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barbara amiel essay Information can be transferred to recipients through different means. Robotics In The Field Essay? People choose the means to use by saturn company assessing the reliability of the article used to provide them with information. The writers of these articles chose the Medical Essay topics that will attract the customers. There are articles that specialize in one area of knowledge. There are articles that specialize in politics, religion, and economy among others. Essay? Such articles include magazines, newspapers, journals, and others.

This paper will analyze two articles from both sides of the Essay story, by comparing and forfeiture reform contrasting the articles. Robotics In The Field? The two articles chosen in this paper are, Time Magazine which is a consumer publication with the topic news and opinions, and civil forfeiture Macleans which is a magazine with the topic news and in the Medical Essay opinion in life america, Canadian perspective. Robotics In The Medical Field Essay? Both articles act as a medium of information exchange. They provide the consumer with data that they want to hear or see. Both magazines aim at educating consumers on the current happenings locally and internationally (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/). Both magazines use graphics to present information about a certain topic. The magazines bring information closer by use of photographs and life in colonial america print outs. Medical Field? This will capture the in The Yellow by Charlotte Perkins attention of people quite easily. Both use summarized headings that are demonstrated using the photographs. In The Medical? The knowledge is clearly emphasized using clear photographs. For instance, in providing information about world news, the magazines use photos that are directly related to the topic (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/).

Both magazines have websites that offer online users an opportunity to read and be conversant with the current news. These articles provide a wide range of Dickens information on the website. For instance on top of the in the Medical Field Internet page, the topics are well structured which include politics, health, business, and technology among others. This provides an easier way of accessing the in colonial information needed by the consumer. The magazines provide information on Robotics Medical Field, politics when one click on politics. Hard? This shows that the content in both magazines is well organized (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/). Both magazines provide archived information. The readers may have wanted to know about a certain thing that happened without their knowledge.

They may have wanted to Medical read the magazine but they were busy and that day ended without them reading the news. 2nd Triumvirate? Both magazines have the option of Robotics in the Essay reading already passed news. The information can be found in broca and wernicke areas, the archives. For instance, the Robotics Medical Essay time magazine provides files dating from Yellow Wallpaper Perkins Gilman, 1923. This data is freely accessible and is shared by Robotics in the Field many through the facts website and in the CNN (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/).

Both magazines provide news and opinions. The magazines provide consumers with a chance to provide their opinions. The magazines are, therefore, interactive and free from monotony. The management provides consumers with an america opportunity to air their views. This is in how to improve on Robotics Medical Essay, the data provided by the magazines. 2nd Triumvirate? Consumers are provided with information to write on in the Medical Essay, different topics provided by the magazines. The involvement of people makes them develop a liking for civil forfeiture the magazine because they know that their needs are met in a democratic manner (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/). However, the Robotics two magazines have some differences according to civil forfeiture reform the way they present information. The Time magazine features more block type fonts, images, and photographs to pass on the information. It provides more graphics than words.

The Maclean’s magazine presents summaries of different topics. Robotics? Such topics include culture, politics, health news, business and international news. The magazines are more detailed than the time magazine. Broca And Wernicke? Maclean’s magazine provides news and an opinion after the in the Medical Field news. These opinions are done by various editors. For instance, columnists include Barbara Amiel, Andrew Coyne, Paul wells and other Canadian writers. This makes Maclean’s more detailed in presenting the news. On the other hand, the time magazines have articles that are shorter and snappier. Saturn Company? The headings are short and brief (Newman 92). The time magazine specializes more on graphics. Use of Medical Field Essay creative images and photographs is 2nd triumvirate, what makes the time magazine.

The magazines demonstrate the news using printouts and explain briefly about in the Essay, them. Maclean’s magazine, on the other hand, provides detailed knowledge about the different topics available. If it is in An Answer in The Wallpaper Perkins, politics, the Field writers of To Madness Yellow by Charlotte Perkins these articles provide detailed information about the current happenings in politics. Maclean’s is the Robotics in the most popular magazine in Canada that is An Answer in The Yellow Wallpaper, read by in the Medical Field Essay a large group of people. This is due to its detailed information that is reliable. Essay? For instance, in 1968-1971, MacLean’s produced 700000 copies while time magazine produced 500,000 copies (Newman 92). Medical Field? Maclean’s been and is still known for areas its detailed report on Robotics in the Field, politics. The magazine is saturn company, known for Robotics in the Essay analysis of current events that are political in nature. Maclean’s concentrate on longer articles on political subjects. It is from the past known for 2nd triumvirate giving political priority to protecting individual liberty, promoting equality, and strengthening democracy among the Canadian people. Robotics In The Medical? This is in Vascular Plants, contrast with time magazine which published short news stories (Newman 92).

The Maclean’s magazine also provides extensive news on education. This magazine publishes news on Canadian colleges. This provides guide to university students and enlightens them on in the, what is happening in the Canadian colleges. Forest? For instance, the Robotics Medical Field Essay magazine presents yearly information for To Madness Yellow Gilman evaluating post-secondary educational choices. This is Robotics Field, especially to non-Canadians so that they can be familiar with the saturn company education system of Canadian colleges. Robotics Field Essay? This is saturn company, aimed at helping them decide on whether to study at a Canadian college. This gives post-secondary education students with the freedom to choose the colleges they would like to join. This is not the same with the time magazine. Robotics In The? The magazine does not specialize in deciduous facts, the articles to publish like in education and politics.

The time magazine is brief and Robotics Medical Field Essay cannot accommodate information about a certain topic (Newman 92). Saturn Company? The Maclean’s magazine is the most reliable source of Field information. The writer of saturn company this article is convincing and able to attract most readers. The writer has emphasized on the reliability of the magazines by elaborating the areas the magazine specializes in writing. The magazine elaborates information on politics and works towards fighting for human rights. When people’s rights are emphasized, people will be highly attracted to buying the magazine.

The author of Maclean’s article was far much better in convincing the consumers about Robotics in the Essay, what is reform, offered by the magazine. Robotics In The Medical? The group of saturn company people targeted by the magazine is strategic of the author because it is a group that needs to keep informed. Robotics Medical Field Essay? For instance, politicians and areas students are the Field Essay targeted groups. Approx. Plants Essay? 275 words / page. Font: 12 point Arial/Times New Roman Double line spacing. ANY citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard) Fully referenced work. We write on ANY TOPICS.

Free revisions according to our revision Policy. Robotics Medical Field? Free title page. Free bibliography reference. Free formatting (APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard and others)

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Robotics in the Medical Field Essay

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More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports. Submitted by Teacher-2-Teacher contributor Kim Robb of Summerland, BC. Create life-sized models of two of your favorite characters and dress them as they are dressed in the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in the book and how you relate to the other character you have made.

Create a sculpture of a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object. An explanation of how this character fits into the book should accompany the sculpture. Robotics Field Essay. Interview a character from your book. Write at deciduous forest, least ten questions that will give the character the opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in the story.

However you choose to present your interview is up to Robotics Medical Essay, you. Write a diary that one of the story’s main characters might have kept before, during, or after the book’s events. Remember that the character’s thoughts and Dickens Essay examples, feelings are very important in a diary. Robotics Essay. If you are reading the same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to Dickens Essay examples, the class. Prepare an oral report of 5 minutes. Give a brief summary of the plot and describe the Robotics in the Field Essay, personality of one of the deciduous forest, main characters. Be prepared for questions from the class.

Give a sales talk, pretending the students in the class are clerks in a bookstore and you want them to push this book. Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in Field, the book. Include a written explanation of the 2nd triumvirate, scene. Make several sketches of Robotics Medical Field Essay, some of the scenes in the book and label them. Describe the setting of a scene, and then do it in pantomime. Life In Colonial. Construct puppets and present a show of Robotics Medical Field Essay, one or more interesting parts of the book. Dress as one of the Cryptogramic, characters and act out a characterization. Imagine that you are the author of the book you have just read. Robotics Medical. Suddenly the reform, book becomes a best seller. Write a letter to a movie producer trying to Robotics in the Essay, get that person interested in making your book into a movie.

Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. America. Suggest a filming location and the actors to Robotics Field Essay, play the deciduous facts, various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. (Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and animals) of one of the main events of the book. Include a written description of the scene. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on the front page of a newspaper in the town where the story takes place. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion.

This must be done in the correct letter format. Read the same book as one of your friends. The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn. Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the characters in the book. Draw a portrait to accompany each description. After reading a book of history or historical fiction, make an illustrated timeline showing events of the story and draw a map showing the Medical Field Essay, location(s) where the Vascular, story took place. Read two books on Robotics Medical Field, the same subject and compare and contrast them. Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must hve been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the movie version with the book. Create a mini-comic book relating a chapter of the book.

Make three posters about the book using two or more of the life in colonial america, following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Robotics In The Field Essay. Design costumes for dolls and dress them as characters from the book. Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story. Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the book. After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Cryptogramic. Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Robotics In The Field. Design a book jacket for the book.

I STRONGLY suggest that you look at an actual book jacket before you attempt this. Create a newspaper for your book. Summarize the plot in one article, cover the weather in 2nd triumvirate, another, do a feature story on one of the more interesting characters in another. Include an editorial and a collection of ads that would be pertinent to the story. Do a collage/poster showing pictures or 3-d items that related to the book, and then write a sentence or two beside each one to show its significance. Do a book talk. Talk to the class about your book by saying a little about the author, explain who the characters are and explain enough about the beginning of the story so that everyone will understand what they are about to read. Finally, read an exciting, interesting, or amusing passage from your book.

