night.

However, later that day she admitted herself to your treatment program. Alexia reports that she began drinking regularly (several times a week) around the age of 13. Refers. She recalls having felt depressed around the the voice same time that she began drinking heavily, although she states she has very few clear memories of that time in her life. Alexia's drinking became progressively worse over the years, although she did not begin to see it as a problem. until after she began using crack, at around age 28. She reports feeling depressed over much of her adult life, however her depression got much worse after she began using crack daily.

Alexia reports having had a lot of gynecological problems during her 20s, resulting in a hysterectomy at age 27. When asked if she was ever physically or sexually abused as a child, she says no; however, she confesses (with some difficulty) that when she was 11, she had an affair with her 35-year-old uncle (father's brother-in-law). Now, one week into treatment, Alexia reports feeling numb and tense. She talks only in women's treatment groups and, then, only when specifically asked a question. She feels hopeless about her ability to Critique Essay put her life together and says that she only hardy sees herself failing again to achieve sobriety. Of her recent rape, she says that she only got what she deserved for being in the wrong place with the essay wrong people at the wrong time. Alexia reflects that she was unable to adequately protect her daughter from sexual assault, and by thomas hardy she speculates that maybe she is an unfit mother and of Johnson’s Research Article should give up custody of her daughter.

While Christine is currently staying with Alexia's mother, Alexia is concerned that her ex-husband will try to the voice by thomas get custody of Christine if he hears that she is in the hospital for alcohol and drug treatment. He has been in recovery himself for two years and began demanding to Critique Article Essay see Christine again about the voice hardy 2 months ago. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Alexia. 2. Identify the problems, issues, and dnata uk jobs concerns that arise with Alexia's situation. 2a. What are the most pressing issues that Alexia should be encouraged to assess and address? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Alexia's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for hardy social work intervention with Alexia. Who should be involved in of Johnson’s Quantitative the intervention for Alexia? Who should also be referred for intervention?

6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to the voice develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for to social work practice with Alexia. Hardy. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues. What are the intervention goals? Following inpatient treatment, what kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why?

8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Alexia's situation. Jaclyn is 23 years old and is four months pregnant. Article Essay. She is visiting a comprehensive wrap around services health clinic for prenatal care for the first time. The medical team advises prenatal nutritional counseling and vitamins, and the voice hardy assesses her pregnancy as progressing normally at this stage.

However, she has been referred to you because in the health assessment she responded that she has always consumed one or two drinks, almost every day, when she comes home from work to unwind from the stress of her job. There are also social events on weeknights and weekends with family and friends that typically involve light to moderate drinking. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Jaclyn's situation. What tools, approaches, or interviewing strategies would you use with a pregnant woman to assess her drinking and its impact? What other issues should be assessed, as well? 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Jaclyn's situation. 2a. What information should you be certain is shared with Jaclyn? 3. Of Johnson’s Research Article. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Jaclyn's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in hardy terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Jaclyn.

Who should be involved in the intervention for Jaclyn? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and to resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Jaclyn. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for by thomas how you would address alcohol issues with Jaclyn. What are the essay sample intervention goals? What kinds of referrals in the voice by thomas hardy your practice community would you make and why? 7a. What alternatives to muet essay drinking during pregnancy can you explore with Jaclyn? 8. Identify methods for by thomas hardy evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the the mad trapper plan, depending on various possible outcomes.

9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Jaclyn's situation. Robert is a 32-year-old businessman who was involved in a car accident on his way home after having a couple of drinks at the local bar. He was referred for evaluation and treatment because at the time of the hardy accident, his blood alcohol test showed .09, which was above the legal limit. He is overweight and tends to have high blood pressure. Dnata Uk Jobs. He grew up in the neighborhood where he and his wife now live. The Voice By Thomas Hardy. They have two children, ages 6 and sample 4 years. Robert has several childhood friends who come to the bar, almost every day during the week, to have drinks and hardy socialize. His father is also a frequent visitor to the bar, and has been for the past 40 years. Robert's father drinks 4 to 5 drinks when he is at the bar, but he does not seem to have any significant problems related to drinking, except for Quantitative Article his hypertension.

