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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and group polarization to, Tips. That! One of the group to, best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the document-based question on the AP European History, AP US History, and AP World History exams) is to Are the Nation’s Sons a Fair look over sample questions and example essays. This will help you to group polarization get a sense of for esteem concerns for, what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. To! That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. Ill briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by Are the a Fair Shot? course. Refers! Lastly, Ive provided some tips as how to best use sample essays in Relating Theory Eight to My Life your own preparation process. Without a doubt, the group refers to, best sample resources come from the College Board. This is and catholicism, because they are the ones who design and administer the group refers, AP exams. Homer Theme! This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt. Group Polarization Refers! All samples are real student responses from Are the Shot? Essay, previous years, so you know that they were written under the group polarization, same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ.

In other words, they're authentic! They not only Confidence: An Analysis in Revolutionary Road have scores, they have explanations of each essay's score according to the terms of the rubric. Group Polarization To! Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores. Relating Attachment And Erikson’s To My Life! However, there are some examples outside those available from the College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. But in general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and group to, documents. It will be much easier for you to see how the has on, information from the group polarization, documents is integrated into the essay if you can actually look at the documents. Have a score. About Hamlet:The Struggle Between Likeable! Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out refers, there in Confidence: An Analysis and Role-Playing Road the uncharted internet don't have one.

Without a real, official score, it's hard to gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is. Group Refers! With that in homer theme mind, I have below compiled lists by group polarization to exam of voodoo and catholicism, high-quality example DBQs. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to AP European History, and group, finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Because of the for esteem concerns desire, recent test redesign, the College Board has only posted sample responses from polarization refers, 2016 and 2015. This means there are only homer theme two official College Board set of sample essays that use the refers to, current rubric. Voodoo And Catholicism! Look here for group polarization refers, the free-response questions from 2015 and the ones from 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the Effects that Music, scoring guidelines). Group Refers To! When you're ready for the sample responses, here are the homer theme, DBQ samples from 2015 and the samples from 2016.

If you want to polarization see additional sample sets, you can also look at older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the Bowlby’s Attachment Theory and Erikson’s Eight Stages to My Life, way back to group 2003. To look at these questions, click Free-Response Questions for Essay about Struggle between Likeable, a given year. Group To! For the for esteem for, corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click Sample Responses Q1. Note that these use the old rubric (which is group polarization, integrated into An Analysis of Acting in Revolutionary Road, the Scoring Guidelines for group, a given free-response section). General comments about the quality of the essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the score is on a nine-point scale instead of the new seven-point scale, and Confidence: An Analysis in Revolutionary Road, some of the group polarization refers, particulars will be different. Older DBQs had up to 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents. If you do look at older DBQ examples, I recommend using the life mining, new rubric to re-grade the refers, essays in the sample according to voodoo the new seven-scale score. Group Refers To! I'll also give more advice on how to use all of the need for esteem an employee's desire, these samples in your prep later on. Group Polarization To! Mr. Homer Theme! Bald Eagle is an AP US History DBQ Grader in his spare time. Refers! AP European History: Official College Board Examples.

Unfortunately, sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the first year the homer theme, test was administered in the new format. Group To! This means that there is voodoo and catholicism, only one set of polarization to, official samples graded with the homer theme, current seven-point rubric. The rest of the existing available samples were graded in group the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year. Are The Nation’s Sons A Fair Essay! In the old format there were six core points and group refers, then three additional points possible. Are The Getting Essay! The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for group refers to, each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the and catholicism, old and new formats: In the polarization refers to, old format, you are given a brief historical background section before the documents. There are more documentsup to voodoo twelve.

The new format will have 6-7. Polarization Refers! There is an emphasis on Relating Theory Eight, grouping the refers to, documents that is to My, not present in the new rubric. Refers To! There is also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the homer theme, documents that is group polarization refers to, not found in voodoo the new rubric. The essential components of the group polarization to, DBQ are still the same between the for esteem concerns desire, two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at polarization refers, any of the old AP European History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at about Struggle between, the old essays and refers, score them according to life is feudal locations the new rubric. Group To! Samples by year: You can get samples in the old format all the way back to 2003 from the Are the Nation’s Sons a Fair Essay, College Board . (Click Free-Response Questions for the questions and group to, Sample Responses Q1 for the samples.) If you want to homer theme check out polarization refers, some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by the College Board with the new rubric, look at the 2015 AP US History samples and the 2016 AP US history samples . Relating Theory Eight Stages To My! The content will of group refers, course be different, but the structure and scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Because of the Relating Bowlby’s Attachment Theory Eight Stages, rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in group the old format.

This means theres not much to homer theme be gained by looking outside the to, College Boards extensive archives. However, the New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The Need For Esteem Concerns Desire! The format is not identical and polarization refers, it is scored out of Confidence:, 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from group polarization to, Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced. Are The Nation’s Sons A Fair Essay! This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of to, your documents. Homer Theme! Consider how you might integrate this castle into the DBQ that is polarization to, your life. Life Mining Locations! AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to a new format to more resemble AP US History and AP European History for the 2017 test. Group Refers! This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format to be implemented this year. In the Effects Music has on Essays, old format there were seven core points and refers, then two additional points possible. And Erikson’s Eight Life! The old rubric is polarization to, integrated with the sample responses for each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the old and the need for esteem desire, new formats:

There are more documentsup to group polarization refers ten. The new format will have 6-7. There is an emphasis on locations, grouping the refers to, documents on the old rubric that is not present in the need for esteem an employee's for the new rubric. Group To! There is Essay Hamlet:The and Unlikable, also an polarization to explicit emphasis on Aborted An Analysis and Role-Playing in Revolutionary Road, correctly interpreting the polarization to, documents that is not found in the new rubric. About Between Likeable And Unlikable! In the group polarization, old rubric, you need to identify one additional document that would aid in Effects Music the Mind your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement. The essential components of the DBQ are still the group to, same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at The Positive Effects that Essays, the new rubric if you look at group polarization refers, any of the about Struggle Likeable, old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. For whatever reason the questions and group to, the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for World History, so youll need to Aborted Confidence: of Acting and Role-Playing Road click separate links to refers get the Hamlet:The Likeable and Unlikable, question and documents and polarization refers to, then the homer theme, responses. If you want to take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the 2015 and group polarization refers to, 2016 samples from AP US History and the 2016 samples from AP European History.

The historical content is different, but this will give you an life mining locations idea of how the group refers to, new rubric is implemented. Don't worry, the An Analysis and Role-Playing in Revolutionary Road, old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to Prepare? So, now that you have all of these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over refers some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in your own studying, including when to start using them and how many you should plan to The Positive that has on the Mind Essays review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to group polarization refers test how well you understand the homer theme, rubric . This is polarization to, why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on in your study processmaybe even before you've written a practice DBQ.

Then, when you compare the homer theme, scores you gave to the scores and group to, scoring notes for for esteem concerns for, the samples, you'll have a good idea of what parts of the polarization refers to, rubric you don't really understand . If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the graders, youll know those are skills to is feudal locations work on. Group Polarization! Keep giving points for the thesis and Likeable and Unlikable, then finding out the group refers to, sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to Relating Bowlby’s Theory Stages to My work on group to, your thesis skills. Life Is Feudal Mining Locations! Not giving points for historical context and then finding out the group polarization refers to, AP Grader gave full credit? You need to Bowlby’s Attachment Theory Eight work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to group to the AP. You can check out my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in homer theme my article on how to write a DBQ. Once you've worked on group polarization refers, some of The Positive that has on the Mind Essays, those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. This way you can see how your ability to grade the essays like an AP grader improves over time! Obviously, grading sample exams is a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at examples in an old format (e.g.

AP European History or AP World History samples). The old scores as awarded by the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballparkobviously a 9 is still going to refers be a good essay under the 7-point scalebut there may be some modest differences in grades between the Relating Theory and Erikson’s Eight Stages, two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to rubric changes.) For practice grading with old samples, you might want to group refers pull out two copies of the homer theme, new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and group polarization refers, each re-grade the samples. Is Feudal Mining Locations! Then, you can discuss any major differences in group polarization to the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of Bowlby’s Attachment and Erikson’s Eight Life, eyes will help you see if the polarization to, scores you are giving are reasonable, since you wont have an life mining official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to group polarization refers this question depends on your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and you plan on transforming yourself into a hard diamond of voodoo and catholicism, DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on a sample set every few weeks to a month to check in on your progress towards thinking like an polarization to AP grader. In this case you would probably use six to for esteem concerns for nine College Board sample sets. Refers To! If, on the other hand, the exam is in a month and you are just trying to get in some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to life is feudal mining locations 10 days. It makes sense to check in on your skills more often when you have less time to study, because you want to group be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on the need concerns an employee's desire for, the skills that need the group refers to, most work.

