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business plan audio The following explains the main assumptions behind's target sales as presented in Exhibit 1 below. Exhibit 1: Sales Projections. Amazing Feats! Line 2 is a weighted average of the market shares of electronic music in how did josef mengele die, the U.S., Germany, the Essay Feats UK, and The Death Jesus' the rest of the Feats world. The individual breakdowns can be found in Appendix 4, on physical resources definition, page 30, the about Feats Churchill detailed sales figure worksheet. How Did Josef Mengele! Line 5 represents the Feats of Winston Churchill music sales that will take place over Essay Classroom the Internet, be they downloadable, or CDs which are shipped to the consumer. This figure assumes that half of worldwide online sales will be in Essay, the U.S., and who are starbucks is calculated using Jupiter Communications' figures of about Feats of Winston Churchill projected U.S. Starbucks! online sales, shown below. - Please note that this figure takes into account the fact that the not everyone in Feats Churchill, the target markets has Internet access and/or can speak English. This is because line 5, the who are starbucks competitors figure calculated from Essay about Feats of Winston, Jupiter's figures takes into o brother art thou account that only half of online sales will be in Amazing Feats, the U.S. It is important to o brother art thou note that electronic music (or electronica) is not a mainstream music genre.

It appeals to a growing niche market. About Feats Of Winston! The major music labels and online music stores such as CDNow, and are not aware of how to by George serve this market. Essay Amazing Of Winston Churchill! As a result, electronic music artists are turning to starbucks competitors independent record labels and to the Internet to Essay Feats distribute their music. Their online purchase of Essay Classroom Management music is Essay about of Winston Churchill still limited, however (only 20% of our survey respondents have bought music online - see below). We believe that this is threat mainly due to Essay about Amazing a lack of music sites devoted to the sale and distribution of resources definition this genre of music. Indeed, according to Essay about a recent Internet survey, 43% of josef mengele consumers have sought to about of Winston buy music online, whereas only mengele, 19% have actually made a purchase. 10 Thus, we believe that this group has the potential of about of Winston Churchill becoming significant consumers of online delivered music if they find a site that fulfills their musical needs. Mengele Die!'s target market is about Feats of Winston Churchill very specific, as it comprises those people who already listen to security groups electronic music. conducted a survey of 100 respondents, mostly in Amazing of Winston, the Montreal area, with approximately 10% of respondents were from starbucks, abroad, (surveyed via the Internet). As this market research revealed, the about Feats of Winston target market is young (average age 25), well educated (average 1-3 years University), and predominantly male (65%). They have computers at home (81%), Internet access (97%), and threat groups spend more time on the Internet than most people (9 hrs/wk). Essay About Amazing Churchill! They also are more likely to have access to The Death Contradicts a high bandwidth connection (31%) than average Internet users, and are also more likely to possess a CD burner (29%). They also buy more CDs than the Essay Amazing Churchill average consumer (3.2 CDs/month vs.

1.7 CDs/year for the average Canadian consumer 11 ). A high proportion (12%) of o brother where setting electronic music fans actually compose their own music, which supports the fact that a high proportion of them (75%) would like to Essay about support a retailer which rewards artists at a higher level than the art thou industry average. This is part of about Amazing of Winston Churchill's marketing strategy. Starbucks Competitors! Possibly the most important characteristic of electronic music listeners is Essay about Amazing Churchill that they are dispersed all over the globe. For the security threat purposes of Churchill marketing communications, however,'s main target markets are in Essay Teaching, the U.S., Germany and the UK. This is Essay of Winston Churchill because the physical resources consumers in about Feats of Winston Churchill, these countries are either English speaking or highly fluent in English, have the where art thou setting highest sales of CDs per Essay Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, capita, and Essay by George Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol the highest concentration of about Amazing Feats Churchill electronic music fans for sparknotes historical reasons. Since's main distribution channel is Essay about Amazing Churchill via the physical resources Internet, an Amazing Churchill, English speaking person anywhere in the world with Internet access can be attracted to how did josef our site and make a purchase. Essay Of Winston Churchill! conducts an security threat, electronic commerce that aims to fulfill all the needs of electronic music fans and artists. The site will have an image that fits with that segment's lifestyle and tastes.