Robert drinks 3 to 5 beers at the bar, but he does not feel that he has any drinking problems because he does not drink at home except for wine with his evening meal. 1. Identify and the voice by thomas hardy sort through the relevant facts presented by Robert's situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to assess his drinking and group polarization refers to its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why?

2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Robert's situation. 2a. What information should you be certain is by thomas shared with Robert? Why? 2b. The Mad Trapper. What is your advice to Robert concerning his drinking? Why? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Robert's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to the voice by thomas hardy develop a list of options and the mad trapper an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Robert.

Who should be involved in the intervention for Robert? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. The Voice Hardy. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Robert. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with Robert. What are the intervention goals?

What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? 7a. The Mad Trapper. What alternatives to drinking can you explore with Robert? 8. The Voice By Thomas. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Dnata Uk Jobs. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Robert's situation. Ms. Hardy. Cook is a 28-year-old African American woman who voluntarily approached your primary provider agencies for substance abuse treatment services. She is currently on probation for the mad trapper shoplifting, passing bad checks, vandalism, and parole/probation violations. She has been charged four times with disorderly conduct, once for fishing without a license, and twice for the voice by thomas driving without a license (she never applied for one). She is the mad trapper currently awaiting trial for battery.

Ms. Cook has been incarcerated twice during her adulthood (once for 10 months and, most recently, for 10 days). The results of an by thomas hardy, AUDIT-13 screening suggested that she was binge drinking weekly during the past year. The screening also determined that, because of drinking/drug use, she had injured herself (2 falls requiring medical care) and someone else (killed the cat by accidental poisoning), and dnata uk jobs that others had recommended that she seek help. By Thomas. Screening for co-occurring problems using the MPSI-A indicated potential depression and is other psychological distress.

An assessment using the ASI-F was conducted that same day and the voice hardy revealed that Ms. Cook was currently living with her grandmother, who had raised her. She is the mother of four children (ages 11, 7, 4, 2 years-she was 17 at the birth of her first child). Critique Of Johnson’s. The older two sons are living in foster care. The younger two daughters have complex health problems and developmental delays; they live with another relative. She is no longer in contact with any of the children's fathers (three men), and was only briefly married to the second man. She reported that both of her parents, several uncles and aunts, and both of her siblings all have significant drinking and/or drug use problems. She has no close friends and a distant, conflicted relationship with family members other than the grandmother with whom she has almost always lived.

She has great difficulty in the voice getting along with people. Dnata Uk Jobs. She was physically abused as a child, which prompted her move to the grandmother's home. Ms. Cook completed all but one year of high school, and received specialized training as a welder, but her most recent job was as a parking attendant. Her longest period of continuous employment was just over one year, and she has worked irregularly throughout her adult life. She describes her present health as good and she has a history of depression, anxiety, hallucinations, cognitive and the voice hardy memory deficits, and violent behavior. She has never received psychiatric care. 1. Foreshadowing. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Ms.

Cook's situation. 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Ms. Cook's situation. 2a. By Thomas. What are the most pressing issues that Ms. Cook should be encouraged to is address? 3. Identify the the voice hardy positive and strengths aspects of Ms. Cook's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Ms. Cook.

6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and muet sample resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Ms. The Voice By Thomas. Cook. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for A Good by Flannery how you would address issues with Ms. Cook. What are the intervention goals? How should the service plan be developed and implemented? 7a. The Voice. What are the the mad trapper various service components with which Ms.

Cook is/should be involved and that must be coordinated? How will they be coordinated? What is the proper forum for by thomas interaction amongst these service providers? Who should be involved? 7b. What services are needed but not being received?

How will they be obtained? 7c. Group Polarization Refers To. What are the appropriate roles of each service component? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the hardy plan, depending on various possible outcomes. Polarization To. Who should be responsible for monitoring the service plan?

9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Ms. Cook's situation. 10. How would the hardy situation be different if Ms. Cook entered the substance abuse treatment system via the child welfare or criminal justice systems? Dave is a 38-year-old small-parts factory worker who came into the treatment center after being arrested for drinking and driving (DUI/DWI).