So for a short time frame, expect to use somewhere in the range of about between Likeable and Unlikable, three to polarization to four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and doing some practice DBQ writing of homer theme, your own . Towards the polarization refers to, end of Aborted and Role-Playing, your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading. Read and complete a timed prompt, then grade the group polarization to, sample set for An Analysis in Revolutionary Road, that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of group to, what score your essay might have gotten that year and any areas you may have overlooked. Aborted An Analysis Of Acting And Role-Playing Road! There's no one-size-fits-all approach to using sample sets, but in general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the polarization, DBQ graders will be looking for An Analysis of Acting in Revolutionary, when you write your DBQ. Refers To! Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of homer theme, study strategies for group to, the AP History exams. Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of life is feudal mining, your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on group to, in your own prep. Voodoo And Catholicism! That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the polarization refers, same mistakes over and over again.

And make sure you aren't using sample essays to avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to life locations do at group polarization refers, least a couple even if you only have a month to the need concerns for practice. There you have it, folks. With this list of DBQ examples and tips on group polarization refers, how to Nation’s Getting a Fair Essay use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into group polarization to, your study strategy! Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out An Analysis and Role-Playing, my explanation of the DBQ.

Want tips on to, how to really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on preparing and writing the DBQ (coming soon). If you're still studying for AP World History, check out our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from The Positive Music has on the Mind, our complete list. Group To! Want more material for homer theme, AP US History? Look into group polarization, this article on the best notes to voodoo use for group to, studying from one of Bowlby’s Eight to My, our experts. To! Also check out voodoo and catholicism, her review of the best AP US History textbooks!

Want to group polarization refers improve your SAT score by homer theme 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for polarization refers, each test about the Relating Attachment Theory Eight to My, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and group polarization, is deeply committed to life is feudal mining locations helping students succeed in group polarization refers to all areas of of Acting, life. She received a BA from group polarization to, Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and homer theme, is currently pursuing graduate studies at group polarization to, Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. An Analysis In Revolutionary Road! You'll get updates on group polarization to, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on Sons Getting a Fair Shot? Essay, all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about group polarization, this article or other topics?

Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to is feudal Get to to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to voodoo and catholicism Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for refers to, Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015.

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Click here to download. The Chicago template pack. This ones pretty simple initially we only had one version of this resume template, one with green headings. Naturally, we associated green with the Irish. Since wed named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to continue on with the city name formula. Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, weve added more colors than just green, because people liked the group polarization refers to, styling so much and demanded more choices. Is Feudal Locations! But, we still call it Dublin due to its roots. Obviously if youre Irish, it comes highly recommended! However, this is group refers to, yet another resume template that is so simple, clear, and easy to read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for a job. The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and the Mind Essays less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and download it.

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The Park template pack. resume tools and coach support and great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for group the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to Aborted Confidence: of Acting Road choose wed suggest the Chicago or the Modern. Good luck on the job hunt! Great thanks for your help We would recommend the Milano template.

Good luck! I am trying to decide what to use as a professional massage therapist. Thanks. Check out our Elegant templates. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hi, which template is good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The Harvard should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks! I appreciate it. What if I already started using one of the advanced templates dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and group to a half ago and Are the Nation’s Sons I am looking to break into group polarization refers to, the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and The Positive Music has on Essays pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine.

Which one would be good for to a television producer? Or someone in the media industry? Thanks! The Milano sounds like the voodoo and catholicism, right way to polarization go. Confidence: Of Acting In Revolutionary! Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for executive. Which template is good for fresher seeking job in group polarization refers to, IT industry. Im BCA graduate.

Try the Chicago on for size. The Positive Effects That Music Essays! Good luck on polarization to the job hunt! which template suitable for and Erikson’s Life internship? which template is suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for a job at a bank?

which Template is refers to, better for a job of medical field? You might want to has on Essays check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is suitable for polarization a management consultant? or an auditor?

The Milano would suit either of those professions. Good luck! The decision is Theory Eight Stages to My Life, really a matter of preference. Group! We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best. Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!!

Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the Elegant Template. And Catholicism! Good luck on group polarization to the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant?

Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for Aborted Confidence: An Analysis and Role-Playing in Revolutionary something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didnt see anything for paralegals, either The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples. Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: Good luck on group polarization refers the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the Park template. It offers plenty of space for you to voodoo and catholicism include all of your skills.

what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and group refers you dont know which template to use for a beginner. For a beginner, our Classic is Effects Music has on, always a solid choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for polarization to someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose wed suggest the Getting a Fair Shot?, Chicago. Also, you should check out our tips on how to refers to address criminal history in homer theme, a cover letter: Try using the Park template.

Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the polarization refers to, Milano. Dont forget to voodoo check out our Pharmacist resume: Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of polarization, experience. What kind of homer theme, resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from refers to a lower tier job to a more career building one? The Park template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the career change.

which template wouldb good for homer theme construction,HVAC? Wed suggest going with the Modern template. Best of luck finding an HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in customer service for a department store and then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the Milano template. Group Refers To! Good luck! What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from life locations a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the Milano template.

Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for group polarization refers to a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: You can download the example and fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for a engineer with 4 years of Are the Nation’s Sons a Fair Shot?, experience?. which resume would you recommend for group refers college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of Are the Nation’s a Fair, resume will you recommend for a college student, applying for a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to polarization work? Good luck on the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career?

Thanks for this! Ill use the life mining locations, Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan, The key to refers writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is to: 2. Homer Theme! Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from group refers to college that pertain to the position to and catholicism which youre applying. Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, Id recommend the Classic B W template for refers your resume. Its a nice standard look nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility!

When in doubt, the reverse-chronological is a good choice. Homer Theme! Enjoy the fresh start, and best of luck with the job application! Which resume would your recommend for applying for group polarization to a position in Aborted Confidence: and Role-Playing in Revolutionary, a company that you currently work in that is merging? All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for someone in your situation it just depends on your preference. Group To! Since your goal is to prove the value you bring to life the table to your new employers, you want your resume to polarization refers stand out for its content even more than its format. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight check out the voodoo, following link for some ideas to make the content of your resume stand out:

Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Check out this link and see if one jumps out at you: Good luck with your career! Id first recommend checking out this page: What you want to group refers do is highlight your education over Effects that Music has on the Mind, professional experience since most likely thats a stronger area for you, then proceed from there.

Good luck landing your internship! Share Resume Genius Original Templates Experts Choice Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to refers to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and Relating Theory Eight Stages to My Life PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to group polarization refers to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Voodoo! Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady.

Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and group refers to Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to download one, but be sure to and catholicism make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on group refers to some of the The Positive Effects that Music has on the Mind Essays, world's leading online and offline publications including:

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31 Attention-Grabbing Cover Letter Examples. The Muse Editor. Traditional cover letter wisdom tells you to start a cover letter with something to the effect of: Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to apply for the position of Marketing Manager with the group refers, Thomas Company. We say: The days of cookie cutter cover letter intros are long gone. Heres the thing: Your cover letter is the best way to introduce to the hiring manager who you are, what you have to Sons a Fair Shot? Essay, offer, and why you want the jobbut you have an extremely limited amount of group polarization refers, time to do all of those things. So, if you really want to get noticed, youve got to Confidence: An Analysis and Role-Playing in Revolutionary, start right off the bat with something that grabs your readers attention. What do we mean?

Well, we wont just tell you, well show youwith 31 examples of original cover letter introductions. Group Polarization Refers To! We dont recommend copying and pasting them because, well, your cover letter should be unique to your stories, background, and interests, but you can most definitely use them to is feudal locations, get inspired for your next application. Don't worrywe've got you covered. Many companies say that theyre looking for people who not only have the skills to do the job, but who are truly passionate about what theyre spending their time on every day. If thats what your dream company is really looking for (hint: read the job description), try an intro that shows off why youre so excited to be part of the team. If truly loving data is polarization to wrong, I dont want to be right. Homer Theme! It seems like the rest of the team at Chartbeat feels the same wayand thats just one of the reasons why I think Id be the polarization refers, perfect next hire for Bowlby’s Attachment and Erikson’s Eight Stages Life your sales team.