Stop reading at a moment that leaves the audience hanging and add If you want to know more you’ll have to read the book. If the book talk is Robotics in the Field Essay well done almost all the students want to read the book. Construct puppets and facts, present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Robotics Medical. Make a book jacket for the book or story. Draw a comic strip of your favourite scene. Make a model of something in the story. Use magazine photos to make a collage about the story Make a mobile about the story. Make a mini-book about the story. Practice and deciduous facts, the read to the class a favourite part. Retell the story in your own words to the class.

Write about what you learned from the Robotics in the Medical Field Essay, story. Write a different ending for your story. Write a different beginning. Write a letter to a character in the book. Deciduous. Write a letter to the author of the book. Make a community journal. Write Graffiti about the book on a brick wall (your teacher can make a brick-like master and then run this off on red construction paper.) Cut your words out of construction paper and glue them on the wall.

Compare and Robotics in the Field Essay, contrast two characters in the story. Free write your thoughts, emotional reaction to the events or people in the book. Sketch a favourite part of the book–don’t copy an already existing illustration. Cryptogramic Vascular Essay. Make a time line of all the events in the book. Make a flow chart of all the events in the book. Show the events as a cycle. Make a message board. In The Medical Field Essay. Make a map of where the events in the book take place. Compare and contrast this book to another. Do character mapping, showing how characters reacted to events and changed.

Make a list of character traits each person has. Make a graphic representation of an event or character in 2nd triumvirate, the story. Make a Venn diagram of the people, events or settings in your story. Make an action wheel. Robotics Field. Write a diary that one of the story’s main characters might have kept before, during, or after the book’s events. Remember that the civil forfeiture, character’s thoughts and feelings are very important in Robotics in the Medical Field, a diary.

Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in the book. Include a written explanation of the Cryptogramic, scene. Field Essay. Make a poster advertising your book so someone else will want to read it. Deciduous Forest Facts. Keep and open mind journal in three or four places in your story. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on the front page of a newspaper in the town where the story takes place.

Make a newspaper about the Robotics Medical Field, book, with all a newspaper’s parts–comics, ads, weather, letter to the editor,etc. Interview a character. Write at least ten questions that will give the character the opportunity to forfeiture reform, discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in the story. However you choose to present your interview is up to you. Make a cutout of one of the characters and write about them in Robotics in the Medical Essay, the parts.

Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. ( Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Make a character tree, where one side is event, symmetrical side is emotion or growth. Choose a quote from a character. Forest. Write why it would or wouldn’t be a good motto by Medical, which to live your life Learn something about the environment in facts, which the book takes place Tell 5 things you leaned while reading the book Retell part of the story from a different point of view Choose one part of the story that reached a climax. If something different had happened then, how would it have affected the outcome? Make a Venn diagram on the ways you are like and Robotics in the Field, unlike one of the characters in your story. Write about one of the character’s life twenty years from now. Write a letter from one of the characters to a beloved grandparent or friend Send a postcard from one of the characters.

Draw a picture on one side, write the message on the other. If you are reading the same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Make a Venn diagram comparing your environment to the setting in saturn company, the book Plan a party for Robotics in the Medical one or all of the characters involved Choose birthday gifts for civil forfeiture one of the characters involved. Tell why you chose them Draw a picture of the setting of the Robotics Field Essay, climax. Why did the author choose to have the action take place here? Make a travel brochure advertising the setting of the story. Choose five artifact from the facts, book that best illustrate the happenings and meanings of the story.

Tell why you chose each one. Stories are made up; on conflicts and solutions. Choose three conflicts that take place in the story and give the solutions. Is there one that you wish had been handled differently? Pretend that you are going to join the characters in the story. Field Essay. What things will you need to pack? Think carefully, for you will be there for a week, and there is no going back home to get something! Make up questions–have a competition. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion.

Retell the story as a whole class, writing down the parts as they are told. Each child illustrates a part. 2nd Triumvirate. Put on the wall. Each child rewrites the story, and divides into 8 parts. Make this into a little book of 3 folded pages, stapled in the middle (Outside paper is for title of book.) Older children can put it on the computer filling the unused part with a square for later illustrations. Outline the story, then use the outline to expand into Medical, paragraphs. Teacher chooses part of the text and forest facts, deletes some of the words. Students fill in the blanks. Make a chart of interesting words as a whole class activity.

Categorize by parts of speech, colourful language, etc. After reading a book of history or historical fiction, make an illustrated time line showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. Make game boards (Chutes and Ladders is a good pattern) by groups, using problems from the book as ways to get ahead or to be put back. Groups exchange boards, then play. Create life-sized models of two of your favourite characters and dress them as they are dressed in the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in Robotics Field Essay, the book and how you relate to the other character you have made.

Create a sculpture of a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object. An explanation of how this character fits into the book should accompany the sculpture. Make several sketches of some of the scenes in the book and label them. Describe the setting of a scene, and then do it in pantomime. Dress as one of the characters and act out a characterization.

Imagine that you are the author of the saturn company, book you have just read. Suddenly the book becomes a best seller. Write a letter to a movie producer trying to get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. Suggest a filming location and the actors to play the Robotics in the Essay, various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Reform. Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and Medical Field Essay, animals) of one of the main events of the book. Include a written description of the scene. Cryptogramic Essay. Read the same book as one of your friends. Robotics. The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn.

Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the characters in the book. Draw a portrait to accompany each description. Read two books on the same subject and saturn company, compare and contrast them. Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must have been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an Robotics Essay essay comparing the movie version with the book.

Make three posters about the book using two or more of the following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Design costumes for dolls and dress them as characters from the book. Saturn Company. Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story. Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the book. After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the Robotics in the Essay, poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Civil Forfeiture Reform. Be a TV or radio reporter, and Robotics Medical Field Essay, give a report of 2nd triumvirate, a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Write a one sentence summary of each chapter and illustrate the sentence.

Mark a bookmark for the book, drawing a character on the front, giving a brief summary of the book on back after listing the title and author. Write a multiple choice quiz of the in the Field Essay, book with at least ten questions. Make a life-sized stand-up character of one of the people in the book. On the 2nd triumvirate, back list the characteristics of the person. Pretend you are making a movie of your book and are casting it. Choose the actors and actresses from people in the classroom. Tell what you think the main character in the book would like for a Christmas present and tell why. Add a new character and explain what you would have him/her do in the story. Do some research on a topic brought up; in in the Field Essay, your book.

Write an forest facts obituary for one of the characters. Medical Field Essay. Be sure to include life-time accomplishments. Choose a job for civil reform one of the in the Medical, characters in the book and write letter of reform, application. You must give up your favourite pet (whom you love very much) to one of the characters in the book. Which character would you choose?

Why? Invite one of the Robotics Medical Field Essay, characters to dinner, and plan an imaginary conversation with the person who will fix the meal. What will you serve, and why? Write an Times, examples ad for a dating service for one of the characters. Nominate one of the characters for an office in local, state or national government.

Which office should they run for? What are the qualities that would make them be good for that office? Pretend that you can spend a day with one of the characters. Which character would you choose? Why? What would you do?

Write a scene that has been lost from the book. Write the plot for a sequel to this book. Add another character to the book. Why would he be put there? What part would he serve? Rewrite the story for younger children in picture book form. Write the plot of the story as if it were a story on the evening news Make a gravestone for one of the Robotics Medical Essay, characters. What other story could have taken place at this same time and setting? Write the Times, Dickens, plot and Field, about 4 or 5 characters in this new book.

Give an oral summary of the book. Give a written summary of the saturn company, book. Essay. Tell about the most interesting part of the book. Write about the most interesting part of the book. Tell about the 2nd triumvirate, most important part of the book. In The Medical Field. Write about the most interesting part of the book. Read the interesting parts aloud. Write about a character you liked or disliked. Write a dramatization of a certain episode. Demonstrate something you learned.

Make a peep box of the most important part. Paint a mural of the civil forfeiture reform, story or parts of it. Paint a watercolor picture. Make a book jacket with an inside summary. Make a scale model of an important object. Draw a clock to show the time when an important event happened and write about it. Robotics In The Medical Field. Write another ending for the story.

Make up a lost or found ad for Times, by Charles Dickens Essay a person or object in the story. In The Field Essay. Make up a picture story of the most important part. Draw a picture story of the most important part. Compare this book with another you have read on a similar subject. Write a movie script of the story. Gather a collection of life in colonial america, objects described in the book. Medical. Draw or paint pictures of the Cryptogramic Essay, main characters. Make a list of words and definitions important to the story. Make a 3-D scene. Create a puppet show. Robotics Medical Field Essay. Make a poster to advertise the book.

Give a pantomime of an important part. Use a map or time-line to show routes or times. Make a map showing where the story took place. 2nd Triumvirate. Tell about the author or illustrator. Make a flannel board story. Robotics Field. Make a mobile using a coat hanger. Give a chalk talk about the book. Do a science experiment associated with the reading. Tape record a summary and play it back for Cryptogramic Plants Essay the class. Make a diorama.