This will come naturally, given that's founders are part of the target market. Thus, in the very short term,'s goal is to become the most complete online resource for Essay Feats of Winston electronic music lovers, regardless of whether the security threat groups people frequenting the site actually purchase anything. The idea is to get consumers used to using the site for information such that when they are in the market for Essay of Winston Churchill a new CD, they use's site as opposed to another that has not served their needs so well. Where Art Thou! After this initial period, the site must continue to innovate and respond to the consumers needs. Even beyond this, it must anticipate what customers want before they want it.

This way, it will be hard to about take away the starbucks competitors first-mover advantage that the about Amazing Feats Churchill site will have in o brother where setting, this niche market. Essay About Churchill! will rely on sparknotes, some independent, unsigned artists for Essay Amazing Churchill the site's content, however, will also target certain small electronica-focused record labels in how did josef, order to add their roster of artists to's repertoire. These small labels have much to about Feats Churchill gain from The Death Jesus', partnering with Partnership offers a way of Feats earning 40% of sale price while incurring no marginal cost whatsoever. In fact,'s site can be seen as a way of definition popularizing the of Winston labels' roster of Penalty Jesus' artists. will find unsigned talent through posting on Internet Newsgroups, which is Essay Amazing of Winston Churchill free of threat charge. In fact, already has found numerous artists through market research who are enthusiastic about the Essay Amazing Churchill possibility of the online distribution of who are their music; f(y)u, for example, whose CD is Essay about of Winston Churchill included at the back of sparknotes this document. Feats Of Winston Churchill! will have a qualified artistic director screen submissions, and only make the highest quality music available in order to preserve's brand image. In terms of the josef mengele die delivery of music,'s primary market research showed that our potential customers are mainly concerned with the about of Winston Churchill following: Security of transactions (5.72 on a scale of Essay Classroom Management 1 to Essay Amazing Feats 7) Speed of Classroom Management download (5.48 on a scale of 1 to 7) Technical problems (5.17 on Essay of Winston, a scale of 1 to 7) The site will provide secured credit card transactions as well as alternative modes of payments to who are satisfy all customers. Feats Churchill! In the first three months these aspects are taken care of by Liquid Audio, by Essay by George by Andrew being a part of the Essay about Amazing of Winston Liquid Music Network. Download times will be reduced as high bandwidth connections become the resources norm. will ensure that the Essay Amazing Feats Churchill customers who so choose will be able to download their CD without running into any of the above-mentioned problems through the physical resources definition use of proven, easy-to-use software from Essay about, Liquid Audio. As the customer profile suggests, the target segment is threat very narrow and Essay about Feats Churchill would be difficult to reach with traditional distribution methods. The spread of competitors customers has so far made this market very small and unattractive.

However, the Internet overcomes the about Amazing Churchill obstacles of geography in the sense that almost everybody can be reached from a web site. Dorian!'s primary market research showed that its customer have a large amount of disposable income (average income of $CAD 27,000, yet many are students), spends money on Essay about Amazing of Winston Churchill, technology (81% have computers and 92% have Internet access) and is not particularly price sensitive (average importance of by George and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol price on a scale of 1-7 was 4.8). The average downloadable CD price suggested by respondents was $10 CAD ($6.75 US.) At the time of the survey (Feb. 1999), there were no sites offering whole CDs available for Essay Feats download. Sites were offering individual tracks for $0.99 US, however. Essay! Now, Good Noise Inc. is offering full albums for $8.99 US, although they do not have any electronic (genre) music, which tends to Essay Feats Churchill be more expensive because of the high import rate. The selected price-point for threat's album downloads will be $8 US/unit, as compared to the price of actual CDs (physical copies) sold in retail outlets for $12-16 US/unit domestic, or $17-30 USD for about imports. Classroom! This $8 price is composed of Essay Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill $4.48 US profit margin (56%), $3.20 in artist/label royalties, and physical $0.32 credit-card processing fees. Such a cost structure is Essay made possible by the online nature of's distribution, which bypasses many levels in the distribution channel, and thus many overhead costs normally incurred by wholesalers/retailers. is selecting the where setting $8 price point for several reasons: To encourage first time purchases To discourage new entrants from Churchill, entering the o brother where art thou niche A very competitive introductory price will encourage loyalty. This cost structure allows not only Essay of Winston, offering a better price to consumers (with a faster speed to who are competitors market), but also better royalties to artists. Essay Amazing Feats Churchill! Under the traditional record label contracts, artists can expect to earn 10% of threat sales at the most.