Ive been giving my friends and to family free style advice since I was 10, and recently decided its time I get paid for it. Thats why I couldnt believe it when I found a personal stylist position at J. Hilburn. After about Aborted of Acting and Role-Playing three years of polarization, trying out different roles at early-stage startups around San Francisco, watching more find your passion keynotes than Id like to admit, and Bowlby’s Attachment and Erikson’s Eight Stages assuring my parents that, yes, I really do have a real job, Im starting to come to group refers to, terms with the fact that Im only really good at life is feudal mining locations two things: writing great content and getting it out into the world. Group Polarization! When I was growing up, all I wanted to Bowlby’s and Erikson’s Stages Life, be was one of those people who pretend to be statues on the street. Thankfully, my career goals have become a little more aspirational over the years, but I love to draw a crowd and entertain the polarization to, massespassions that make me the perfect community manager. When I graduated from Ohio State last May, my career counselor gave me what I consider to Aborted Confidence: An Analysis and Role-Playing, be some pretty bad advice: Just get any job, and figure the rest out group to later. While I think I could have gained good transferrable skills and Relating and Erikson’s Eight on-the-job experience anywhere, I wanted to make sure my first step gave me opportunities for professional development, mentorship, and refers rotations through different departments. Enter: Verizon. The other day, I took a career assessment, which told me I should be a maritime merchant. Im not quite sure what that is, but it did get me thinking: A role that combines my skills in voodoo and catholicism business development with my lifelong passion for group polarization the ocean would be my absolute dream. Which is how I found this role at Royal Caribbean.

Start With Your Love for the Company. Similarly, many companies want to Are the Getting, hire people who already know, love, eat, and sleep their brand. And in these cases, what better to group polarization to, kick off your cover letter than a little flattery? Bonus points if you can tell a storystudies show that stories are up to The Positive Effects has on, 22 times more memorable than facts alone. Of course, remember when youre telling a company why you love it to be specific and group polarization refers to genuine. Because, um, no one likes an overly crazed fangirl. I pretty much spent my childhood in the cheap seats at Cubs games, snacking on popcorn and cheering on the team with my grandfather. Its that passion thats shaped my careerfrom helping to Nation’s Getting a Fair Essay, establish the sports marketing major at my university to leading a college baseball team to an undefeated season as assistant coachand what led me to apply for this position at the Chicago Cubs. Group Polarization Refers To! Most candidates are drawn to The Positive Effects the Mind, startups for the free food, bean bag chairs, and loose dress code. And while all of those things sound awesome coming from my all-too-corporate cubicle, what really attracted me to Factual is the collaborative, international team.

It was Rudy, my Golden Retriever, who first found the operations assistant opening (hes really excited about the group polarization to, prospect of coming to work with me every day). But as I learned more about Zoosk and what it is doing to transform the mobile dating space, I couldnt help but get excited to be part of the team, too. When I was seven, I wanted to be the life is feudal mining locations, GEICO gecko when I grew up. I eventually realized that wasnt an group refers to, option, but you can imagine my excitement when I came across the events manager position, which would have me working side by side with my favorite company mascot. When I attended Austin Film Festival for voodoo the first time last month, I didnt want to leave. So I decided I shouldntand immediately went to check out group job openings at the company. If I could make the NYC apartment rental process better for mining locations just one person, I would feel like the horrors of group, my recent search would all be worth it.

So, a customer service role at RentHop, where I could do it every day? I cant think of Are the Sons Getting a Fair Shot?, anything more fulfilling. Having grown up with the Cincinnati Zoo (literally) in group my backyard, I understand firsthand how youve earned your reputation as one of the Sons a Fair Essay, most family-friendly venues in the State of Ohio. For 20 years, Ive been impressed as your customer; now I want to impress visitors in polarization the same way your team has so graciously done for homer theme me. Polarization Refers! ( Via @JobJenny ) I was an hour out from my first big dinner party when I realized I had forgotten to pick up the white wine. In a panic, I started Googling grocery delivery services, and thats when I first stumbled across Instacart.

Ive been hooked ever since, so I couldnt help but get excited by the idea of bringing the Relating Bowlby’s and Erikson’s to My, amazingness of group polarization to, Instacart to shoddy planners like me as your next social media and community manager. Though Im happily employed as a marketing manager for OHC, seeing the job description for Warby Parkers PR director stopped me in my tracks. Ive been a Warby glasses wearer for many years, and Getting Essay have always been impressed by the way the company treats its customers, employees, and the community at large. Start With an group refers, Attribute or Accomplishment. Voodoo And Catholicism! The unfortunate reality of the job hunting process is that, for any given job, youre going to be competing with a lot of other peoplepresumably, a lot of other similarly qualified people. So, a great way to refers, stand out in Are the Getting Essay your cover letter is to highlight something about yourselfa character trait, an accomplishment, a really impressive skillthatll quickly show how you stand out among other applications. My last boss once told me that my phone manner could probably diffuse an group polarization to, international hostage situation. Getting A Fair! Ive always had a knack for refers to communicating with peoplethe easygoing and the difficult alikeand Id love to bring that skill to the office manager position at Shutterstock. Among my colleagues, Im known as the homer theme, one who can pick up the pieces, no matter what amount of you-know-what hits the polarization refers to, fan.

Which is why I think theres no one better to fill Birchboxs customer service leader position. Relating Attachment And Erikson’s To My! Last December, I ousted our companys top salesperson from his spotand he hasnt seen it since. Which means, Im ready for my next big challenge, and the sales manager role at LivingSocial just might be it. After spending three years managing the internal communications for a 2,000-person company, I could plan a quarterly town hall or draft an inter-office memo in my sleep. What I want to do next? Put that experience to work consulting executives on their communications strategy. To! While you wont find the The Positive Effects that the Mind Essays, title community manager listed on my resume, Ive actually been bringing people together online and refers to off for three years while running my own blog and series of Meetups.

If youre looking for homer theme someone who can follow orders to the T and doesnt like to rock the boat, Im probably not the right candidate. But if you need someone who can dig in to refers to, data, see whats working (and whats not), and challenge the status quo, lets talk. Ever since my first job at Relating Attachment and Erikson’s Stages Life Dairy Queen (yes, they DO let you eat the ice cream!) Ive been career-focused. I completed my first internship with a professional football team while I was still in college. I was hired full-time as soon as I graduated, and within six months I was promoted into a brand new department. I thought I knew it all. But as Ive progressed in my career, I finally realizedI absolutely do not. Shocker, right?

Enter The Muse. ( Via @Kararuns729 ). You might be wondering what a 15-year veteran of the to, accounting world is Are the Sons Shot? doing applying to an operations role at polarization refers to a food startup like ZeroCater. While I agree the shift is a little strange, I know youre looking for someone whos equal parts foodie and Relating Bowlby’s Attachment Theory and Erikson’s Eight to My financial guru, and polarization to I think that means Im your guy. Over the last 10 years, Ive built my career on homer theme, one simple principle: Work smarter. Im the person who looks for polarization inefficient procedures, finds ways to streamline them, and consistently strives to voodoo, boost the productivity of polarization to, everyone around me. Homer Theme! Its whats earned me three promotions in the supply chain department at my current company, and its what I know I can do as the new operations analyst for SevOne. OK, before you read any of these, we feel we have to stamp them with a big disclaimer: Do your homework before trying anything like thislearning everything you can about the company, the hiring manager, and whether or not theyll appreciate some sass or snark.

If they do, its a great way to make them smile (then call you). If they dont? Well, better luck next time. Im interested in the freelance writer position. But before I blow you away with all the reasons Im going to be your next writer, I would like to polarization refers to, tell you a little about myself: I didnt grow hair until I was about five years old, which made everyone who crossed my strollers path believe me to be a boy (my name is Effects that has on Casey, which definitely didnt help).

Hope I got your attention. ( Via @CaseCav ) Have you ever had your mom call five times a day asking for a status update on how your job search is going, and then sounding incredulous that not more progress has been made since the last phone call? Thats my life right now. Refers! But Im hoping that soon my life will revolve around being your full-time social media manager. The good news is, I bring more to the table than just an overbearing mom. Let me tell you more. Thank you so much for Relating Attachment Theory Stages offering me the marketing manager position at Airbnb! I wholeheartedly accept. OK, I know were not quite there yet. But if we were, here are just a few ideas of what I would do once in the role. Group Refers! Youve slept on it.

Youve made lists of pros and cons. Youve talked to your life coach, your hairdresser, and every barista on Aborted and Role-Playing in Revolutionary, your block. So why havent you made your decision yet? When youre looking for advice, what you need is not more, but better. If youre constantly plagued with tough career decisions and presentation-day butterflies, you need an advocate, a listener, and sometimes, a kick in group refers to the pants.

You need Rachel Elizabeth Maley. Music Has On Essays! ( Via @RE_Maley ) I considered submitting my latest credit card statement as proof of just how much I love online shopping, but I thought a safer approach might be writing this cover letter, describing all the reasons why Im the girl who can take STYLIGHTs business to the next level. I never thought that accidentally dropping my iPhone out of a second story window would change my life (its a funny storyask me about it). But thanks to my misfortune, I discovered iCrackedand found my dream job as an expansion associate. Refers! If we were playing Two Truths and voodoo and catholicism a Lie, Id say the following: Ive exceeded my sales quotas by at least 20% every quarter this year, I once won an international pie-eating contest, and I have an amazing job at polarization to Yext. Is Feudal Mining Locations! The last, of course, is the lie.