Make a seed mosaic picture. Make a scroll picture. Robotics. Do a soap carving of a character or animal from the story. Make a balsa wood carving of a character or animal from the story. Make stand-up characters. Make a poem about the story.

Write a book review. Books about how to Essay, do something- classroom demonstration – the directions can be read aloud. Write the in the Field Essay, pros and cons (opinion) of a book after careful study. If a travel book is read- illustrate a Travel Poster as to deciduous, why one should visit this place. A vivid oral or written description of an interesting character. Mark beautiful descriptive passages or interesting conversational passages. Tell a story with a musical accompaniment.

Make a list of new and Robotics Medical Essay, unusual words and expressions. 2nd Triumvirate. A pantomime acted out for Medical Essay a guessing game. Write a letter to a friend about the life, book. Check each other by writing questions that readers of the in the Medical, same book should be able to answer. Make a time-line for saturn company a historical book. Broadcast a book review over the schools PA system. Essay. Research and tell a brief biography about the america, author. Make models of things read about in Essay, the book. Make a colorful mural depicting the book. A picture or caption about laughter for humorous books.

Compare one book with a similar book. Think of a new adventure for forfeiture reform the main character. Write a script for an interview with the Robotics Essay, main character. Retell the story to a younger grade. Choral reading with poetry.

Adding original stanzas to poetry. Identify the parts in the story that show a character has changed his attitudes or ways of behavior. Sentences or paragraphs which show traits or emotions of the 2nd triumvirate, main character. Parts of the story which compare the actions of two or more characters. Field. A part that describes a person, place or thing. A part of the story that you think could not have really happened.

A part that proves a personal opinion that you hold. A part which you believe is the climax of the story. The conversation between two characters. Life America. Pretend you are the Robotics Medical Field, main character and retell the story. Work with a small group of students. Plan for one to read orally while the others pantomime the action. Write a letter to one of the characters.

Write a biographical sketch of one character. Fill in what you don’t find in the text using your own imagination. Write an account of what you would have done had you been one of the characters. Construct a miniature stage setting for part of a story – use a small cardboard box. Children enjoy preparing a monologue from a story. Marking particularly descriptive passages for oral reading gives the reader and his audience an opportunity to appreciate excellent writing, and deciduous, gives them a chance to improve their imagery and enlarge their vocabulary. The child who likes to make lists of new unusual and interesting words and expressions to add to Robotics in the Essay, his vocabulary might share such a list with others, using them in the context of the Hard Times, by Charles Dickens Essay examples, story.

Giving a synopsis of a story is an excellent way of gaining experience in arranging events in sequences and learning how a story progresses to a climax. Using information in a book to make a scrapbook about the subject. A puppet show planned to illustrate the story. Children reading the same book can make up a set of questions about the book and then test each other. Biographies can come alive if someone acts as a news reporter and interviews the person. Preparing a book review to present to in the, a class at a lower level is an excellent experience in 2nd triumvirate, story- telling and gives children an understanding of how real authors must work to Robotics Medical Field, prepare books for children. Have the students do an author study and read several books by the same author and then compare. Cutting a piece of paper in the form of a large thumbnail and forfeiture reform, placing it on the bulletin board with the caption Thumbnail Sketches and letting the children put up drawings about the books they’ve read. Stretch a cord captioned A Line of Good Books between two dowel sticks from which is hung paper illustrated with materials about various books.

Clay, soap, wood, plaster, or some other kind of modeling media is purposeful when it is used to Robotics in the Medical Field, make an illustration of a book. Constructing on a sand table or diorama, using creatively any materials to represent a scene from the story, can be an individual project or one for forfeiture a group. Robotics Field Essay. A bulletin board with a caption about laughter or a picture of someone laughing at excerpts from funny stories rewritten by the children from material in humorous books. Visiting the america, children’s room at Robotics Medical Field, the public library and telling the librarian in person about the kinds of books the civil, children would like to have in the library. Video tape oral book reports and Robotics in the Field, then have the children take turns taking the video home for all to forest facts, share. Write to the author of the book telling him/her what you liked about the book. Be Book Report Pen Pals and share book reports with children in another school. Do a costumed presentation of your book.

Dress either as the author or one of the characters. Write a letter from one character to Robotics in the, another character. Times, By Charles Essay. Write the Robotics in the Field Essay, first paragraph (or two) for a sequel. Deciduous Forest Facts. Outline what would happen in the rest of book. Write a new conclusion. Write a new beginning. If a journey was involved, draw a map with explanatory notes of Medical Field, significant places. Make a diorama and explain what it shows. Make a diorama showing the life in colonial america, setting or a main event from the book. Make a new jacket with an original blurb.

Use e-mail to tell a reading pen pal about the book. Participate with three or four classmates in a television talk show about the book. With another student, do a pretend interview with the in the Medical Field, author or with one of the characters. Times, By Charles Essay Examples. Cut out magazine pictures to Robotics in the Medical Essay, make a collage or a poster illustrating the idea of the forfeiture, book. With two or three other students, do a readers’ theatre presentation or act out a scene from the book. Lead a small group discussion with other readers of the same book.

Focus on a specific topic and report your group’s conclusion to the class. Keep a reading journal and record your thoughts at the end of each period of reading. Write a book review for a class publication. Find a song or a poem that relates to the theme of your book. Explain the Robotics in the Essay, similarities. For fun, exaggerate either characteristics or events and write a tabloid-style news story related to your book.

Draw a comic-book page complete with bubble-style conversations showing an incident in your book. Use a journalistic style and write a news story about deciduous facts, something that happened to one of the characters. Write a paragraph telling about the title. Is it appropriate? Why? Why not? Decide on an alternate title for the book. Robotics Medical. Why is it appropriate?

Is it better than the one the book has now? Why or Why not? Make a poster advertising your book. Make a travel brochure inviting tourists to visit the setting of the book. What types of activities would there be for civil reform them to attend? Write a letter to Robotics Medical Field, the main character of the book. Write a letter to the main character of the book. Write the letter he or she sends back.

Make three or more puppets of the characters in the book. Prepare a short puppet show to tell the saturn company, story to the class. Write a description of one of the main characters. Draw or cut out a picture to accompany the description. Make an in the ID card which belongs to one of the characters. Reform. Be sure to make the card look like the cards for that particular state. Include a picture and all information found on and ID card. Don’t forget the signature!! ******This gets them researching what ID cards /Driver’s Licenses look like; as well as thinking about the in the Essay, character–especially the signature.

I have seen kids ask each of the other students to sign the character’s name to find the one that would most likely belong to the character.******** Prepare a list of 15 to 20 questions for use in determining if other people have read the book carefully. 2nd Triumvirate. Must include some thought questions. How? Why Dress up as one of the Robotics in the, characters and facts, tell the story from a first person point of view. Rewrite the story as a picture book.

Use simple vocabulary so that it may be enjoyed by younger students. Write a diary as the main character would write it to explain the events of the story. Must have at least 5 entries. In The Medical Field. Make a map showing where the story took place. Make a dictionary containing 20 or more difficult words from the book. Describe the problem or conflict existing for the main character in deciduous facts, the book. Field. Tell how the life in colonial, conflict was or was not resolved. Robotics In The. Make a mobile showing pictures or symbols of happenings in the book. Make a collage representing some event or part of your book. Make a crossword puzzle using ideas from Cryptogramic Vascular, a book. Need at least 25 entries.

Choose any topic from your book and write a 1-2 page research report on it. Robotics In The Medical. Include a one paragraph explanation as to how it applies to your book (not in the paper itself–on your title page.) Design and make the front page of a newspaper from the material in the book. Write a song for your story. (extra marks if presented in class) Write a poem (or poems) about your story. Pretend you are a teacher, preparing to teach your novel to the entire class. Create 5 journal prompts. Make a comic strip of your story.

Make a display of the time period of life, your book. Make a banner of cloth or paper about your book. Create a movie announcement for your book. Create a radio ad for your book. Write out the script and tape record it as it would be presented. Don’t forget background music! Make a wanted poster for one of the characters or objects in your book. In The Field. Include the following: (a) a drawing or cut out picture of the character or object, (b) a physical description of the saturn company, character or object, (c) the character’s or object’s misdeeds (or deeds?), (d) other information about the character or object which is important, (e) the reward offered for the capture of the character or object.

Research and write a 1 page report on the geographical setting of your story. Robotics In The Medical Essay. Include an explanation as to why this setting was important to the effect of the story. Design an advertising campaign to promote the sale of the book you read. Include each of the following: a poster, a radio or TV commercial, a magazine or newspaper ad, a bumper sticker, and deciduous forest facts, a button. Robotics In The Medical Field Essay. Find the top 10 web sites a character in your book would most frequently visit. Include 2-3 sentences for each on why your character likes each of the sites. Write a scene that could have happened in the book you read but didn’t. Life In Colonial America. After you have written the Robotics Essay, scene, explain how it would have changed the forfeiture, outcome of the in the Medical Field, book. Create a board game based on events and characters in the book you read. Saturn Company. By playing your game, members of the class should learn what happened in the book. Your game must include the following: a game board, a rule sheet and in the Medical Field Essay, clear directions, events and characters from the story.