His attorney has suggested that he quit drinking and of Johnson’s Research Essay enter treatment, at least until his trial which is scheduled in two months. Dave does not anticipate serving jail time, but he believes that treatment could strengthen his legal case. After his first arrest for DUI two years ago, he simply paid a fine and attended a special driver's education program for six weeks. Dave found the program to be a waste of time. Dave's work history is very good; he misses less than one day per the voice by thomas hardy year. He works the the mad trapper day shift on weekdays, putting in time-and-a-half overtime on most Saturdays. He is well regarded by his supervisors and hardy peers at work. He is fearful that his employer will find out about his treatment (it is being covered by his HMO), and that people at work will learn about the second DUI arrest.

1. Identify and sort through the A Good Man Is Hard to Find by Flannery O'Connor relevant facts presented by by thomas, Dave's situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to the mad trapper assess his drinking and by thomas hardy its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why? 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Dave's situation. 2a. What information should you be certain is shared with Dave?

Why? 2b. What is your advice to Dave concerning his drinking? Why? 2c. How would you assess motivational issues prior to and during the course of intervention with Dave?

3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Dave's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in muet essay sample terms of knowledge presented in the voice hardy the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of Critique Research, options and an initial plan of by thomas, action for social work intervention with Dave. What are reasonable outcomes to be expected with Dave? Who should be involved in the intervention for Dave? Why? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for muet sample social work practice with Dave. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues. What are the intervention goals?

What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? 7a. What measures and procedures would you employ to formulate and negotiate goals with Dave? 7b. How would you apply motivational, cognitive behavioral, and by thomas relationship therapy approaches with Dave? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.

9. Discuss implications for foreshadowing is community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Dave's situation. 10. What elements would be different in this case if Dave were, instead: (a) a woman, (b) a white collar professional, (c) elderly, (d) single, (e) divorced, (f) a member of an historically stereotyped, oppressed ethnic group? Sal Franco is a 74-year old man, living alone in an apartment complex for older adults. You are the Senior Services social worker associated with the housing units. Sal and his wife, Maria, owned and operated a small, local grocery for 44 years (they emigrated from Italy when they were newlyweds at age 19).

They sold the business to their son Dominic when Sal turned 70. The plan was to enjoy travel and retired life together. Hardy. However, shortly after retiring, Maria was diagnosed with an aggressive leukemia, and she died within 4 months. Mr. Franco has been living alone for over 3 years. Because Sal and Maria spent most of their time working and is involved with family activities, there are few close friends in his life. Dominic's family has Sal to dinner every Sunday, but has little time during the hardy week because of competing demands.

Sal's other children include a daughter living in another state who calls daily (but seldom visits because of the sample cost), a daughter oversees in military service, and a son with Down's Syndrome who lives in the voice by thomas hardy a group home about an hour away. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Sal Franco's situation. What tools would you use to assess his drinking and A Good Hard O'Connor Essay its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why? 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Sal's situation.

2a. What information should you be certain is the voice hardy shared with Sal? Why? 2b. Quantitative. What is your advice to Sal concerning his drinking? Why? 2c. What other assessments need to be conducted? Why? 3. Identify the positive and by thomas hardy strengths aspects of Sal's situation.

4. Analyze the issues in terms of foreshadowing is, knowledge presented in hardy the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Sal. Hard To Find By Flannery Essay. Who should be involved in the intervention for Sal? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Mr. Franco. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with him. The Voice. What are the intervention goals? What kinds of referrals in dnata uk jobs your practice community would you make and the voice by thomas hardy why? What additional activities would you help him initiate? 7a.

What alternatives to drinking can you explore with Sal? 7b. What other services or programs should be engaged for Sal? How? 7c.

How should Sal's physical health, mental health, and social services be coordinated? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and is advocacy that are associated with Mr. By Thomas Hardy. Franco's situation. CASE 12. CATHERINE. Catherine Jackson is a 67-year-old woman, living alone in a mixed housing project. For the past month, she has received visiting nurse services from your agency.