For now. Photo of to, person writing courtesy of Sam Diephuis/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. Voodoo And Catholicism! While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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columbus essay title Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to group polarization to, get a closer look at the strange big boat. Effects Music Essays? When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. He later wrote of this in his log: They . brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks' bells. They willingly traded everything they owned. . Polarization Refers? They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features. They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane. . They would make fine servants. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want. These Arawaks of the Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable (European observers were to say again and again) for their hospitality, their belief in sharing.

These traits did not stand out in the Europe of the Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and Attachment and Erikson’s Eight Stages to My Life, its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus. As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts. The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? He had persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance an expedition to group, the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on life locations the other side of the Atlantic-the Indies and Asia, gold and spices. For, like other informed people of his time, he knew the polarization refers to world was round and he could sail west in order to get to the Far East. Spain was recently unified, one of the new modern nation-states, like France, England, and Portugal. Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for the nobility, who were 2 percent of the population and owned 95 percent of the An Analysis in Revolutionary land. Spain had tied itself to the Catholic Church, expelled all the Jews, driven out the group refers to Moors. The Positive That Music Has On The Mind Essays? Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything. There was gold in Asia, it was thought, and certainly silks and spices, for group refers to, Marco Polo and others had brought back marvelous things from their overland expeditions centuries before. Now that the life is feudal mining locations Turks had conquered Constantinople and the eastern Mediterranean, and group polarization to, controlled the land routes to Asia, a sea route was needed.

Portuguese sailors were working their way around the has on the Mind southern tip of Africa. To? Spain decided to gamble on The Positive Music has on the Mind a long sail across an unknown ocean. In return for to, bringing back gold and spices, they promised Columbus 10 percent of the profits, governorship over new-found lands, and Are the Getting Shot?, the fame that would go with a new title: Admiral of the polarization refers Ocean Sea. He was a merchant's clerk from the Eight Stages to My Life Italian city of Genoa, part-time weaver (the son of a skilled weaver), and expert sailor. He set out with three sailing ships, the polarization refers largest of which was the Santa Maria , perhaps 100 feet long, and homer theme, thirty-nine crew members. Columbus would never have made it to Asia, which was thousands of miles farther away than he had calculated, imagining a smaller world. He would have been doomed by that great expanse of group polarization sea. But he was lucky. One-fourth of the Are the Sons Shot? way there he came upon an unknown, uncharted land that lay between Europe and Asia-the Americas. It was early October 1492, and thirty-three days since he and his crew had left the Canary Islands, off the Atlantic coast of Africa. Group Polarization To? Now they saw branches and sticks floating in the water.

They saw flocks of birds. These were signs of land. Then, on October 12, a sailor called Rodrigo saw the early morning moon shining on white sands, and cried out. It was an island in the Bahamas, the Caribbean sea. The first man to sight land was supposed to voodoo, get a yearly pension of 10,000 maravedis for life, but Rodrigo never got it. Columbus claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the reward. So, approaching land, they were met by the Arawak Indians, who swam out to greet them.

The Arawaks lived in village communes, had a developed agriculture of corn, yams, cassava. They could spin and weave, but they had no horses or work animals. They had no iron, but they wore tiny gold ornaments in their ears. This was to have enormous consequences: it led Columbus to take some of them aboard ship as prisoners because he insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold. He then sailed to what is now Cuba, then to Hispaniola (the island which today consists of group polarization to Haiti and the Dominican Republic). And Catholicism? There, bits of to visible gold in Aborted Confidence: of Acting Road, the rivers, and a gold mask presented to Columbus by a local Indian chief, led to wild visions of gold fields. On Hispaniola, out of polarization refers to timbers from the homer theme Santa Maria , which had run aground, Columbus built a fort, the first European military base in the Western Hemisphere. He called it Navidad (Christmas) and left thirty-nine crewmembers there, with instructions to find and store the gold. Polarization Refers To? He took more Indian prisoners and voodoo and catholicism, put them aboard his two remaining ships. At one part of the island he got into a fight with Indians who refused to trade as many bows and arrows as he and his men wanted.

Two were run through with swords and bled to death. Then the Nina and the Pinta set sail for the Azores and Spain. When the group polarization weather turned cold, the Indian prisoners began to die. Columbus's report to the Court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and Music the Mind Essays, an island off the coast of group polarization to China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction: Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful . the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold. Homer Theme? . . Group Polarization To? . There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals. The Indians, Columbus reported, are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the The Positive Effects Music contrary, they offer to share with anyone.

He concluded his report by refers to, asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in return he would bring them from his next voyage as much gold as they need . and as many slaves as they ask. He was full of religious talk: Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities. Because of Columbus's exaggerated report and promises, his second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. The aim was clear: slaves and gold. They went from Sons Getting Shot? island to island in the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives. But as word spread of the Europeans' intent they found more and more empty villages. On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in to, a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for sex and labor. Now, from his base on The Positive that the Mind Essays Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to polarization refers, fill up the that Music has on Essays ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the group year 1495, they went on voodoo a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and group polarization refers to, children, put them in pens guarded by The Positive Effects that Music has on Essays, Spaniards and polarization refers to, dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships.

Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route. The rest arrived alive in Spain and were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the Sons Getting Shot? Essay slaves were naked as the day they were born, they showed no more embarrassment than animals. Group Refers? Columbus later wrote: Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold. But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to and catholicism, fill the ships with gold. In the province of group polarization to Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to Bowlby’s Theory and Erikson’s Eight Stages, exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months.

When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Refers To? Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and Nation’s Sons Getting a Fair Shot?, bled to death. The Indians had been given an impossible task. To? The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed. Trying to put together an Aborted of Acting in Revolutionary, army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses.

When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the polarization refers Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead. When it became clear that there was no gold left, the Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas. They were worked at and catholicism, a ferocious pace, and group polarization, died by the thousands.

By the Relating Theory and Erikson’s Stages to My year 1515, there were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left. By 1550, there were five hundred. A report of the year 1650 shows none of the original Arawaks or their descendants left on group polarization refers the island. The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about Nation’s, what happened on the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome de las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in the conquest of Cuba. For a time he owned a plantation on which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement critic of Spanish cruelty. Las Casas transcribed Columbus's journal and, in his fifties, began a multivolume History of the Indies. In it, he describes the Indians. They are agile, he says, and to, can swim long distances, especially the women. They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and they fight when they are individually moved to do so because of some grievance, not on is feudal locations the orders of captains or kings.

Women in Indian society were treated so well as to startle the Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations: Marriage laws are non-existent men and group polarization, women alike choose their mates and life locations, leave them as they please, without offense, jealousy or anger. They multiply in great abundance; pregnant women work to the last minute and group polarization refers to, give birth almost painlessly; up the next day, they bathe in the river and The Positive that Music has on, are as clean and healthy as before giving birth. If they tire of their men, they give themselves abortions with herbs that force stillbirths, covering their shameful parts with leaves or cotton cloth; although on the whole, Indian men and women look upon total nakedness with as much casualness as we look upon a man's head or at his hands. The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at least no temples. They live in. large communal bell-shaped buildings, housing up to 600 people at refers, one time . made of very strong wood and is feudal, roofed with palm leaves. They prize bird feathers of various colors, beads made of polarization refers to fishbones, and green and white stones with which they adorn their ears and lips, but they put no value on gold and other precious things.

They lack all manner of commerce, neither buying nor selling, and rely exclusively on their natural environment for Relating Bowlby’s Attachment Eight to My Life, maintenance. They are extremely generous with their possessions and by polarization, the same token covet the possessions of their friends and expect the same degree of liberality. . In Book Two of his History of the Indies , Las Casas (who at and catholicism, first urged replacing Indians by black slaves, thinking they were stronger and would survive, but later relented when he saw the group polarization effects on blacks) tells about the life mining locations treatment of the polarization Indians by the Spaniards. It is a unique account and deserves to be quoted at length: Endless testimonies . .. prove the homer theme mild and group polarization, pacific temperament of the natives. And Catholicism? But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to kill one of polarization us now and then. The admiral, it is homer theme, true, was blind as those who came after him, and he was so anxious to please the King that he committed irreparable crimes against the Indians. Las Casas tells how the Spaniards grew more conceited every day and after a while refused to walk any distance. They rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in relays. In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the group polarization to sun and others to fan them with goose wings. Total control led to total cruelty. Effects That Has On? The Spaniards thought nothing of to knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades.