Make models of three objects which were important in the book you read. On a card attached to each model, tell why that object was important in the book. Design a movie poster for forest facts the book you read. Robotics In The Medical Field. Cast the major character in in colonial america, the book with real actors and actresses. Include a scene or dialogue from the book in Robotics in the, the layout of the poster. Remember, it should be PERSUASIVE; you want people to come see the movie. If the book you read involves a number of locations within a country or geographical area, plot the events of the story on a map. Make sure the map is large enough for us to read the main events clearly. Cryptogramic Vascular Essay. Attach a legend to your map. Robotics Medical Essay. Write a paragraph that explains the importance of each event indicated on the your map.

Complete a series of five drawings that show five of the major events in the plot of the book you read. Write captions for each drawing so that the illustrations can be understood by someone who did not read the book. 2nd Triumvirate. Make a test for the book you read. Include 10 true-false, 10 multiple choice, and 10 short essay questions. After writing the test, provide the answers for in the Medical Essay your questions. Select one character from the Cryptogramic Plants Essay, book you read who has the qualities of a heroine or hero. List these qualities and in the Medical Field, tell why you think they are heroic. Imagine that you are about to make a feature-length film of the novel you read. You have been instructed to select your cast from members of your English class. 2nd Triumvirate. Cast all the major characters in your novel from your English classmates and tell why you selected each person for a given part. Plan a party for Medical Field Essay the characters in the book you read.

In order to do this, complete each of the following tasks: (a) Design an invitation to the party which would appeal to all of the characters. (b) Imagine that you are five of the characters in the book and tell what each would wear to Cryptogramic, the party. (c) Tell what food you would serve and why. (d) Tell what games or entertainment you will provide and why your choices are appropriate. (e) Tell how three of the characters will act at the party. (f) What kind of a party is in the Medical Field Essay this? (birthday, housewarming, un-birthday, anniversary, etc.) List five of the main characters from the book you read. Deciduous Facts. Give three examples of Robotics Medical, what each character learned or did not learn in the book. Obtain a job application from an employer in deciduous forest, our area, and fill out the Robotics in the, application as one of the Cryptogramic Essay, characters in the book you read might do. Before you obtain the application, be sure that the job is one for Robotics Essay which a character in your book is qualified. If a resume is required, write it. You are a prosecuting attorney putting one of the characters from the book you read on trial for a crime or misdeed. Prepare your case on paper, giving all your arguments.

Do the previous activity, but find a buddy to help you. One of you becomes the prosecuting attorney; the other is the defense. If you can’t find a buddy, you could try it on your own. Make a shoe box diorama of a scene from the book you read. Write a paragraph explaining the scene and its effect in the book on saturn company, your title page. In The Medical Field. Pretend that you are one of the characters in the book you read. Tape a monologue of Times, Essay examples, that character telling of his or her experiences. Be sure to write out a script before taping. You could perform this live if you so choose. Make a television box show of ten scenes in the order that they occur in the book you read. Cut a square form the Medical Field, bottom of a box to serve as a TV screen and make two slits in opposite sides of the box.

Slide a butcher roll on which you have drawn the scenes through the two side slits. Essay Examples. Make a tape to go with your television show. Be sure to write out a script before taping or performing live. Tape an Robotics Medical interview with one of the characters in the book you read. Pretend that this character is being interviewed by a magazine or newspaper reporter.

You may do this project with a partner, but be sure to write a script before taping. You may choose to do a live version of this. Write a letter to a friend about the book you read. Explain why you liked or did not like the book. In The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield describes a good book as one that when you’re done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it. Imagine that the author of the book you read is a terrific friend of yours.

Write out an imaginary telephone conversation between the saturn company, two of you in Robotics Medical Field Essay, which you discuss the book you read and other things as well. Civil Reform. Imagine that you have been given the task of Robotics Medical Essay, conducting a tour of the town in which the book you read is set. Make a tape describing the homes of your characters and the places where important events in the book took place. You may want to use a musical background for your tape. Do some research on the hometown of your book’s author.

You may be able to find descriptions of his or her home, school, favorite hangouts, etc. What else is of interest in the town? Imagine that you are conducting a tour of the town. Make a tape describing the places you show people on 2nd triumvirate, the tour. You may want to Robotics in the Medical Field, use a musical background for your tape. Make a list of at least ten proverbs or familiar sayings. Now decide which characters in the book you read should have followed the suggestions in the familiar sayings and why. Deciduous Forest. Write the copy for in the Medical Essay a newspaper front page that is devoted entirely to the book you read. The front page should look as much like a real newspaper page as possible. The articles on the front page should be based on Cryptogramic Essay, events and Robotics in the Field Essay, characters in the book.

Make a collage that represents major characters and events in 2nd triumvirate, the book you read. Robotics In The Medical Field. Use pictures and words cut from magazines in your collage. Make a time line of the in colonial, major events in the book you read. Be sure the divisions on the time line reflect the Medical Field, time period in the plot. Vascular Plants Essay. Use drawings or magazine cutouts to illustrate events along the Robotics in the Essay, time line. You could present this to the class, taking us through time–event be event, for more marks. Change the setting of the forfeiture, book you read. Tell how this change of setting would alter events and affect characters.

Make a paper doll likeness of one of the characters in the book you read. Design at least threes costumes for this character. Next, write a paragraph commenting on each outfit; tell what the clothing reflects about the character, the historical period and events in the book. Pick a national issue. Compose a speech to be given on that topic by one of the major characters in the book you read. Be sure the contents of the speech reflect the characters personality and beliefs. Retell the plot of the book you read as it might appear in a third-grade reading book.

Be sure that the vocabulary you use is appropriate for that age group. Tape your storytelling. Complete each of these eight ideas with material growing out of the book you read: This book made me wish that…, realize that…, decide that…, wonder about…, see that…, believe that …, feel that…, and hope that… After reading a non-fiction book, become a teacher. Prepare a lesson that will teach something you learned from the book. It could be a how-to lesson or one on content. Plan carefully to present all necessary information in a logical order. Robotics In The Medical Field. You don’t want to confuse your students! Present your lesson to your students. How did you do? If you taught a how-to lesson, look at deciduous, the final product to see if your instructions to the class were clear. If your lesson introduced something new, you might give a short quiz to see how well you taught the lesson.

Look through magazines for Robotics Field Essay words and pictures that describe your book. Use these to create a collage on a bookmark. Make the bookmark available for others to use as they read the same book. Write the saturn company, title of your book. Decide on some simple word–picture–letter combinations that will spell out the title rebus style. Present it to Robotics in the Medical Field Essay, the class to 2nd triumvirate, solve (I will make a transparency or copies for you.) After they have solved the rebus., invite them to Robotics Medical Field Essay, ask questions about the book. After reading a book, design a game, based on that book as its theme. Will you decide on a board game, card game, concentration?

The choices are only limited to YOUR CREATIVITY! Be sure to include clear directions and provide everything needed to play. Choose an interesting character from your book. Consider the character’s personality, likes and dislikes. Decide on a gift for him or her… something he or she would really like and 2nd triumvirate, use. Design a greeting card to go along with your gift. In the greeting, explain to your friend from the book why you selected the gift.

Design a poster to advertise your book. Be creative…use detail…elaborate…use color! Can you make it 3-D or movable? Make a large poster that could be a cover for that book. Imagine that you are the book and plan a way to introduce yourself. Make the group feel they would like to know you better. Organize your best points into an introduction to in the, present to the class.

Be sure to wear your cover! Read the classifieds. Find something a character in your book was looking for or would like. Cut out the classified. Write a short paragraph telling why he or she needs/wants the Cryptogramic Vascular Plants, item. Robotics Medical Field. Would the Cryptogramic Vascular Plants Essay, one advertised be a good buy for in the Medical Essay him or her? Why or Why not? Create cutout sketches of each character in your novel. Mount the life in colonial america, sketches on a bulletin board. Robotics Medical. Include a brief character sketch telling us about the deciduous facts, characters.

Design a symbol for a novel or a certain character. Gather a large collection of current events that reflect incidents that closely parallel those in in the Medical Field Essay, your novel. Write a letter to the author of your novel and explain how you feel about the saturn company, book. Prepare and present an oral interpretation to Robotics in the Essay, the class. Create a poster that could be used as an advertisement. Do a five minute book talk. 18 Responses to “More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports” Great ideas, but many in the lower half are repeating the deciduous forest, first half of the list. We’ll take a look at editing out some obvious duplicates. There’s no sense in making such a long list even more cumbersome to digest. I remembered there being subtle but noteworthy differences on some of those ideas deemed “similar,” but please note that this was a reader contribution.

Feel free to send in or comment with your own suggestions. Thank you for the feedback! HOW AM I GONNA PICK ONE! I go to Ockerman as well(; I’m in 7th grade and i had Mrs. Raider last year. Medical. I Love you Mrs. Raider and Mrs. Moore(: 3. xD.

hey Mrs.Body thank you for the suggestions and opportunities to Cryptogramic Vascular Plants, show my creative and artistic skills. You can also put jeopardy or make a short movie trailer of the book like it is Robotics in the Medical Essay just about to come in theaters. Also you can do a news broadcast of a seen that is happening in the book. I also think that you can put an facts idea of having to do a short song or rap of in the Medical Field, what is happening in your book. woah that is a huge list. 2nd Triumvirate. i might do either 14 or 64! I really like these ideas. Robotics Medical Essay. They gave me a 120% on my final grade! I know get to graduate. Thanks BOB!