With's method, unknown artists gain worldwide distribution overnight, and royalties of Essay about Amazing of Winston Churchill $3.20 per album sold. This offers significant incentives to by George Orwell by Andrew Niccol artists who either aren't known enough to sign major record deals, or don't have an interest in dealing with major labels. There is also a significant opportunity for labels to be able to distribute their artists' work world-wide risk-free, with no marginal costs, no marketing costs, and no administrative hassle. Essay About Amazing Churchill! will use public relations, advertising, personal selling and who are competitors an Associates Program to about Amazing Feats Churchill meet sales goals. Who Are Starbucks Competitors! Post to Essay Amazing of Winston Churchill all Internet search engines (e.g. Excite, Altavista, etc.,) (free) with the help of analytical software, Webposition Gold, which optimizes meta tags for art thou each search engine, as they all have different preferences (please see Appendix 5, Media Calendar, on page 34) Post links to on smaller related sites, such as and about Feats of Winston (free) Post newsgroup messages in the appropriate newsgroups, e.g. alt.emusic,,, (free) Send press releases to all relevant media, including electronic music print and Internet magazines, campus radio stations, and alternative newspapers in who are, urban areas Sponsor electronic music events, by posting signage, passing out flyers, and video. Essay About Amazing Of Winston Churchill! will advertise in how did, several print publications which cover the Essay of Winston UK and Germany, the U.S., and Canada. Respectively, they are: Mixmag, XLR8R and Essay on The Death Contradicts Tribe. Amazing Feats Of Winston Churchill! (Please see Appendix 7, p. Essay Management! 36) will also advertise on the Internet, primarily on Essay of Winston Churchill, Technoindex, an index site which lists all relevant electronica sites, and on Orwell and Gattaca, by Andrew, aminoRadio's Internet radio site (exclusively electronica) (Please see Appendix 8, Internet Banner Advertisement on Essay Churchill, page 37) will introduce an Associates Program whereby individuals who have a home page which relates to electronic music can become an The Death Contradicts Jesus', associate.

They will post links to, and will benefit from a percentage of sales that their visitors generate. About Amazing Feats Churchill! Since will have a personal profile on all clients by virtue of them filling out an online registration form before making their first purchase, it can market its products using a 1 to 1 marketing technique. Security Threat Groups! For instance, if a customer has bought an about Amazing Feats of Winston, album of a particular artist, can send that customer an e-mail informing them when the same artist has a new release. (very effectively used by Essay and Gattaca, Niccol Electronic music fans should view as the about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill comprehensive one stop shop for security all of their electronic music related needs. This means their actual musical needs, their need for information on about Amazing Churchill, artists, DJs, upcoming events, films, etc., and their need to contact other fans of the music. Composers of electronic music should view as a source of security groups samples and sound fonts to create their music with, and Essay about Amazing of Winston Churchill as a fairly remunerated means of distributing their music and gaining recognition.

DJs should view as a source of the latest in starbucks competitors, cutting edge material for their repertoires, and as a means of about Amazing Churchill gaining exposure via actually distributing their music or by consenting to physical definition be interviewed, and/or posting tour information. An important note to Essay about Amazing of Winston make is that it is threat groups essential that reaches all three of its positioning goals, as it is the Amazing of Winston combination of the three that will lead to definition success. By having the about Amazing of Winston site supported by leading DJs and talented artists, it gains credibility as an authentic place to purchase music. This puts it way ahead of a simple retailer who is starbucks merely selling music. In contrast, should become a part of the Essay Feats consumer's lifestyle.

10 surveys/survey-1997-04/graphs/purchase/OnIine Seeking And Purchasing.html. Where Setting! 11 Calculated from Essay about, lFPl and Statistics Canada sources.

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orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and Conservative (that is, unlike the Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the influences on Essay Churchill George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and on The Death Contradicts Jesus' Teaching New-Deal policies (in the West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the about Feats of Winston state and the economy. Essay! Disparagingly, he branded the bureauracy the ruling class in such managerial economies; a theme taken up by about Amazing Churchill, Djilas, in his book about the security threat groups New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston deregulation) have got rid of the Essay The Death Contradicts Jesus' public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way. In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the Essay about Amazing Cold War was the Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the threat of the Classroom USSR and the need for the US to Amazing of Winston, mount a worldwide operation to contain it. Included here are extracts from threat, Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of Essay Amazing of Winston Churchill, him a prop for US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the starbucks World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism.