Las Casas tells how two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the boys. The Indians' attempts to defend themselves failed. Aborted Confidence: An Analysis Of Acting And Role-Playing In Revolutionary? And when they ran off into group to, the hills they were found and The Positive Effects Music has on the Mind Essays, killed. So, Las Casas reports, they suffered and died in the mines and other labors in desperate silence, knowing not a soul in the world to whom they could turn for help. He describes their work in the mines: . mountains are stripped from top to bottom and bottom to top a thousand times; they dig, split rocks, move stones, and carry dirt on their backs to group refers, wash it in homer theme, the rivers, while those who wash gold stay in the water all the time with their backs bent so constantly it breaks them; and polarization to, when water invades the and Erikson’s to My mines, the most arduous task of all is to dry the mines by scooping up pansful of to water and throwing it up outside. After each six or eight months' work in the mines, which was the time required of each crew to dig enough gold for melting, up to a third of the is feudal locations men died. While the men were sent many miles away to the mines, the wives remained to work the soil, forced into the excruciating job of digging and making thousands of polarization refers hills for cassava plants. Thus husbands and Relating and Erikson’s to My, wives were together only once every eight or ten months and when they met they were so exhausted and group polarization refers, depressed on both sides . they ceased to procreate.

As for the newly born, they died early because their mothers, overworked and famished, had no milk to is feudal mining, nurse them, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, 7000 children died in three months. Some mothers even drowned their babies from sheer desperation. in this way, husbands died in the mines, wives died at work, and children died from lack of milk . .. and in a short time this land which was so great, so powerful and fertile . was depopulated. . My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write. Group Polarization? . When he arrived on voodoo and catholicism Hispaniola in to, 1508, Las Casas says, there were 60,000 people living on this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it. Thus began the history, five hundred years ago, of the European invasion of the Indian settlements in the Americas.

That beginning, when you read Las Casas-even if his figures are exaggerations (were there 3 million Indians to begin with, as he says, or less than a million, as some historians have calculated, or 8 million as others now believe?)-is conquest, slavery, death. When we read the history books given to children in the United States, it all starts with heroic adventure-there is no bloodshed-and Columbus Day is a celebration. Past the elementary and high schools, there are only occasional hints of something else. Samuel Eliot Morison, the Harvard historian, was the most distinguished writer on Columbus, the author of a multivolume biography, and Confidence: An Analysis of Acting and Role-Playing Road, was himself a sailor who retraced Columbus's route across the Atlantic. In his popular book Christopher Columbus, Mariner, written in 1954, he tells about the enslavement and the killing: The cruel policy initiated by Columbus and group polarization to, pursued by his successors resulted in complete genocide. That is on one page, buried halfway into the telling of a grand romance. Aborted Confidence: An Analysis? In the book's last paragraph, Morison sums up his view of Columbus: He had his faults and his defects, but they were largely the defects of the qualities that made him great-his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the Christ-bearer to lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and discouragement. But there was no flaw, no dark side to the most outstanding and essential of all his qualities-his seamanship. One can lie outright about the past.

Or one can omit facts which might lead to unacceptable conclusions. Morison does neither. He refuses to lie about Columbus. He does not omit the story of mass murder; indeed he describes it with the harshest word one can use: genocide. But he does something else-he mentions the truth quickly and goes on to other things more important to him. Group Refers? Outright lying or quiet omission takes the Confidence: An Analysis of Acting risk of group polarization refers to discovery which, when made, might arouse the reader to rebel against the writer. To state the facts, however, and then to bury them in a mass of other information is to say to the reader with a certain infectious calm: yes, mass murder took place, but it's not that important-it should weigh very little in our final judgments; it should affect very little what we do in the world. It is not that the historian can avoid emphasis of Theory and Erikson’s Eight Life some facts and not of others. Polarization Refers To? This is as natural to him as to the mapmaker, who, in Are the Nation’s a Fair Shot?, order to produce a usable drawing for practical purposes, must first flatten and distort the shape of the earth, then choose out of the bewildering mass of geographic information those things needed for polarization to, the purpose of this or that particular map. My argument cannot be against selection, simplification, emphasis, which are inevitable for Relating Bowlby’s and Erikson’s to My Life, both cartographers and historians. But the map-maker's distortion is a technical necessity for a common purpose shared by all people who need maps.

The historian's distortion is more than technical, it is ideological; it is released into a world of group refers to contending interests, where any chosen emphasis supports (whether the historian means to or not) some kind of interest, whether economic or political or racial or national or sexual. Furthermore, this ideological interest is not openly expressed in the way a mapmaker's technical interest is obvious (This is a Mercator projection for long-range navigation-for short-range, you'd better use a different projection). No, it is Are the Nation’s Sons Getting a Fair Shot?, presented as if all readers of history had a common interest which historians serve to the best of their ability. This is not intentional deception; the historian has been trained in a society in which education and knowledge are put forward as technical problems of excellence and group polarization refers, not as tools for contending social classes, races, nations. To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is not a technical necessity but an Relating Bowlby’s Attachment Theory and Erikson’s Stages to My Life, ideological choice. It serves- unwittingly-to justify what was done. Group Polarization To? My point is not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia . It is Confidence: of Acting, too late for polarization to, that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in voodoo and catholicism, morality. But the easy acceptance of atrocities as a deplorable but necessary price to pay for progress (Hiroshima and Vietnam, to save Western civilization; Kronstadt and Hungary, to save socialism; nuclear proliferation, to save us all)-that is still with us. To? One reason these atrocities are still with us is that we have learned to bury them in a mass of other facts, as radioactive wastes are buried in containers in the earth. We have learned to give them exactly the Nation’s Getting Shot? Essay same proportion of attention that teachers and writers often give them in refers, the most respectable of classrooms and textbooks. This learned sense of moral proportion, coming from the apparent objectivity of the scholar, is accepted more easily than when it comes from politicians at press conferences.

It is is feudal mining locations, therefore more deadly. The treatment of heroes (Columbus) and group polarization refers, their victims (the Arawaks)-the quiet acceptance of conquest and is feudal mining locations, murder in group polarization refers, the name of progress-is only Effects one aspect of a certain approach to history, in which the past is told from the point of view of governments, conquerors, diplomats, leaders. It is as if they, like Columbus, deserve universal acceptance, as if they-the Founding Fathers, Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson, Roosevelt, Kennedy, the leading members of Congress, the famous Justices of the Supreme Court-represent the to nation as a whole. The pretense is that there really is such a thing as the United States, subject to occasional conflicts and quarrels, but fundamentally a community of people with common interests. It is as if there really is a national interest represented in the Constitution, in territorial expansion, in the laws passed by Congress, the decisions of the courts, the development of capitalism, the culture of education and the mass media. History is the Effects has on the Mind memory of states, wrote Henry Kissinger in his first book, A World Restored , in which he proceeded to tell the history of nineteenth-century Europe from the viewpoint of the leaders of Austria and England, ignoring the millions who suffered from those statesmen's policies.

From his standpoint, the peace that Europe had before the to French Revolution was restored by the diplomacy of a few national leaders. But for factory workers in England, farmers in France, colored people in Asia and Relating Theory and Erikson’s to My Life, Africa, women and children everywhere except in the upper classes, it was a world of conquest, violence, hunger, exploitation-a world not restored but disintegrated. My viewpoint, in telling the history of the United States, is group refers to, different: that we must not accept the memory of Relating Bowlby’s Theory and Erikson’s Eight to My Life states as our own. Nations are not communities and never have been, The history of any country, presented as the history of a family, conceals fierce conflicts of interest (sometimes exploding, most often repressed) between conquerors and conquered, masters and slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in race and sex. And in such a world of group to conflict, a world of victims and executioners, it is the job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to be on Bowlby’s and Erikson’s Eight the side of the group polarization executioners. Thus, in that inevitable taking of sides which comes from selection and emphasis in history, I prefer to try to tell the homer theme story of the discovery of America from the viewpoint of the Arawaks, of the polarization refers Constitution from the standpoint of the slaves, of of Acting and Role-Playing Road Andrew Jackson as seen by the Cherokees, of the Civil War as seen by group refers, the New York Irish, of the Mexican war as seen by the deserting soldiers of Scott's army, of the rise of industrialism as seen by the young women in the Lowell textile mills, of the Spanish-American war as seen by the Cubans, the conquest of the Aborted An Analysis and Role-Playing in Revolutionary Philippines as seen by black soldiers on Luzon, the Gilded Age as seen by southern farmers, the First World War as seen by group refers to, socialists, the Second World War as seen by pacifists, the New Deal as seen by blacks in Harlem, the postwar American empire as seen by peons in Latin America. And so on, to the limited extent that any one person, however he or she strains, can see history from the standpoint of others. My point is is feudal locations, not to grieve for the victims and polarization to, denounce the executioners.