This is an amazing list! I don’t know which idea to choose! Act out the entire book in a two hour movie! That is such a good idea. AWESOME BIG FAT A+ I love this site. How can we pick one if there is over 2nd triumvirate 300 of them.

You could also do a short book about the Robotics Medical Essay, book. Sometime you must HURT in order to deciduous forest facts, KNOW. FALL in order to in the Medical Field, GROW. LOSE in reform, order to Medical Field Essay, GAIN. Because life’s greatest lessons. are learned through PAIN.

Thank you this is very helpful. Yeah ! I like those ideas these are helping for last three years … Three books three years three new ideas thee A’s.

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20 Classic Case Studies Every Business Student Should Know. Although almost every business is Robotics in the Essay unique in its own way, there are some universal lessons that apply to just about any kind of business. In these case studies, we#39;ll take a look at employee performance and retention, supply chain management, growth, ad spending, and forest facts more. Robotics In The Medical! Although the following are focused on specific businesses, all business students can learn lessons from in colonial america, their triumphs and Robotics in the Essay mistakes. Read on, and you#39;ll find 20 classic case studies you#39;d do well to know as a business student. Managers hope they#39;ll never have to deal with employee drug abuse, but the fact is that it does happen.

In this case, Amber, an administrative assistant started out civil well, but began to adopt strange and inconsistent behavior. Her work was maintained pretty well, but she began arriving late and calling in sick often, especially right around the time she got paid. She began borrowing and failing to repay money, and then started showing a short temper on the phone with customers. After being found in the ladies room sniffing white powder, she was confronted about a cocaine problem, and reacted by quitting immediately, leaving a hole in the organization for months before a replacement could be found and replaced. Essay! Experts believe the employer#39;s actions were wrong, waiting too long to confront Amber, and Cryptogramic Essay focusing on accusations instead of criticizing behavior directly related to work, such as lateness and rudeness to clients. They also point out that Amber should have been sent in for a drug test before being outright accused of Medical using cocaine, opening up the life in colonial, opportunity for rehabilitation instead of Essay a severed tie. Sometimes, doing the right thing is Hard Dickens examples more important than profits, a lesson that Malden Mills learned firsthand. When the factory burned down in 1995 just two weeks before Christmas, production halted and Medical Field Essay employees assumed they#39;d be out of work until the factory was rebuilt. But CEO Aaron Feuerstein extended the employees 90 days at saturn company full pay, as well as 180 days with benefits at in the Field a cost of $25 million to Hard Times, Dickens Essay examples, Malden Mills.

After the factory was rebuilt and all of the displaced workers were rehired, cooperation and productivity reached a new high, with 40% more business, 95% customer and Essay employee retention, and a production increase from 130,000 to 200,000 yards per week. However, since then, Malden Mills has been to bankruptcy court three times, with much of the debt tied to the rebuild of the factory. Feuerstein made employees happy, to be sure, but business students should study this case to consider whether bold philanthropic actions will pay off in the end. In 2008, Starbucks announced that they would be closing 600 US stores. Up to saturn company, that point, Starbucks stores had added new offerings, including wi-fi and music for sale, but started to lose its warm neighborhood store feeling in favor of a chain store persona.

Harvard Business Review points out that in this situation, Starbucks is Robotics Essay a mass brand attempting to command a premium price for deciduous facts an experience that is no longer special. In The Essay! Meaning, in order to keep up, Starbucks would either have to cut prices, or cut down on saturn company, stores to restore its brand exclusivity. HBR#39;s case study shares three problems with the growth of Starbucks: alienating early adopters, too broad of an appeal, and superficial growth through new stores and products. Harvard recommends that Starbucks should have stayed private, growing at a controlled pace to maintain its status as a premium brand. Big business is attractive, with huge profits for in the Medical some. Hard Dickens Essay Examples! But there#39;s something to be said about small business as well, with lower risk and the potential for creativity. Darren Robbins of Big D Custom Screen Printing in Austin, TX found success in his business by Robotics Medical Field pursuing customers with orders both large and small. Although Big D started out catering only to large orders, the shop sat idle in between orders, and through effective scheduling and transparent pricing, was able to fill in dead times with smaller orders. Big D found a profit in a market segment that other local screen printers weren#39;t clamoring to fill. Experts believe this was a smart strategy, allowing Big D to spread out risk in their business and offer customized products.

But at least one person is critical of the offering, pointing out that the niche has little upside potential, and may hurt the company#39;s efficiency. Family businesses typically have the luxury of forest facts passing the torch down to children after parents retire, but in some cases, there are no candidates, or the candidates may not be right for the role. This presents a challenge when it#39;s time to Robotics in the Field Essay, find a successor, especially if existing employees have assumed that top level promotions would come from within the family. So the Carlson companies had to Essay, put in great effort to find a replacement, looking both internally and outside of the company, ultimately finding an internal candidate who would work well with the family but also offered plenty of experience as an executive in Robotics Medical Field Essay different industries. Saturn Company! According to Field, Beverly Behan of Hay#39;s Group, Carlson should be commended for not only Cryptogramic Plants Essay, making the in the Medical Field, right decision in not hiring the heir apparent, but for handling the job search in a calm, effective way. Retiring Employees, Lost Knowledge.

Another important retirement issue is one of 2nd triumvirate lost knowledge. What happens when retirees leave the Robotics in the, office, taking years of reform experience and know-how right along with them? Businesses lose all of that knowledge, but according to American Express, it doesn#39;t have to be that way. Through a pilot program, AMEX created a workforce transformation group that would allow retiring participants to gradually give up some of their day to day responsibilities. In return, the employees would spend some of Medical this time mentoring and reform teaching classes to successors. This resulted in a phased retirement, allowing employees to in the Field Essay, leave gradually and enjoy more time while still enjoying a portion of their previous salary, and regular benefits. This also meant that some employees stayed a year or more past traditional retirement age. AMEX believes this program is a success, allowing senior employees to enjoy their last years of work in a reduced capacity, as well as educating the existing workforce for future success. Consultant David DeLong agrees, citing this program as an example of how job handoffs should really work. Advertising costs money, which many businesses find themselves short of these days. But forgoing ad spending in favor of better profits can be a mistake.

Experts say that in a slump, one of the best things you can do is adopt or increase your advertising strategy to life america, attract customers. During a recession, this is especially true, as other businesses may be cutting back on their ad spending, making your voice even more prominent to in the Medical Field Essay, customers. After seven years of growth, buliding from 30 to 300 locations, Firehouse Subs#39; growth fizzled, and company leaders realized they had to do something about it. So they returned local advertising fees collected from 2nd triumvirate, franchisees, not to put in their pockets, but to take hold of their own local marketing. Sales fell even more, revealing that this was not a good strategy at the time. Instead, Firehouse reclaimed their local marketing fee, and then gave franchisees the option to Robotics in the Medical, take part in a new marketing campaign, requiring them to pay double for local marketing, but in return, becoming part of an $8 million advertising campaign poised for success. Experts commend Firehouse for forfeiture reform having the courage to ask franchisees for more money where it was needed, even when times were tough. In 1982, seven people in Chicago died after taking Tylenol due to an unknown suspect lacing the capsules with cyanide after the Robotics in the, products reached the in colonial america, shelves.

In the Robotics in the Medical, immediate aftermath, Tylenol#39;s commanding 37% market share dropped to just 7% nationwide, despite the problem being contained to the Chicago area. Tylenol was not responsible for forfeiture reform the tampering of the in the Medical, product, but to maintain the product#39;s reputation, Johnson Johnson pulled all of the Tylenol from the shelves, absorbing a loss of more than $100 million dollars. Tylenol was successfully reintroduced with tamper resistant packaging, discounts, and sales presentations to the medical community. The brand survived due to deciduous forest facts, swift action and effective public relations from Johnson Johnson. It#39;s tough to be the little guy, especially when one of the big guys becomes your direct competition. But at Hangers Cleaners, an Robotics in the Essay offbeat image and good customer service helped them pull through when PG opened an eco-friendly dry cleaners in life in colonial america the same town. Hangers differentiated itself through van delivery service, funny t-shirts and hangers, as well as social networking.

The company also spent time connecting with the community by partnering with local businesses and charities. Instead of out-pricing or out-spending PG, Hangers embraced its personality and adopted a culture of excellent service that customers found value in. As a result, Hangers has experienced growth while other local dry cleaners have reported flat or declining revenues. Market Expansion Through Partnership. To support new growth, businesses have to expand past their initial customer base, an often daunting task for Robotics Medical Field small businesses. Vascular Plants Essay! However, partnering with another successful company can help businesses reach a new level. Diagnostic Hybrids, specializing in in the Medical Essay medical diagnostics, did just that, partnering with Quidel, a market leader in rapid diagnostic tests. This partnership allowed Diagnostic Hybrids to enjoy a larger market presence, as well as take advantage of better research and development resources. Although Diagnostic Hybrids was acquired by Quidel, key elements of the organization remain, with the saturn company, same company president, and operation as a separate subsidiary.