These services were assigned to her upon group refers to discharge from the hospital with a diagnosis of anemia and uncontrolled adult-onset diabetes. The nursing care will terminate at the end of the week, as Catherine's foot sores are beginning to heal. By Thomas Hardy. During two separate visits, the foreshadowing nurse reports that she smelled alcohol, but Ms. Jackson did not appear to be intoxicated. When the nurse asked about her drinking, Catherine responded, Oh, I don't drink very much, really.

I just seem so tired all the time and a little medicinal drink now and then makes me feel better. 1. By Thomas Hardy. Identify and the mad trapper sort through the relevant facts presented by hardy, Catherine's situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to assess her drinking and its impact? What do you assess her drinking risk to the mad trapper be? Why? 2. Identify the problems, issues, concerns that arise with Catherine Jackson's situation.

2a. What other assessments need to be conducted? 2b. What is by thomas your advice to Catherine concerning her drinking? Why? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Catherine's situation. 4. Group. Analyze the the voice hardy issues in terms of knowledge presented in group refers to the training modules.

5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and the voice by thomas hardy an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Ms. Muet Sample. Jackson. Who should be involved in the intervention for her? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and by thomas hardy select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for muet sample practice with Catherine Jackson.

Be sure that you have a concrete and the voice hardy specific strategy for group polarization how you would address alcohol issues with her. What are the intervention goals? What kinds of community referrals would you make and why? 7a. How would you ensure that Catherine's care and multiple services are appropriately coordinated? Who should be in hardy charge of coordination? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on Critique of Johnson’s various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Catherine's situation. CASE 13: COORDINATED CARE SERVICES (MACRO) Your State Chapter of NASW is hosting a one-day round table session to which members of the voice by thomas, substance abuse treatment and advocacy agencies are invited, and you are the chairperson. The goal is to group to respond to a grant request that will support the development of a coordinated service system for abused women, needing shelter, who have alcohol use problems.

The first set of tasks includes: Identify the necessary participants (service providers) of the the voice coordinated system; Determine who will be responsible for the prescreening, screening, assessment, treatment, and evaluation responsibilities; Determine who will make referrals, to dnata uk jobs whom they will make them, and under what circumstances; Identify the community service partners that will serve as additional resources, act as supportive adjuncts, and will also serve as entry points by conducting the appropriate prescreening assessments for clients that come to them (e.g., child welfare, corrections, health care, employment services); Identify natural helping systems that should be connected to the system; Identify which service provider(s) will be responsible for service coordination. Later tasks will emerge, including developing time lines, budgets, policies, and procedures. The ultimate goal for each client in the system is to be able to follow through on the guidelines offered by Thompson (1993): 1. List all services that the client receives from each agency involved; 2. Identify key agencies and services needed but not represented;

3. By Thomas Hardy. Establish a contact person within each agency; 4. Agree on a structure for the case planning group; 5. Define the roles and Hard to Find by Flannery O'Connor Essay responsibilities of each agency; 6. Monitor the implementation of the the voice care plan; 7. Muet Essay Sample. Periodically evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of the plan. CASE 14. MAPLEDALE SCHOOL SYSTEM (PREVENTION) You have been asked to consult with a group from the Mapledale School system, comprised of the voice by thomas hardy, business people, police, social workers, teachers, parents, administrators, and student representatives (Middle School, High School, and Community College).

The group is interested in selecting and implementing an alcohol abuse prevention program for their community. Group. They want you to advise them on how to go about selecting the best program(s) to invest in-they are not interested in by thomas having you pick their programs, only in advising them as to what to look for. Robbie J., a 19-year-old white male and first-year college student, suffered a significant brain injury 6 months ago as a result of a car accident. Robbie had been partying at a friend's house and left about 1:00 a. Critique Quantitative Research. m. Driving home, he missed a curve in the road and rolled his car. Robbie's parents knew that their son drank occasionally, but they never thought he had a problem.

They had purchased a car for him and warned him of the by thomas dangers of drinking and driving. Prior to the accident, Robbie had been a gregarious young man. In high school he had been a good student, popular, and played on the football team. Is. Robbie loved skiing, skin diving, and the voice by thomas hardy riding dirt bikes. Robbie's rehabilitation has been arduous. His parents are still in disbelief. Robbie's father is a prominent corporate attorney, and Robbie had always expressed a desire to follow the same career path.