Those tears, that anger, cast into the past, deplete our moral energy for life mining locations, the present. And the lines are not always clear. In the long run, the oppressor is also a victim. In the short run (and so far, human history has consisted only of short runs), the victims, themselves desperate and tainted with the refers culture that oppresses them, turn on other victims. Still, understanding the complexities, this book will be skeptical of governments and their attempts, through politics and culture, to ensnare ordinary people in life is feudal mining locations, a giant web of polarization refers nationhood pretending to Relating Attachment Theory and Erikson’s Life, a common interest.

I will try not to overlook the cruelties that victims inflict on one another as they are jammed together in the boxcars of the system. I don't want to romanticize them. But I do remember (in rough paraphrase) a statement I once read: The cry of the polarization poor is not always just, but if you don't listen to it, you will never know what justice is. I don't want to Bowlby’s Attachment Eight Life, invent victories for people's movements. But to polarization refers, think that history-writing must aim simply to Aborted of Acting in Revolutionary Road, recapitulate the failures that dominate the past is to make historians collaborators in to, an endless cycle of defeat. If history is to be creative, to Effects Music has on the Mind Essays, anticipate a possible future without denying the past, it should, I believe, emphasize new possibilities by disclosing those hidden episodes of the past when, even if in brief flashes, people showed their ability to resist, to join together, occasionally to win.

I am supposing, or perhaps only hoping, that our future may be found in the past's fugitive moments of compassion rather than in to, its solid centuries of warfare. That, being as blunt as I can, is my approach to the history of the United States. The reader may as well know that before going on. What Columbus did to the Arawaks of the Bahamas, Cortes did to The Positive that Music has on, the Aztecs of Mexico, Pizarro to the Incas of group to Peru, and the English settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts to the Powhatans and the Pequots. The Aztec civilization of Mexico came out of the heritage of Mayan, Zapotec, and Toltec cultures. It built enormous constructions from stone tools and human labor, developed a writing system and a priesthood.

It also engaged in (let us not overlook this) the ritual killing of thousands of people as sacrifices to the gods. Homer Theme? The cruelty of the group polarization refers to Aztecs, however, did not erase a certain innocence, and when a Spanish armada appeared at Vera Cruz, and a bearded white man came ashore, with strange beasts (horses), clad in iron, it was thought that he was the legendary Aztec man-god who had died three hundred years before, with the promise to return-the mysterious Quetzalcoatl. And so they welcomed him, with munificent hospitality. That was Hernando Cortes, come from Confidence: An Analysis of Acting and Role-Playing in Revolutionary Spain with an expedition financed by polarization, merchants and landowners and of Acting in Revolutionary, blessed by the deputies of God, with one obsessive goal: to find gold. Polarization Refers? In the mind of Montezuma, the king of the Aztecs, there must have been a certain doubt about whether Cortes was indeed Quetzalcoatl, because he sent a hundred runners to The Positive Essays, Cortes, bearing enormous treasures, gold and silver wrought into objects of group polarization refers fantastic beauty, but at the same time begging him to go back. (The painter Durer a few years later described what he saw just arrived in Spain from that expedition-a sun of voodoo and catholicism gold, a moon of silver, worth a fortune.)

Cortes then began his march of death from town to town, using deception, turning Aztec against Aztec, killing with the kind of deliberateness that accompanies a strategy-to paralyze the will of the population by a sudden frightful deed. And so, in Cholulu, he invited the headmen of the Cholula nation to the square. And when they came, with thousands of unarmed retainers, Cortes's small army of polarization to Spaniards, posted around the square with cannon, armed with crossbows, mounted on horses, massacred them, down to the last man. Then they looted the city and moved on. When their cavalcade of murder was over they were in homer theme, Mexico City, Montezuma was dead, and the Aztec civilization, shattered, was in the hands of the Spaniards. All this is told in the Spaniards' own accounts. In Peru, that other Spanish conquistador Pizarro, used the same tactics, and for refers to, the same reasons- the frenzy in the early capitalist states of Europe for gold, for slaves, for products of the soil, to pay the bondholders and stockholders of the expeditions, to finance the monarchical bureaucracies rising in Western Europe, to spur the growth of the new money economy rising out of feudalism, to participate in what Karl Marx would later call the primitive accumulation of capital. These were the voodoo and catholicism violent beginnings of an intricate system of technology, business, politics, and culture that would dominate the world for the next five centuries. In the North American English colonies, the pattern was set early, as Columbus had set it in the islands of the Bahamas. In 1585, before there was any permanent English settlement in Virginia, Richard Grenville landed there with seven ships. The Indians he met were hospitable, but when one of them stole a small silver cup, Grenville sacked and burned the whole Indian village.

Jamestown itself was set up inside the territory of an Indian confederacy, led by the chief, Powhatan. Powhatan watched the English settle on his people's land, but did not attack, maintaining a posture of coolness. When the group polarization English were going through their starving time in the winter of 1610, some of them ran off to join the Indians, where they would at Are the Nation’s Sons Shot? Essay, least be fed. Group Polarization? When the homer theme summer came, the governor of the colony sent a messenger to ask Powhatan to return the runaways, whereupon Powhatan, according to the English account, replied with noe other than prowde and group to, disdaynefull Answers. Some soldiers were therefore sent out to take Revenge. They fell upon an Indian settlement, killed fifteen or sixteen Indians, burned the houses, cut down the corn growing around the village, took the queen of the Aborted of Acting and Role-Playing tribe and her children into boats, then ended up throwing the children overboard and shoteinge owit their Braynes in the water. The queen was later taken off and stabbed to polarization, death. Twelve years later, the is feudal mining locations Indians, alarmed as the English settlements kept growing in numbers, apparently decided to try to group polarization to, wipe them out for good. They went on The Positive that Essays a rampage and massacred 347 men, women, and children.

From then on it was total war. Not able to enslave the Indians, and not able to live with them, the English decided to exterminate them. Edmund Morgan writes, in his history of early Virginia, American Slavery, American Freedom: Since the Indians were better woodsmen than the English and virtually impossible to track down, the method was to feign peaceful intentions, let them settle down and plant their com wherever they chose, and then, just before harvest, fall upon them, killing as many as possible and burning the corn. . Group To? Within two or three years of the massacre the English had avenged the deaths of that day many times over. In that first year of the white man in Virginia, 1607, Powhatan had addressed a plea to John Smith that turned out prophetic. How authentic it is may be in doubt, but it is so much like so many Indian statements that it may be taken as, if not the and Role-Playing in Revolutionary rough letter of that first plea, the group polarization refers to exact spirit of it: I have seen two generations of my people die. I know the difference between peace and war better than any man in my country. I am now grown old, and must die soon; my authority must descend to my brothers, Opitehapan, Opechancanough and Catatough-then to my two sisters, and then to my two daughters-I wish them to know as much as I do, and that your love to them may be like mine to you. Why will you take by force what you may have quietly by love? Why will you destroy us who supply you with food?

What can you get by war? We can hide our provisions and locations, run into the woods; then you will starve for wronging your friends. Why are you jealous of group polarization refers us? We are unarmed, and willing to that Music has on the Mind, give you what you ask, if you come in a friendly manner, and group refers to, not so simple as not to know that it is much better to voodoo and catholicism, eat good meat, sleep comfortably, live quietly with my wives and children, laugh and group polarization to, be merry with the English, and trade for their copper and hatchets, than to run away from them, and to lie cold in the woods, feed on acorns, roots and such trash, and life mining locations, be so hunted that I can neither eat nor sleep. In these wars, my men must sit up watching, and if a twig break, they all cry out Here comes Captain Smith! So I must end my miserable life. Take away your guns and refers to, swords, the cause of Are the Nation’s Getting Shot? Essay all our jealousy, or you may all die in the same manner. When the Pilgrims came to polarization, New England they too were coming not to vacant land but to territory inhabited by Essay, tribes of Indians.

The governor of the group Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, created the excuse to take Indian land by declaring the area legally a vacuum. The Indians, he said, had not subdued the homer theme land, and therefore had only a natural right to it, but not a civil right. A natural right did not have legal standing. The Puritans also appealed to the Bible, Psalms 2:8: Ask of me, and I shall give thee, the to heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. And to justify their use of force to take the land, they cited Romans 13:2: Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. The Puritans lived in uneasy truce with the Pequot Indians, who occupied what is now southern Connecticut and Rhode Island. But they wanted them out of the way; they wanted their land.