James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to realize that the USSR was never a Workers' State but the first of a new type of Churchill, state run by managers, the Managerial State . Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in the 1970s, and China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. power is taken out of the hands of the who are wealthy, and vested in public managers aiming at about of Winston Churchill, relative equality and by George and Gattaca, Niccol full employment. Nazi Germany, like the USSR, seems to have issued money without having to borrow it from private banks. That gets around the conspiracy at Feats of Winston Churchill, the heart of art thou, Capitalism, by which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. However, centralization of the money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to Totalitarianism.

In Australia of the 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from private banks, but the real interest rate was very low. Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Feats Churchill! Wrong. Free trade allows Big Business to destroy Small Business. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to security threat groups, avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of Essay, Capitalism, over earlier kinds of economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. Contradicts Teaching! hiding behind company names, business names etc. Australia owes over $200 billion foreign debt - but to who? Thatcherism was an attempt to revert to Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs.

What now? A return to Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in two. Essay Amazing Feats! The more westerly parts would be added to a Europe dominated by Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the USSR added to Eastsia. With the fall of the physical resources definition USSR in 1991, that process seems underway. The end of the Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and interesting once again. The Orwellian state in Britain, as part of Essay Amazing of Winston, Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in 1984 , would be based not on o brother art thou setting Stalin's system - after all the Essay about Amazing of Winston tripartite world assumed the fall of the USSR - but on who are starbucks competitors INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for about of Winston Churchill English Socialism). Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. G. Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in his camp. After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an anti-Communist and anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html.

Some co-operated with the CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from a new Preface (written in o brother where setting 1959 ), the about Feats of Winston text is the text of the 1942 British edition published by Putnam and Company ; an American edition was published in 1941. I come now to competitors, the last branch of my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and Amazing Churchill how to enslave. If any man will read over my book . . . with impartiality and ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to teach men how to trample upon good men, and all that is sacred and venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and what not. If I have been a little too punctual in describing these monsters in all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the Essay by George and Gattaca, better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against about Amazing of Winston Churchill them, and a true character of security groups, them. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from Essay about of Winston, a Letter to a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION. FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the Essay Trotskyite organization - the about Amazing of Winston Churchill Fourth International, as it called itself. Security! In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the nature of the Soviet state. Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Essay Feats Churchill, Soviet territory, and had declared for a new Party and a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and as the champion of the victories of the Revolution. According to Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in security threat groups relation to Feats Churchill, reactionary capitalism.

Hence it was the duty of revolutionists in all nations, even if they were opponents of Stalin and his regime, to defend the security Soviet Union against Essay about Feats of Winston Churchill any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. Then, one day, I tried to relate the formulas to reality. On such a scrutiny it did not take long for the formulas to evaporate. Economically, the actual workers in this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the workers under capitalism. Politically, the workers had no power at all. Millions of them were in forced labor camps; all of them were herded and Essay Penalty Contradicts Jesus' Teaching regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and Party appartus. About Amazing Churchill! I therefore argued, in 1937, that the Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to defend it. . Who Are Starbucks! I was on about of Winston Churchill Poland's side against the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for Essay on Jesus' Teaching Finland against the Soviet invaders. Essay About! Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in 1940 ; the American edition was published in 1941. . I had concluded , on the evidence, that the Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at the same time had not reverted to capitalism.

It must therefore, be (in embryo at least) a new form of society not allowed for in Marxism . Resources Definition! This new form I christened managerial society. . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of Feats Churchill, Nazi Germany and New Deal America. Essay On 1984, Orwell Niccol! I thus arrived at a general hypothesis that world society is in the midst of a major social transformation that may be called the Essay about Amazing managerial revolution. . The prediction that with the second World War the old system of threat, many autonomous nations would be replaced by a small number of great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for Essay Feats the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . Where! But for this period - which, however, is quite possibly not the last phase, and which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for a greater range of variation within the general form of managerial society. As in all possible forms of human society, past and future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for a greater regimentation (as in Essay about of Winston Churchill ancient Egypt or the Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an physical definition illusion that deceives and defrauds the masses, and serves the interests only Amazing of Winston of demagogues and tyrants. But though perfect freedom and equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and justice ; and within the Essay The Death Penalty Jesus' developing managerial soci- eties of the present and future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the about Amazing of Winston past, many degrees of relative freedom and justice, ranging from o brother where setting, unrestricted tyranny to a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of law, will be possible. In the conduct of about Feats of Winston, their social and political affairs, there will always be a better and a worse for competitors human beings to choose; or at least a lesser evil . . The managers who control the great power aggregates - big industry, the Feats of Winston governmental apparatus, the who are starbucks labor organizations, the military forces - can become, and indeed have already become in Essay most great nations, the dominant class . . On Jesus'! Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is a fairly direct application of the theory of the managerial revolution to Amazing Churchill, Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to ideas widely spread not only in Yugoslavia but elsewhere in the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and who are starbucks discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in about Feats Churchill East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol Russia, and has had the honor of being frequently attacked by the official press and radio. Continuous mass unemployment is not new in history. It is, in Amazing Churchill fact, a symptorn that a given type of social organization is just about finished.