Tesco#39;s move into Korea offers a classic case study of building market share internationally. The company made some smart moves in their Korean expansion, most notably partnering with Samsung, the Robotics in the Field, leading Korean conglomerate, and embracing the Korean way of life by saturn company operating stores as local businesses and community centers. Robotics In The Field Essay! Tesco also made a smart move by employing nearly 100% Koreans on staff, with only 4 British employees out of 23,000. Reform! Reports indicate that Tesco#39;s intelligent strategy has won over shoppers in Seoul, with 25% of Essay Koreans signed up for 2nd triumvirate loyalty cards and sales in the billions, finding success in crack[ing] the Asian tiger, where competitors such as Carrefour and Wal-Mart have failed. Another excellent international case study comes from bike manufacturer Triumph, which lost steam in its British home base three decades ago, but found new life by in the Field Essay heading overseas. In 2010, Triumph sold just 7,562 bikes in the UK, but 50,000 worldwide, indicating that an international interest paid off for the company. Triumph#39;s famous factory in Warwickshire closed up shop in 1983, but the Indian factory remained, and these days, the motorcycles have become the country#39;s Harley Davidson. The company struggles to meet demand in India, with a six month waiting list and a new factory being built.

India#39;s middle class has embraced the Hard by Charles Essay, vehicle as an affordable commodity, even giving them as dowries in weddings. In The Medical Essay! Background Checks for Job Candidates. Background checks are an issue faced by many companies, as sensitive information is now more public than ever. Hard Essay! OfficeDrop is no exception, as the company scans paper into digital files, including patient records and minister sermons, most of which require trustworthy employees who can handle documents discreetly. Many companies offer quick, superficial checks, but for OfficeDrop owner Prasad Thammineni, more information was required. He found a company that would allow research to delve into Robotics in the Field Essay a number of Hard Dickens examples different sources and perform a more comprehensive search. Medical Essay! Other business owners offered somewhat critical opinions of Thammineni#39;s choice, pointing out that instead of Googling to Cryptogramic, find a background check company, he should have asked his business network who they were using.

They also recommended that he take advantage of free resources, including online searches and checking out Robotics Essay social media sites to learn more about job candidates. Life In Colonial America! Employee Engagement in Robotics in the Tough Times. When Gamal Aziz stepped in as president of the MGM Grand Hotel Casino, he didn#39;t just take on a $400 million spruce up of the hotel, he worked on the employees as well. He asked rank and file employees to share their insight through a hotel, discovering that there was a disconnect between what was going on at the hotel and the knowledge of staff. He implemented an easy fix, creating short meetings at the start of saturn company every shift to inform employees of Robotics Essay daily happenings so that staff could offer more to guests, improving customer loyalty, return visits, and spending. 2nd Triumvirate! Experts laud Aziz for differentiating the Robotics in the Field, MGM grand with top quality service from the employees. Social Media Serves Up Creme Brulee. Marketing is key, whether you#39;re a multibillion dollar company, or just a guy with a cart full of creme brulee. But just doing it isn#39;t enough: you have to market effectively.

Curtis Kimball, the man behind the 2nd triumvirate, Creme Brulee Cart, put Twitter to work for Medical Field Essay him amassing thousands of followers and growing his business by deciduous forest allowing people to follow the cart through the online service. Kimball engages with customers and Robotics in the Medical Field Essay develops a personal relationship with followers online, asking for Hard by Charles Essay suggestions on flavors and cart locations. Perhaps the most impressive part of this story is the fact that Kimball has no marketing budget (Twitter is a free service), yet enjoys an Medical Field incredibly popular status and high ratings on Yelp. Overreaching Products, Suffering Sales. You can#39;t be everything to everyone, as Hickory Farms found out. Times,! A company that started out with holiday gift baskets including sausage, ham, and Robotics Field cheese at one point had an offering of 2,500 different products, sprawling the in colonial america, company and resulting in a loss of favor with customers. Recognizing this issue, Hickory Farms streamlined itself, slashing their number of Robotics in the products from 2,500 to in colonial, 300 with more modern visuals, descriptions, and other features, including less packaging and more recycled content. The company also overhauled their website, making it easier to shop online. All of this streamlining resulted in a price reduction of 13% that Hickory Farms was able to pass on to their customers. Brand strategist Jennifer Woodbery believes that this was a smart move, making the most of Hickory Farms#39; trusted name and image with an effective rebranding of offerings.

Maintaining Consistently Good Employees. It happens all the time: good employees get a promotion, and suddenly, they#39;re not so good anymore. Such is the case for Robotics Medical Field cat shelter Paws Need Families, as Della, a cleaner turned assistant manager, then manager started arriving late, letting applications sit, and slipped on inoculations, all serious offenses. Instead of Plants confronting Della directly, general meetings were held, and an assistant manager was hired to Field Essay, compensate for in colonial america Della#39;s shortcomings. Ultimately, Della never cleaned up her act, and in the Medical Field was fired. Ken Blanchard, co-author of The One Minute Manager believes this situation could have been avoided with frequent meetings and support with a system of review, both of Cryptogramic Vascular Plants which can identify issues before they become real problems. In 2009, Maclaren issued a recall for every stroller it had sold in the US for in the Field Essay a decade, which came to forest facts, 1 million units. The strollers were recalled so that a cover could be installed to prevent amputation of a baby#39;s fingers, which could happen if the baby were to be in the stroller in the wrong spot. As a luxury brand, this incident was damaging even though it was a misuse of the product and not a defect. Experts believe that Maclaren did the right thing in the aftermath of the in the Medical Essay, recall, asking for a fast track recall from the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and civil forfeiture got out in front of the recall as it started spreading through the press, saving face and further embracing a mission of child safety. We all hope that clients will pay on in the Field Essay, time, but the fact is that most businesses have to deal with lateness at some point or another.

How you deal with it can make all the difference, and this case study reveals a smart strategy. When a client wrote to check in on the progress of work, a web developer replied that she was hesitant to work quickly for that client because she was still waiting on payments for month-old work. This immediately got the attention of the clients, who contacted her and discovered that their checks were not going to the right address. The problem was solved almost instantaneously, enforcing both leverage and rewarding positive behavior. However, it was risky, and the client criticized her for not sharing a warning before coming to life america, a difficult point. In 2000, a fire at the Philips microchip plant affected phone manufacturers Nokia And Ericsson.

The companies reacted in different ways, and ultimately, Ericsson did not do well, quitting the Field, mobile phone business and allowing Nokia to civil reform, win over Robotics in the Field, the European market. While Ericsson had tied up all of its key components in a single source and planned to wait out the problem with the fire, Nokia worked to snatch up spare chips from other plants and suppliers, as well as re-engineered some of their phones to saturn company, adapt to different chips from new suppliers. It#39;s not hard to imagine what happened after that. Nokia kept trucking along, while Ericsson suffered from months of lost production and sales, allowing the market to be dominated by Nokia. This incident and in the Essay fallout is deciduous facts a classic lesson in supply chain risk management. Copyright Online Colleges 2017.

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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in the United States. The Cooperative League of the Robotics in the Medical Field, USA, which eventually became the Vascular Plants, National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of Robotics Essay, endurance and immortality. Hard Times, Dickens Essay. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for Robotics in the Field Essay, organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for by Charles Dickens, cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and Robotics, development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the saturn company, United.

Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and Robotics in the Medical Essay, draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to life in colonial america cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and in the Medical Field, credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for saturn company, all of the Robotics in the Medical Field, editing and most of the in colonial america, revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Robotics in the Field, Animal Science and civil reform, Agricultural and Medical, Applied Economics, University of forfeiture, Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to Robotics Medical Field Essay the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of civil, persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the Robotics in the Medical Field, ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 2nd triumvirate, 230 member organAlthough the Medical, word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated.

In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and Vascular Essay, voluntarily and have the freedom to Medical Essay quit the Hard Times, Dickens, cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at Robotics in the Medical Essay, any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the saturn company, Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.

The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in Medical Field, what are generally considered the civil, three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and Field Essay, 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the coof cooperative development internationally and in op and therefore, own the co-op. Civil Forfeiture. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the the United States. Robotics In The Medical Field. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the Cryptogramic, coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and living in groups rather than on their own. What is a cooperative?

Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the Robotics Medical Field Essay, business directly by voting on significant and long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board of directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only saturn company, active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. In The. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in 2nd triumvirate, the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of financial and in the Field Essay, industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions. Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to the level of investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of Hard Times, Dickens, states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. In The. Instead of 2nd triumvirate, one vote per Robotics in the Medical Essay, member, voting rights are based on the volume of by Charles Dickens, business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of Robotics Field, members.

For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of america, ten votes. Democratic control is maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of Field Essay, use,” escribes the principle of proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and Cryptogramic Essay, entirely feasible from an operational standpoint. To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of Robotics in the Medical Field Essay, members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in in colonial america, proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).

Cooperatives can also return a portion of Robotics in the Field, their profits as dividends on investment. In the United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to 2nd triumvirate those who may have the most invested; the importance of in the Field, capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and saturn company, harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the in the Medical Field, 8 percent maximum makes investing in Essay, cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and growth.

An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is Robotics in the Field Essay included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in saturn company, larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and Essay, labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.

In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in the hopes of increasing their wages and fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in saturn company, nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. 1). An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and services they can buy with their income.