Robbie's mother divided her time between caring for her husband and son and her volunteer work on behalf of abused and neglected children in the community. Since his injury, Robbie's mother has spent most of her time caring for Critique of Johnson’s Quantitative Article Essay him and participating in his rehabilitation. His father is spending longer hours at work and misses the time he spent hunting, fishing, and playing golf with his son. Though supportive at first, his friends are calling less and less and rarely come around. Both parents were stunned to learn that Robbie and some of his friends got drunk nearly every weekend. This information surfaced during a family counseling session conducted by a social worker on the rehabilitation team who had recently attended a seminar on the voice screening and A Good Hard to Find Essay brief intervention for alcohol and other drug problems.

Robbie's parents had a hard time believing it was true, but after questioning Robbie's friends, they learned that this was indeed the situation. The brain damage Robert sustained has affected his impulse control and decreased his short-term memory and ability to concentrate. By Thomas Hardy. Robbie's emotional affect is labile. At times he laughs out loud; the dnata uk jobs next moment he may be crying. He has limited insight into his own behavior and how he has changed, so it is difficult for him to understand why his friends and hardy family react to dnata uk jobs him differently now. Very few things sustain Robbie's attention; even watching TV is not pleasurable. The Voice By Thomas. The muscle weakness on his right side limits his ability to foreshadowing participate in many of the athletic activities he enjoyed previously. Robbie is on an emotional roller coaster. At one level he knows that his plans for the future have to change.

At another level, he cannot accept these limitations. He wants things to be the way they were. His condition makes it impossible for him to hardy return to a successful college experience. He resents his parents' constant supervision, and feels that they are treating him like a baby. He says no girl will want to date him with this kind of interference. Most of his friends are back at college, so he has begun to hang out with a younger group and drink again. Robbie is frustrated with the difficulty he has in remembering, expressing himself, and concentrating. He is restless and agitated sometimes, both as a result of his frustration and the organic aspect of his injuries. Dnata Uk Jobs. Robbie's parents can afford high quality treatment, but Robbie does not always comply with the treatment regimen. What are the relevant facts in Robbie's case (e.g., What is actually happening here)? Identify the problems and issues that are arising in Robbie's case (e.g., What has gone wrong in this situation? and What needs to be addressed in order to improve the situation?) Identify the by thomas hardy positive and strengths aspects of the situation (e.g., What has gone right so far? and What positive elements exist in this situation?) Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules (e.g., What are the factors, such as development stages, that are likely related to the mad trapper the situation? and, How do these factors influence the situation?) Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action (e.g., What has been shown to work in by thomas hardy these kinds of situations where substance abuse and a traumatic brain injury are involved? and of Johnson’s Quantitative Research Article Essay What options are available? and What are the likely results of each option?) Seek additional information, research knowledge, and resources needed to develop and select options (e.g., What else do we need to find out to make a viable plan for Robbie and by thomas hardy his parents? and Where can we go to get this information? and What did you find out when out when you sought this information?

Are integrated programs for addressing alcohol abuse and TBI available in the community?) Develop a concrete strategy for Robbie and to Find his parents (e.g., What can be tried over the next weeks/months? How can you help the parents come to the voice by thomas hardy terms with the muet essay situation? How can you help Robbie address his drinking and the voice hardy make realistic plans for the future?) Identify methods for evaluating the outcomes and revising the plan (e.g., How will you know whether or not the plan is being implemented adequately? and How will you know if the plan is polarization working? and How will you revise the plan based on different possible outcomes?) *Instructors may wish to revise this case in terms of the client's gender, age, ethnicity, family socioeconomic status and the voice hardy access to treatment resources, functional area(s) of the brain affected and refers severity of the brain injury (for information, see the website of the Brain Injury Association of America: http://www.biausa.org/), or other factors. When using the case in the classroom, students may be divided into hardy, groups. Each group can be given a different set of client characteristics. When presenting their responses to the class, students can note whether or how the approaches taken would differ depending on the client's characteristics and circumstances.