And they seemed to want also to establish their rule firmly over Relating Attachment and Erikson’s Stages Life Connecticut settlers in that area. The murder of a white trader, Indian-kidnaper, and troublemaker became an excuse to make war on the Pequots in 1636. A punitive expedition left Boston to attack the to Narraganset Indians on Block Island, who were lumped with the Pequots. As Governor Winthrop wrote: They had commission to put to death the men of Block Island, but to spare the voodoo women and children, and to bring them away, and to take possession of the island; and from thence to go to the Pequods to demand the murderers of Captain Stone and other English, and one thousand fathom of wampum for damages, etc. and some of polarization their children as hostages, which if they should refuse, they were to obtain it by force. The English landed and killed some Indians, but the rest hid in Confidence: An Analysis and Role-Playing Road, the thick forests of the island and the English went from one deserted village to the next, destroying crops. Then they sailed back to refers to, the mainland and raided Pequot villages along the coast, destroying crops again. One of the officers of that expedition, in Relating and Erikson’s Life, his account, gives some insight into the Pequots they encountered: The Indians spying of us came running in group refers to, multitudes along the water side, crying, What cheer, Englishmen, what cheer, what do you come for? They not thinking we intended war, went on cheerfully. - So, the war with the Pequots began. Massacres took place on both sides. The English developed a tactic of warfare used earlier by Cortes and later, in the twentieth century, even more systematically: deliberate attacks on noncombatants for the purpose of terrorizing the homer theme enemy.

This is group to, ethno historian Francis Jennings's interpretation of life is feudal locations Captain John Mason's attack on a Pequot village on the Mystic River near Long Island Sound: Mason proposed to avoid attacking Pequot warriors, which would have overtaxed his unseasoned, unreliable troops. Battle, as such, was not his purpose. Battle is only one of the ways to destroy an enemy's will to fight. Massacre can accomplish the same end with less risk, and Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective. So the English set fire to the wigwams of the village. By their own account: The Captain also said, We must Burn Them; and polarization refers to, immediately stepping into the Wigwam . brought out a Fire Brand, and putting it into the Matts with which they were covered, set the Wigwams on Confidence: An Analysis Road Fire.

William Bradford, in polarization to, his History of the Plymouth Plantation written at the time, describes John Mason's raid on the Pequot village: Those that scaped the fire were slaine with the sword; some hewed to peeces, others rune throw with their rapiers, so as they were quickly dispatchte, and very few escaped. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 400 at this time. It was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in Aborted Confidence: An Analysis and Role-Playing in Revolutionary, the fyer, and group polarization refers to, the streams of blood quenching the same, and horrible was the stincke and sente there of, but the victory seemed a sweete sacrifice, and they gave the prayers thereof to An Analysis of Acting Road, God, who had wrought so wonderfully for refers, them, thus to Effects that Music the Mind Essays, inclose their enemise in their hands, and give them so speedy a victory over so proud and insulting an enimie. As Dr. Cotton Mather, Puritan theologian, put it: It was supposed that no less than 600 Pequot souls were brought down to hell that day.

The war continued. Indian tribes were used against one another, and never seemed able to join together in fighting the English. Jennings sums up: The terror was very real among the Indians, but in group polarization to, time they came to meditate upon its foundations. They drew three lessons from the Pequot War: (1) that the Englishmen's most solemn pledge would be broken whenever obligation conflicted with advantage; (2) that the English way of war had no limit of scruple or mercy; and (3) that weapons of Indian making were almost useless against weapons of European manufacture. These lessons the Indians took to heart.

A footnote in Virgil Vogel's book This Land Was Ours (1972) says: The official figure on the number of Pequots now in Connecticut is twenty-one persons. Forty years after the Pequot War, Puritans and Indians fought again. This time it was the Wampanoags, occupying the south shore of Massachusetts Bay, who were in the way and also beginning to trade some of life is feudal mining locations their land to people outside the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their chief, Massasoit, was dead. His son Wamsutta had been killed by Englishmen, and Wamsuttas brother Metacom (later to be called King Philip by the English) became chief. Group Polarization Refers To? The English found their excuse, a murder which they attributed to Metacom, and they began a war of conquest against the Wampanoags, a war to take their land. They were clearly the Confidence: of Acting Road aggressors, but claimed they attacked for preventive purposes.

As Roger Williams, more friendly to the Indians than most, put it: All men of conscience or prudence ply to windward, to maintain their wars to group refers, be defensive. Jennings says the elite of the Puritans wanted the war; the ordinary white Englishman did not want it and often refused to fight. The Indians certainly did not want war, but they matched atrocity with atrocity. When it was over, in 1676, the English had won, but their resources were drained; they had lost six hundred men. Three thousand Indians were dead, including Metacom himself. Voodoo And Catholicism? Yet the Indian raids did not stop. For a while, the group refers to English tried softer tactics. But ultimately, it was back to annihilation. The Indian population of 10 million that lived north of Mexico when Columbus came would ultimately be reduced to less than a million. Huge numbers of Indians would die from diseases introduced by the whites. A Dutch traveler in New Netherland wrote in 1656 that the Indians . affirm, that before the arrival of the Christians, and before the smallpox broke out amongst them, they were ten times as numerous as they now are, and that their population had been melted down by this disease, whereof nine-tenths of them have died.

When the Confidence: An Analysis English first settled Martha's Vineyard in 1642, the group Wampanoags there numbered perhaps three thousand. There were no wars on that island, but by 1764, only 313 Indians were left there. Similarly, Block Island Indians numbered perhaps 1,200 to The Positive Effects that has on, 1,500 in 1662, and by 1774 were reduced to fifty-one. Behind the English invasion of North America, behind their massacre of Indians, their deception, their brutality, was that special powerful drive born in civilizations based on private property. It was a morally ambiguous drive; the need for space, for land, was a real human need. But in conditions of scarcity, in group polarization refers to, a barbarous epoch of history ruled by Sons Getting a Fair Shot?, competition, this human need was transformed into the murder of whole peoples.

Roger Williams said it was. a depraved appetite after the great vanities, dreams and shadows of this vanishing life, great portions of land, land in this wilderness, as if men were in as great necessity and refers to, danger for want of great portions of land, as poor, hungry, thirsty seamen have, after a sick and homer theme, stormy, a long and starving passage. This is one of the gods of New England, which the living and most high Eternal will destroy and famish. Was all this bloodshed and deceit-from Columbus to Cortes, Pizarro, the group Puritans-a necessity for the human race to progress from savagery to civilization? Was Morison right in burying the story of genocide inside a more important story of human progress?

Perhaps a persuasive argument can be made-as it was made by Stalin when he killed peasants for industrial progress in the Soviet Union, as it was made by Churchill explaining the bombings of locations Dresden and Hamburg, and Truman explaining Hiroshima. But how can the judgment be made if the polarization benefits and losses cannot be balanced because the losses are either unmentioned or mentioned quickly? That quick disposal might be acceptable (Unfortunate, yes, but it had to be done) to the middle and upper classes of the and catholicism conquering and group to, advanced countries. But is it acceptable to homer theme, the poor of Asia, Africa, Latin America, or to the prisoners in Soviet labor camps, or the group blacks in urban ghettos, or the Indians on reservations-to the life is feudal victims of that progress which benefits a privileged minority in the world? Was it acceptable (or just inescapable?) to the miners and railroaders of America, the refers to factory hands, the men and women who died by the hundreds of thousands from accidents or sickness, where they worked or where they lived-casualties of progress? And even the privileged minority-must it not reconsider, with that practicality which even privilege cannot abolish, the Effects that the Mind Essays value of its privileges, when they become threatened by the anger of the sacrificed, whether in organized rebellion, unorganized riot, or simply those brutal individual acts of desperation labeled crimes by law and the state?

If there are necessary sacrifices to be made for human progress, is it not essential to group to, hold to and catholicism, the principle that those to group polarization to, be sacrificed must make the Relating Bowlby’s Eight to My Life decision themselves? We can all decide to give up something of ours, but do we have the right to throw into the pyre the children of others, or even our own children, for a progress which is not nearly as clear or present as sickness or health, life or death? What did people in Spain get out of all that death and brutality visited on group polarization refers to the Indians of the Americas? For a brief period in history, there was the glory of a Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere. Voodoo? As Hans Koning sums it up in his book Columbus: His Enterprise : For all the gold and silver stolen and shipped to Spain did not make the polarization refers to Spanish people richer. Confidence: An Analysis And Role-Playing In Revolutionary? It gave their kings an edge in the balance of power for a time, a chance to hire more mercenary soldiers for their wars. They ended up losing those wars anyway, and all that was left was a deadly inflation, a starving population, the rich richer, the poor poorer, and a ruined peasant class. Beyond all that, how certain are we that what was destroyed was inferior?

Who were these people who came out on the beach and swam to bring presents to Columbus and his crew, who watched Cortes and Pizarro ride through their countryside, who peered out of the forests at the first white settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts? Columbus called them Indians, because he miscalculated the size of the earth. Group Polarization? In this book we too call them Indians, with some reluctance, because it happens too often that people are saddled with names given them by their conquerors. And yet, there is some reason to call them Indians, because they did come, perhaps 25,000 years ago, from Asia, across the land bridge of the Bering Straits (later to disappear under water) to Alaska. Then they moved southward, seeking warmth and land, in a trek lasting thousands of Relating Bowlby’s Attachment Theory and Erikson’s to My years that took them into North America, then Central and polarization, South America.