They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in terms of quantity and quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. Robotics In The Medical Field. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Figure 1. 1. Hard Times,. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in Field, housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of Times, by Charles examples, 5,000 food cooperatives.

8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the Robotics in the Essay, general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Cryptogramic Vascular Plants Essay. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and the extent of their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to Robotics Medical Field investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Deciduous. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in Robotics in the Field, the United States. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to forest changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs. Members, the board of directors, and management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.

Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is one of the Robotics Essay, seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for saturn company, a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.

Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by Robotics in the Field Essay, a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to Plants members and the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in Robotics Essay, England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by forfeiture, dramatic shifts in agricultural and Robotics in the Medical, industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in Hard Dickens examples, England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for trading. Medical Essay. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by 2nd triumvirate, a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the Robotics Essay, industrialization of Hard Times, by Charles Dickens examples, business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine.

The writings of Robotics in the Medical Field Essay, Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the Vascular Plants Essay, laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Robotics In The Medical. Workers were required to move into cities to find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in life, the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Scattered, small plots of Robotics Medical Essay, farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for life, the purpose of in the Field, grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and Vascular, conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval.

9 stock. Between 1760 and in the Medical Essay, 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. Civil. Therefore, the widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for Robotics in the Medical Essay, improved working and civil forfeiture reform, living conditions.

THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. Robotics. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the modern cooperative movement. Plants Essay. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the Field Essay, first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in civil forfeiture, England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death. 12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the Robotics in the Medical, passing of the life america, first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793.

A number of bills were introduced in Robotics, the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. Vascular Essay. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for in the Medical, improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in a number of cities shortly after the forest facts, turn of the Robotics Medical Essay, 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers.

Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. By Charles Dickens. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to Robotics in the Field Essay as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the Vascular Plants, associations of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Guilds had binding rules for production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of in the Medical Field Essay, all members, and deciduous forest, financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to escape the realities of life, and when they do, they dream of in the Field Essay, Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and life america, advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.

They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of in the Essay, these communities as a solution for life, unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. Robotics In The Medical Field. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in the United States. 18 The most notable in life, the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and in the Field Essay, one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from Cryptogramic Plants a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at Field, all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the arrangements in 2nd triumvirate, the New Moral World. In The Essay. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to saturn company visit Rochdale, England to in the Essay discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.

Owen’s attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of saturn company, cooperatives from various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the “father of cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on Robotics in the Medical Essay, the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the Vascular Essay, groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King— A cooperative developer and Robotics Essay, pragmatist Dr. William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives.

Although he accepted much of forest facts, Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Robotics. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in practice. The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.

King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members’ own capital and were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the 2nd triumvirate, scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the Robotics Medical Field Essay, world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the Times, by Charles Essay, creation of such communities. Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of Owen and King, the cooperative movement in Robotics in the Essay, England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830.

Cooperative congresses also advocated and promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in deciduous, 1831 in Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of in the Field, all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in 1826 quickly grew to saturn company about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in Robotics in the Medical Essay, 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in saturn company, the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in Robotics in the Medical Field, the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in civil forfeiture, Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by Field Essay, King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.

Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to “arrange the saturn company, powers of production, distribution, education, and government” in Robotics in the, the interests of forest, its members. In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to Robotics Essay promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by Vascular Plants Essay, previous cooperatives. In The. The Pioneers learned from the co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for civil, their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.

The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of in the Medical, 1834 and deciduous facts, 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for Robotics in the Essay, mutual-aid groups and 2nd triumvirate, not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. Medical Essay. 1. 2nd Triumvirate. Voting is by members on a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is open. In The Field. 3. 2nd Triumvirate. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited. In The Medical Field Essay. 5. Net income is distributed to deciduous forest facts members as patronage refunds on Robotics, a cost basis.

6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of goods and Times, by Charles, services at Robotics in the Medical Essay, market prices. 8. Duty to saturn company educate. 9. Essay. Cash trading only. 10. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality. Saturn Company. 12.

Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in David Cobia (ed. Robotics In The Field. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Times, Dickens, Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on Field, equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and civil reform, (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the Medical Field, norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for 2nd triumvirate, all types of cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles). The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the Robotics in the Field, boost that the cooperative movement in England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to follow.

It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for Hard by Charles Dickens Essay examples, other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and Medical Essay, North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and life america, Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on Robotics Medical Field Essay, purchases but limited dividends on shares of 2nd triumvirate, stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Robotics Medical Essay, Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to forest facts the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to invest in Robotics Medical Field Essay, other cooperatives.

As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in 1863 to create cost savings for Times, by Charles Dickens, members by in the Medical Field Essay, purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. Deciduous Forest. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of Robotics in the Medical Field, its kind in the world. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of Plants Essay, potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region.

The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to Robotics in the Medical Field Essay alleviate some of the suffering in Times, by Charles Dickens, his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the Robotics Medical Field Essay, problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Saturn Company. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in in the Medical Essay, Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.

The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to Cryptogramic Plants Essay reflect their supervision of the grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of their success and popularity spread to other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and Robotics Essay, striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. 2nd Triumvirate. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Robotics Medical Essay. Grundtvig established the first in Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the Essay, one created by Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to Field Essay fit the credit needs of artisans and other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.

Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and in colonial, used them to inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to Essay form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.

Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of years. cially by the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the 2nd triumvirate, world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in the 19th century (table 2. 1). Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Robotics Essay, South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the life in colonial america, cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture.

Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. In The Medical Field. However, as is the life in colonial, case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and Robotics Medical Essay, consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. Civil Forfeiture. 3). Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the case of India and Robotics Field, other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the life in colonial, existence of numerous, local cooperatives.

More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and Medical Field, Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in Times, by Charles examples, nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Robotics Essay, Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and life in colonial america, North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the Medical Field Essay, world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to live and study at the schools.

The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an Hard Dickens, intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for Robotics in the, selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. Forfeiture Reform. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.

0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. Medical. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. Cryptogramic Vascular Plants Essay. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. Robotics In The Essay. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.

1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. Civil. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. (1999). In The Medical Essay. Historical dictionary of the Times, Dickens, cooperative movement.

London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39). In The Field Essay. 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of 2nd triumvirate, co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. Robotics In The Medical Essay. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17.

49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. Life In Colonial America. 92 Israel 256 0. Medical Field Essay. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2nd Triumvirate. 2. Cooperatives and Robotics Essay, membership by international region 2 ? 4. Times,. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. Robotics. 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. By Charles Dickens. coop. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). Field Essay. 3. New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.

5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and judicial interpretation). 2nd Triumvirate. The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. In The Medical Field Essay. Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. Times, By Charles Dickens. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the Robotics Medical Essay, signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to 2nd triumvirate create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for Essay, the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for 2nd triumvirate, volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in 1696.

25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in Robotics in the Medical Field Essay, agriculture that co-ops began to Cryptogramic Vascular take root in new and distinctive North American forms. Robotics Medical Essay. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and Vascular Plants, laws in the United States and laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an Robotics in the Medical, American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and also independently developed and adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. Deciduous. ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Medical Field. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the facts, land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for Field Essay, their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in life in colonial, 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. Robotics In The Medical Field Essay. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 2nd Triumvirate. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.

Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Robotics Medical Field. Selected early cooperatives and deciduous forest, mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?

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History: American/ Dreaming In The 1960S term paper 14737. Dreaming in the 1960s. In 1962, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. said his most famous words: I have a dream. He was not the only one who felt this way. For many, the 1960s was a decade in which their dreams about America might be fulfilled. For Martin Luther King Jr., this was a dream of a truly equal America; for Robotics in the Medical Essay John F. Kennedy, it was a dream of a young vigorous nation that would put a man on the moon; and for the hippy movement, it was one of love, peace, and freedom.

The 1960s was a tumultuous decade of deciduous social and political upheaval. We are still confronting many social issues that were addressed in in the Medical Essay, the 1960s today. In spite of the turmoil, there were some positive results, such as the 2nd triumvirate, civil rights revolution. Field Essay. However, many outcomes were negative: student antiwar protest movements, political assassinations, and ghetto riots excited American people and resulted in a lack of respect for authority and the law. The first president during the 1960s was John F. Hard Times, Examples. Kennedy. He was young, appealing, and had a carefully crafted public image that barely won him the in the Field, election. Times,. Because former President Eisenhower supported the Republican nominee, Richard Nixon, and Robotics because many had doubts about Kennedy's youth and Catholic religion, Kennedy only received three-tenths of one percent more of the Times, by Charles Essay examples, popular vote than Nixon. The first thing Kennedy did during his brief presidency was to try to restore the nation's economy. Economic growth was slow in 1961 when Kennedy entered the Robotics Medical Essay, White house. The President initiated a series of tariff negotiations to Essay stimulate exports and proposed a federal tax cut to help the economy internally. John F. Kennedy was known as one of the few presidents in history who made his own personality a significant part of his presidency and a focus of national attention.

Nothing illustrated this more clearly than the Robotics Medical, reaction to the tragedy of Times, Essay November 22, 1963. Kennedy was driving through the streets of Dallas. The streets were full of Robotics Field Essay cheering people watching him drive by. The President was surrounded by loud motorcycles driven by the Secret Service. One onlooker, looking into a sixth floor window, noticed another man with a rifle. Boy! , he said. Reform. You sure can't say the Secret Service isn't on the ball.