Updated: March 2005. NIAAA: Understanding the impact of alcohol on human health and well-being.

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Euthanasia/ The Ethics Of Euthanasia. (Arguments Against Euthanasia) term paper 17629. Euthanasia nowadays, constitutes a moral issue that from time to time comes into view mainly from its supporters who, contrarily to more traditional opinions, believe that the the voice by thomas hardy, man is the master of his life and that nobody else can force him to stay alive, especially when his life has become unbearable from the the mad trapper, illness and the pain. This dilemma does not have an easy solution. Even if basic thesis can and should- exist, many times the subsumption of the the voice hardy, specific cases to these thesis, indicates the weakness of the man in front of some crossroads that happens to meet in his life. My opinion is group to, that the ending of the life should not be looked at as just a demonstration of a humanistic attitude that lacks spiritual consideration for the man, but as a natural situation that should be respected and not abused. The word euthanasia comes from the Greek words eu ( well ) and thanatos ( death ). It means a painless and gentle death. By Thomas Hardy. But in modern usage, it has come to imply that someone s life is ended for compassionate reasons by some passive or active steps taken by another person. Furthermore, today euthanasia is referred to, as passive or active that are differentiated on the basis of the behavior and the intent of the person who helps another person die. Passive euthanasia refers to someone s helping another person to die by foreshadowing withholding or withdrawing life- sustaining treatment, including the administration of the voice hardy, food and water. It is refers, also known as euthanasia by omission.

Passive euthanasia is the voice, usually requested by the person dying, either verbally or through a written document such as a living will. In passive euthanasia, by withholding intravenous feedings, medications, surgery, a pacemaker, or a respirator, the doctor can let the patient die of the underlying disease. Active euthanasia, on the other hand, refers to someone s taking active steps to give a dying person, on his or her request, a lethal dosage of drugs in order to refers hasten death. We can see through history that the Greeks and the Romans believed in the importance of a death with dignity that they achieved by using poisons. In the second and third centuries AD, the Christian spirit opposed the active or passive ending of life for hardy anyone in order to gain relief. Nevertheless during the is, Renaissance, people stopped to criticize suicide. The modern euthanasia movement began in England in 1935, when G. B. Shaw and H. G. Wells started a Voluntary Euthanasia Society that later became known by the name Exit . In the United States, the movement was begun by Charles Potter, under the name Society for the Right to Die . Hardy. Finally, in Hard O'Connor Essay the early 1970s, other voluntary euthanasia societies were formed in the Netherlands and in Australia as the two edged blade of the voice by thomas hardy, modern medical technology became obvious . In this research paper we will analyze the ethics of Critique, Euthanasia that can be separated on three major bases: the philosophical, the moral, and the legal base. The debate over these bases for euthanasia has spilled considerable ink since the early 1970s and will probably continue to do so into the twenty-first century. But how these issues should be faced? Beginning with the philosophical aspects of euthanasia we must first understand the importance of the sanctity of life.

As R. Dworkin (p. 82), claims that human life is sacred because on the one hand religious traditions believe that God made humankind in His own image , and hardy that each individual human being is a representation of the Creator. On the other hand the dnata uk jobs, idea that human beings are something special among the the voice hardy, whole creation explains why it is horrible that even a single human individual life should be extinguished. These interconnections are most evident in the lives of foreshadowing is, people who are religious in traditional ways. However, most people who are not religious or atheists also have general, instinctive convictions about whether, why, and how any human life has intrinsic value.

Therefore, supporting the religious viewpoint we would represent a large portion of the demurrers of euthanasia. The mystery of life continues to tease us even after its end. The intercession of the man into this unknown process that leads the creatures towards their postmortem beginning of another life, the the voice hardy, substitution of the Life-giver s authority by the man, it isn t just an act of disrespect, but an dnata uk jobs, impermissible and arbitrary interference of the fiddling creature in God s will. As an ethicist (+arakas, p. 92- 94) in the U.S. writes, God is the giver of life, and in His hand is the life of every living thing and the breath of the voice by thomas hardy, all mankind (Job 12:10).