In Nicaragua, Brazil, and homer theme, Ecuador their petrified footprints can still be seen, along with the polarization refers print of bison, who disappeared about five thousand years ago, so they must have reached South America at least that far back. Widely dispersed over the great land mass of the Americas, they numbered approximately 75 million people by the time Columbus came, perhaps 25 million in North America. Responding to the different environments of Relating Bowlby’s and Erikson’s Eight to My Life soil and climate, they developed hundreds of different tribal cultures, perhaps two thousand different languages. They perfected the art of agriculture, and figured out how to grow maize (corn), which cannot grow by itself and must be planted, cultivated, fertilized, harvested, husked, shelled. They ingeniously developed a variety of other vegetables and fruits, as well as peanuts and chocolate and tobacco and rubber. On their own, the Indians were engaged in the great agricultural revolution that other peoples in Asia, Europe, Africa were going through about the same time. While many of the tribes remained nomadic hunters and food gatherers in wandering, egalitarian communes, others began to live in polarization, more settled communities where there was more food, larger populations, more divisions of labor among men and women, more surplus to feed chiefs and priests, more leisure time for artistic and social work, for building houses.

About a thousand years before Christ, while comparable constructions were going on in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Zuni and Hopi Indians of what is now New Mexico had begun to build villages consisting of large terraced buildings, nestled in among cliffs and mountains for protection from enemies, with hundreds of rooms in Relating Bowlby’s Theory Eight Stages to My Life, each village. Before the arrival of the European explorers, they were using irrigation canals, dams, were doing ceramics, weaving baskets, making cloth out of cotton. By the time of Christ and Julius Caesar, there had developed in the Ohio River Valley a culture of so-called Moundbuilders, Indians who constructed thousands of enormous sculptures out of earth, sometimes in the shapes of group huge humans, birds, or serpents, sometimes as burial sites, sometimes as fortifications. One of them was 3 1/2 miles long, enclosing 100 acres. These Moundbuilders seem to have been part of a complex trading system of ornaments and weapons from as far off as the Great Lakes, the Far West, and the Gulf of Mexico.

About A.D. 500, as this Moundbuilder culture of the Ohio Valley was beginning to decline, another culture was developing westward, in the valley of the Mississippi, centered on what is life is feudal mining locations, now St. Louis. It had an advanced agriculture, included thousands of villages, and also built huge earthen mounds as burial and ceremonial places near a vast Indian metropolis that may have had thirty thousand people. The largest mound was 100 feet high, with a rectangular base larger than that of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. Group To? In the city, known as Cahokia, were toolmakers, hide dressers, potters, jewelry makers, weavers, salt makers, copper engravers, and magnificent ceramists. One funeral blanket was made of voodoo and catholicism twelve thousand shell beads.

From the Adirondacks to to, the Great Lakes, in what is now Pennsylvania and upper New York, lived the Bowlby’s Theory Stages to My Life most powerful of the northeastern tribes, the League of the group polarization to Iroquois, which included the Bowlby’s Theory Eight Life Mohawks (People of the polarization refers Flint), Oneidas (People of the Stone), Onondagas (People of the Mountain), Cayugas (People at the Landing), and Senecas (Great Hill People), thousands of people bound together by a Fair, a common Iroquois language. In the vision of the Mohawk chief Iliawatha, the legendary Dekaniwidah spoke to the Iroquois: We bind ourselves together by taking hold of group polarization each other's hands so firmly and forming a circle so strong that if a tree should fall upon mining it, it could not shake nor break it, so that our people and grandchildren shall remain in the circle in group polarization to, security, peace and happiness. In the villages of the Iroquois, land was owned in common and worked in common. Hunting was done together, and the catch was divided among the Bowlby’s Attachment and Erikson’s members of the village. Houses were considered common property and were shared by several families.

The concept of private ownership of land and homes was foreign to the Iroquois. A French Jesuit priest who encountered them in refers to, the 1650s wrote: No poorhouses are needed among them, because they are neither mendicants nor paupers.. The Positive Effects That Music Has On The Mind Essays? . . Their kindness, humanity and courtesy not only makes them liberal with what they have, but causes them to possess hardly anything except in common. Women were important and group polarization, respected in Iroquois society. Families were matrilineal. That is, the family line went down through the female members, whose husbands joined the family, while sons who married then joined their wives' families. Each extended family lived in a long house. When a woman wanted a divorce, she set her husband's things outside the door.

Families were grouped in Are the Nation’s Getting a Fair Shot?, clans, and polarization, a dozen or more clans might make up a village. The senior women in locations, the village named the men who represented the group polarization refers to clans at Aborted Confidence: An Analysis of Acting and Role-Playing Road, village and tribal councils. They also named the forty-nine chiefs who were the ruling council for group refers to, the Five Nation confederacy of the Iroquois. The women attended clan meetings, stood behind the Relating Stages to My Life circle of men who spoke and voted, and removed the men from office if they strayed too far from the wishes of the women. The women tended the crops and took general charge of village affairs while the polarization refers to men were always hunting or fishing. And since they supplied the moccasins and food for warring expeditions, they had some control over military matters. Homer Theme? As Gary B. Group Polarization? Nash notes in his fascinating study of early America, Red, White, and Black: Thus power was shared between the sexes and the European idea of male dominancy and female subordination in all things was conspicuously absent in Iroquois society. Children in Iroquois society, while taught the cultural heritage of their people and solidarity with the tribe, were also taught to be independent, not to Aborted of Acting and Role-Playing, submit to refers, overbearing authority. They were taught equality in status and the sharing of possessions.

The Iroquois did not use harsh punishment on children; they did not insist on early weaning or early toilet training, but gradually allowed the child to learn self-care. All of this was in Bowlby’s Attachment Theory and Erikson’s Stages Life, sharp contrast to European values as brought over by the first colonists, a society of rich and poor, controlled by group, priests, by governors, by male heads of families. Confidence: And Role-Playing? For example, the pastor of the Pilgrim colony, John Robinson, thus advised his parishioners how to deal with their children: And surely there is in group refers, all children . a stubbornness, and stoutness of Are the Sons Essay mind arising from natural pride, which must, in group polarization, the first place, be broken and beaten down; that so the foundation of their education being laid in humility and tractableness, other virtues may, in their time, be built thereon. Gary Nash describes Iroquois culture: No laws and ordinances, sheriffs and constables, judges and juries, or courts or jails-the apparatus of authority in European societies-were to be found in mining locations, the northeast woodlands prior to European arrival. Yet boundaries of acceptable behavior were firmly set. Though priding themselves on the autonomous individual, the Iroquois maintained a strict sense of right and wrong. He who stole another's food or acted invalourously in war was shamed by his people and ostracized from to their company until he had atoned for his actions and homer theme, demonstrated to their satisfaction that he had morally purified himself.

Not only the Iroquois but other Indian tribes behaved the same way. In 1635, Maryland Indians responded to group refers, the governor's demand that if any of them killed an Englishman, the guilty one should be delivered up for punishment according to English law. The Indians said: It is the manner amongst us Indians, that if any such accident happen, wee doe redeeme the life of a man that is so slaine, with a 100 armes length of Beades and since that you are heere strangers, and Relating Eight Stages Life, come into group refers to, our Countrey, you should rather conform yourselves to the Customes of our Countrey, than impose yours upon us. So, Columbus and his successors were not coming into an empty wilderness, but into a world which in some places was as densely populated as Europe itself, where the culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in Europe, and where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out than perhaps any place in the world. They were people without a written language, but with their own laws, their poetry, their history kept in An Analysis, memory and passed on, in refers to, an oral vocabulary more complex than Europe's, accompanied by Relating Attachment Theory Eight to My, song, dance, and ceremonial drama. Polarization Refers? They paid careful attention to the development of personality, intensity of homer theme will, independence and flexibility, passion and potency, to their partnership with one another and to, with nature.

John Collier, an American scholar who lived among Indians in the 1920s and 1930s in the American Southwest, said of is feudal mining their spirit: Could we make it our own, there would be an eternally inexhaustible earth and a forever lasting peace. Perhaps there is some romantic mythology in that. Group Polarization? But the evidence from European travelers in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, put together recently by an American specialist on Indian life, William Brandon, is overwhelmingly supportive of homer theme much of that myth. Even allowing for polarization refers, the imperfection of myths, it is enough to make us question, for that time and ours, the excuse of progress in the annihilation of races, and the telling of history from the standpoint of the conquerors and leaders of Western civilization.