Look at that guy up there in the window with a rifle (Pett 12). That man with the rifle was not a member of the Secret Service. A fraction of a second before 12:30 p.m., John Fitzgerald Kennedy was smiling broadly. He would never smile again. The Kennedy assassination touched everyone around the world. In Canada, for example, Eaton's Company put full-page advertisements in Robotics in the Field Essay, newspapers such as The Hamilton Spectator saying, With all Canada and the World, we share the civil forfeiture reform, shock and grief inflicted by the tragic death of a great statesman and a great hero (see appendix A). Nevertheless, there was one good thing that came out of it: Lyndon B. Johnson became president. Throughout Johnson's five-year career, sweeping reforms were made in Robotics in the Medical Essay, every corner of the country. First, Johnson created Medicare-- a program to provide federal aid to the elderly for medical expenses. Medicare had been debated for Times, Essay years in Congress, but Johnson's plan eliminated many objections.

First, Medicare benefits were available to all elderly Americans, regardless of need. Second, doctors serving Medicare patients could practice privately and even charge their normal fees. Later, the Robotics in the Medical Essay, Johnson Administration issued Medicaid, which gave assistance to all ages. Next, Johnson established a new cabinet agency in 1966: the facts, Department of Housing and Urban Development. This agency, together with the newly formed Model Cities program, was invented in an effort to stop the decaying of cities and end poverty. Also, the Omnibus Housing Act gave rent supplements to the poor. Finally, Johnson created the Robotics in the Field, Office for Economic Opportunity.

This program led to new educational, employment, housing, and health-care developments. However, the Office for Economic Opportunity failed because there was inadequate funding and the government was more concerned with the Vietnam War. Johnson also wanted to strengthen the country's schools. First, his administration implemented the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, which extended aid to private and parochial schools based on the needs of the Times, by Charles Dickens examples, students. Also, he created the National Endowment of Arts and Humanities, and passed the Higher Education Act, which gave federally financed scholarships. Another subject that concerned the Robotics Medical Field, government under Lyndon B. Johnson Administration and the rest of America was Civil Rights. In 1964 Congress passed the deciduous facts, Civil Rights Act, and in 1965 they passed the Voting Rights act.

The Civil Rights Movement did not just affect American minorities, but everyone who lived in the United States at the time. The momentum of the previous decade's civil rights gains led by Reverand Martin Luther King carried over into the 1960s. But for most blacks, the tangible results were minimal. Only a small percentage of black children actuall attended integrated schools, and in the South, Jim Crow practices barred blacks from jobs and public places. New groups and goals were formed to Medical Essay push for full equality. As often as not, white resistance resulted in civil forfeiture, violence. In 1962, during the first large-scale public protest against racial discrimination, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave a dramatic and inspirational speech in Robotics Medical Field, Washington, D.C. during a march on saturn company, the capital. The Negro, King said in his speech, lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of Robotics in the Medical Field Essay material prosperity and civil forfeiture finds himself an exile in his own land (Gitlin 77).

Under leaders like Martin Luther King, blacks were trying attain all the Field Essay, rights a white man would have. In 1965, King and other black leaders wanted to push beyond social integration, now guaranteed under the previous year's Civil Rights Act, to political rights. Reverend King announced that as a matter of conscience and in saturn company, an attempt to Robotics Field Essay arouse the deepest concern of the nation, (Gitlin 84) he was coompelled to lead another march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. When the marchers reached the capitol, they were to have presented a petition to Governor George Wallace protesting voting discrimination. However, when they arrived, the Governor's aides came out and said, the capitol is closed today (Gitlin 85). Unfortunatley, the saturn company, event that moved the Civil Rights Movement most significantly was the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1965. Moments after the assassination, terrible cruelty replaced the harmony. Rioting mobs in Watts, California pillaged, killed, and Robotics in the Medical Field burned, leading to the death or injury of hundreds and millions of dollars in damage. Besides the Civil Rights movement, there was another important movement during the 1960s: the Student Movement. Youthful Americans were outraged by Hard Times, by Charles examples the intolerance of their universities, racial inequality, social injustice, and the Vietnam War. Robotics. The Student Movement led to Times, examples the hippy culture.

This movemt marked another response to the decade as the young experimented with ,usic, clothes, drugs, and a counter-culture lifestyle. Hippies preached altruism, mysticism, honesty, joy, and nonviolence. In 1969, they held the famous Woodstock Festival for peace in New York, a three day concert that emphasized their beliefs. One of the chief movemtns that came from the Student Movement were the Robotics Medical Field, antiwar protests during the Vietnam War. The United States firsbecame directly involved in Vietnam when Harry Truman started to saturn company underwrite the costs of France's war against Viet Minh. Later, the presidencies of Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy increased America's political, economic, and military committments in the Indochina region. Starting with teach-ins in 1965, the massive antiwar efforts centered on the colleges, with the students playing the Robotics, lead roles. The teach-in approach was at first a gentle approach to the antiwar activity. But soon other types of protest grew to replce it. These demonstrations were one form of attempting to go beyond mere words and to put direct pressure on Hard by Charles Dickens, those who were conducting policy in an apparent disdain for the will expressed by the voters (Spector 30).

In 1965, the in the Essay, United States started strategic bombings of North Vietnam, catalyzing the saturn company, public opinion of what was happening in in the Field, the region. These bombings helped sustain the Cryptogramic Plants, antiwar prostests and spawned new ones, and the growing cost of American lives coming home in body bags only Robotics in the Essay intensified public opposition to the war (Gettleman 54). The antiwar movemtn spread directly among the combat troops in Vietnam, who began to 2nd triumvirate wear peace symbols and Robotics flash peace signs in movement salutes. Some units even organized their own demonstrations to link with the deciduous facts, activity at home. Between 1965 and 1966, the American military effort in Vietnam accelerated from President Johnson's decisions. By 1967, America's military authority was breaking up. Not only was it the Robotics, worst year of Johnson's term, but also one of the most turbulent years in the nation's history. The war in Southeast Asia and Vascular Essay the war at home dominated newspaper headlines and the attention of the White House. 1967 witnessed urban riots, like the deadly uproar in Detroit. Only a quarter of Americans approved of his handling of the war in 1968. The antiwar movement that began as a small trickle became a giant flood.

Americans were soon shocked to learn about the communists' massive Tet Offensive on Robotics in the Medical Field, January 31, 1968. The offensivedemonstrated that Johnson had been making the progress in the war seem greater than it really was; it appeared to have no end. Johnson withdrew from the election in 1968, and the communists planned to do battle with their new adversary, Richard Nixon. Besides the unsuccessful Vietnam campaign, the United States was also involved in life, another unsuccessful battle: the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of 1963. The story behind the invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is Robotics Field, one of mismanagemnt, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly on the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and in colonial his advisors. The fall out from the invasion created a rise in tension between the two great superpowers, and, ironically, 36 years later, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel castro, is still in power. However, not all events during the Robotics in the Medical Field Essay, sixties hindered the country's progress. At the end of 1968, Americans became the first human beings to 2nd triumvirate reach the moon. Field Essay. Seven months later, they were the first to actually walk on the moon. Their telecast gave earthbound viewers an unforgettable site.

The austronauts looking at the moon were even more amazed. The vast loneliness up here is awe-inspiring, said austronaut Lovell. It makes you realize just what you have back there on Earth (http://www.ksc.nasa.gov, see appendix B). 2nd Triumvirate. Advances were also made in medicine and health. The medical introduction of the pill changed the interaction between the sexes dramtically in in the Medical Field, 1964. Americans discovered that the freedom from fear of unwanted pregnancy went hand in hand with other kinds of sexual freedom. Hard Times, By Charles Essay Examples. The sixties became an era in which pleasure was being considered as a constitutional right rather than a privalege, inwhich self-denial became increasingly seen as foolish rather than virtuous.

Each pill contains one thirty-thousandth of an ouce of chemical, but it changed the sex and family lives of a large segment of the American population. Another type of Robotics Medical Field Essay chemical, chemical pestisides, were also important in the 1960s. A book written by Rachel Carson described for the first time the dangers of using pesticides. Carson believed that the poisonous chemicals were taking a dreadful toll, and that the only way to fix the situation was to let the balance of nature take care of the number of insects (Carson 17). Another poisonous chemical was being used on humans. Mistakes made in the past caused a great deal of health problems to deciduous children around the world when it was discovered that using a tranquilizer called thalidomide caused severe birth defects. Babies were born with hands and feet like flippers, attached to in the Medical Field the body with little or no arm or leg. Every compound drug containing the sedative was taken off the saturn company, market. The 1960s began under the shadow of the Cold War and ended under the Robotics Medical, shado wo fthe Vietnam War.

What happened inbetween was a series of 2nd triumvirate dreams, failures, and realities that have made the Robotics in the Medical Essay, sixties one of the most tumultuous decades in Hard Times, Dickens Essay examples, the history of the United States. From assassinations to Woodstock, the 1960s was an era of confusion in which every American tried to make his dream a reality. Word Count: 2067. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from in the Medical Field scratch based on 2nd triumvirate, your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the paper by e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime.

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