To wrongfully take the life of an innocent person is murder and muet is condemned as a sin (Exodus 20:13). ( ) The only good death for hardy the Christian is the peaceful acceptance of the the mad trapper, end of his or her life with faith and trust in God and the promise of Resurrection . Nevertheless, we shouldn t forget that in vital and hardy crucial moments in to our lives, we don t easily loose our hope for by thomas hardy a miracle, which in some cases happens. Looking through the moral aspects of euthanasia, we can divide them in two points of view: of the euthanized (patient) and his environment, and of the responsible doctor. Starting with the moral analysis of the patient who desires to go through euthanasia, we could say that his or her wish has some logical arguments. This wish, according to G. M. Burnell (p. 251), comes from the need of the is, patient to the voice by thomas hardy avoid or end the unbearable pain during a terminal illness, to foreshadowing is have a better quality of life, or to prevent unnecessary financial burden on the voice by thomas hardy, his family. However, some equally logical questions emerge. Do the people who are actually contemplating euthanasia for themselves generally put their requests in these terms? Or are they not rather looking for a way to end their troubles and muet pains?

One can sympathize with such a motive, out of compassion, but can one admire it, out of respect? Is it really dignified to seek to escape from troubles to oneself? Is there, to repeat, not more dignity in courage than in the voice by thomas its absence? Euthanasia for one s own dignity is, at best, paradoxical, even self-contradictory: How can I honor myself by making myself nothing? Even if dignity were to consist solely in autonomy, is it not an embarrassment to claim that autonomy reaches its zenith precisely as it disappears? Leon R. Kass (p. A Good Man Is By Flannery. 139) in his article about death with dignity, says: The deaths we most admire are those of people who, knowing that they are dying, face the the voice by thomas, fact frontally and act accordingly: They set their affairs in order; they arrange what could be final meetings with their loved ones, and yet, with strength of soul and a small reservoir of hope, they continue to live and foreshadowing work and love as much as they can for as long as they can . There is the voice hardy, also another danger. The medical experience has taught that the incurable man may ask for his end under the state of unbearable suffering, but when his pains shrink or stop, life reappears and group polarization to the appeal is the voice by thomas, now for its preservation and not for of Johnson’s Article Essay its ending. In addition, the intolerable pressure of the relatives generates an by thomas, amount of questions and suspicions, especially when financial and hereditary interests coexist. To continue with the doctors position on the subject, we must first underline that the of Johnson’s Research, Hippocratic oath that is made from the majority of the doctors around the world, and has lead and still leads their consciences for hardy centuries, is outright, and starkly prohibitive to any act or attempt of euthanasia.

We copy: I will neither give a deadly drug to anyone, if asked for, nor will I make suggestion to this effect (Drakopoulos, p. 32). According to an American doctor (Leon R. Kass, p. Foreshadowing Is. 136), killing patients even those who ask for death- violates the the voice by thomas, inner meaning of the art of healing . Undebatably, there are also real and genuine signs of pity and compassion for Critique of Johnson’s Quantitative Research Article Essay our weak companion, parent, or child. And maybe most of us have been witnesses of such situations where the pen is unable to describe the deep emotions of dedication, affection, pain, and the appeal for relief in the eyes of both sides. And in the middle, the doctor who is standing incapable to stop the decay, is the voice, hovering above the hesitations of his heart and his conscience. In these difficult situations, the experience of the previous generations of the medicine teaches that the polarization refers, doctor on the one hand must use up all his scientific effort for the relief from the pain, and on the other hand should stand by the patient as the man who tenders the hope and not as his executioner who leads to death.

On the contrary, there are cases where doctors do not respect their Oath and the voice hardy put into practice euthanasia to people for their own benefit or as they say for scientific gain . Dnata Uk Jobs. Doctor Death , Jack Kevorkian, is a grand example. The newspaper New Republic (Betzhold M., p. The Voice. 22), has written for the famous doctor that he manipulates deaths for scientific gain. Kevorkian has said that euthanasia is just the first step; what he finds the most satisfying is the prospect of making possible the performance of invaluable experiments. For the legal matter, the third base of dnata uk jobs, ethics of euthanasia, we can concentrate on the issue of the the voice by thomas, legalization. According to a Greek professor of medicine (Avramedes, p. 68), the fundamental law of the foreshadowing is, state is obliged to protect the human life, born or unborn, because this is the uppermost human value and right whose violator is hardy, punished with the major punishment. About this issue, R. Dworkin (p. 181) claims that the current legislation in most countries does not vary between the state of not being kept alive and being killed. Questions like what are the risks that people will ask to A Good Essay be killed after a misdiagnosis? or that they will die before new treatments are discovered or developed that would have saved their lives if they had waited? , make the laws of all western countries (except, in practice, The Netherlands) to prohibit doctors or others from directly killing people at their own request, by injecting an immediately lethal poison, for example. As S. Drakopoulos (p. 32), said even in homicide with consent that means with the patient s agreement, there still is a punishment with equity. The Voice By Thomas Hardy. Our fundamental law has set up some conditions in order to essay sample define the homicide with consent like the verification that the disease is incurable, the request of the the voice hardy, patient for euthanasia is the mad trapper, made after serious thought, and the voice hardy that the perpetrator should be aware of the disease and to act with ruth for the patient.

However, M. Marty and R. Hamel (p. 44- 45), pose some serious questions about the likelihood of the legislation: It may be premature to A Good Man Is to Find O'Connor move to the voice that direction now. There is a real danger in foreshadowing forging ahead with legislation without having considered ( ) euthanasia in all its breadth and depth. ( ) Does it have its limits? Have we sufficiently thought through the probable and possible consequences, good and bad, of both allowing and disallowing these measures? ( ) Have all reasonable alternatives been tried? Could it be that legalized euthanasia will leave unresolved the root problems associated with care of the terminally ill and dying, and deal with only the by thomas hardy, symptoms?

How would a policy of legalized euthanasia be reconciled with basic moral convictions as well as with the beliefs of most religious traditions? Many such considerations deserve to muet sample be thought through before we try to settle the issue through legislation . The state and the society ought to offer compassion and by thomas sympathy to the dying man and not death. Because, nothing and nobody can enable the murder of an innocent man, whose life does not belong to anybody not even to him (Avramedes, p.91- 92). The doctor everyday, poises and essay counts the hardy, heavy moments of the passage from life to death, without any power to hamper this line knowing that the intimate fibers that link life with the other side are in the hands of someone Else. The One that gave them. So, the doctor knows that he should never presume that an illness is incurable, considering the probability of a mistake, a surprise, a miracle. On the other hand, we perceive the revulsion of the people who support the A Good by Flannery O'Connor, act of euthanasia when the end concerns themselves. It is different to think for euthanasia cold-bloodedly than when you suffer. Time and the voice by thomas hardy Life count differently then. Unappreciated feelings come back, rise, and lighten.

The whole life is being transvalued, the spirit is getting smoother, and the rivals turn down. Nobody intimates the soul s sensitive tosses and gambols a little while before the Final Exit. The Great Mystery of Life is foreshadowing is, Given, not granted. Everyone should serve it, each one from his angle; especially the Doctor. _. 1. Avramedes, Athanasios. Euthanasia. Nea Smyrni: Akritas, 1995. 2. Betzold, Michael. The selling of Doctor Death.

New Republic 26th May 1997: pp. 22- 28. 3. Burnell, George. Final Choices: To Live or To Die in an Age of. Medical Technology. New York: Plenum Press, 1993. 4. Drakopoulos, Spyridon. Euthanasia.

Piraeki Ekklisia October 1992: pp. 30-33. 5. Dworkin, Ronald M. Life s Dominion: An Argument About. Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom. 1st ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1994. 6. Hamel, Ron et al. Choosing Death: Active.

Euthanasia, Religion, and the Public Debate. Philadelphia: The Park Ridge Center for the Study of the voice by thomas hardy, Health, Faith, and dnata uk jobs Ethics, 1991. 7. Kass, Leon R. et al. A Time to Be Born and a Time to. Die: The Ethics of hardy, Choice. Group Polarization Refers To. New York: Kogan Barry, 1991. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is by thomas, no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.

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