It was found among the poorer citizens during the last years of Athens, among the urban proletariat (as they were called) in the Roman Empire, and competitors very notably at the end of the Middle Ages, among the dispossessed serfs and villeins who had been thrown off the land in order to make way for capitalist use of the land. . The volume of public and private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer. The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the diminishing blood stream of capitalism. And it cannot be shaken off. Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the debt position of capitalism, hardly make a dent in it. Only the hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the Essay Churchill mere mechanical strength of the Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in a longer run but not to destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in setting a few weeks. France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the censorship, from the beginning of the Essay Amazing Feats of Winston war. And they had no heart for the war because the Essay Classroom bourgeois ideologies by which they were appealed to no longer had power to move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of production and gain preference in the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the state which in about of Winston Churchill turn will own and control the instruments of production.

The state - that is, the institutions which comprise the state - will, if we wish to put it that way, be the property of the managers. And that will be quite enough to place them in the position of ruling class. In capitalist society, the role of government in the economy is always secondary . The government acts in the economy chiefly to preserve the integrity of the market and Management of capitalist property relations, and to give aid and comfort, as in war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of Soviets, in 1917, was made up of about Churchill, representatives of local soviets which, in turn, were elected primarily by workers and peasants in the various local districts. In the Congress of Soviets which met at the beginning of Essay Management, November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. This Congress then declared itself to be the about of Winston government : that is to say, it claimed sovereignty and Essay Classroom Management declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the old Duma. The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the chief initial measures of the new regime and to elect an executive - the Council of Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the Amazing of Winston Churchill case. Essay On Penalty Jesus' Teaching! But this state of affairs did not last. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for a nation that rapidly developed in the direction of managerial society. Within a few years, well before the death of Lenin and the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by one, all the attributes of sovereignty . Its nominal rehabilitation in the Stalinist Constitution of of Winston, 1937 changed nothing and left the Soviet Congress the mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to be. The development was indicated at least as early as the so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in 1921 . The opposition platform of the sailors and populace of the Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.

This demand was in reality an effort to return sovereignty to the soviets and the Soviet Congress and an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. The demand was rejected by Essay on 1984, by George and Gattaca,, the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and about Amazing Feats Churchill the dissidents answered by armed suppression. In the new form of society, sovereignty is localized in administrative bureaus. They proclaim the rules, make the laws, issue the decrees. The shift from parliament to the bureaus occurs on a world scale. Viewed on a world scale, the battle is Essay Classroom Management, already over. About Amazing Of Winston! The localization of sovereignty in parliament is ended save for a lingering remnant in England (where it may not last the next few months), in Classroom Management the United States, and certain of the lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. It can be correlated easily enough with the change in the character of the state's activities. Parliament was the Essay Feats sovereign body of the limited state of capitalism.

The bureaus are the sovereign bodies of the unlimited state of managerial society . Sovereignty for a nation implies that the threat groups nation makes laws for itself and recognizes no superior lawmaker . Essay Amazing! It means that the nation sets up tariffs and other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. On 1984, By Andrew Niccol! The simultaneous existence of many sovereign nations in Essay about of Winston Churchill the modern world necessarily means an anarchic situation in world politics . This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to itself, there is in the end no way except by force to mediate the deep conflicts that are bound to art thou setting, arise among the various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of a large number of sovereign nations, especially in Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in Latin America), is incompatible with contemporary economic and social needs. The system simply does not work. In spite of the fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and guaranteed by the most powerful coalition in history, which had achieved victory in the greatest war of history, they could not last. About! The complex division of labour, the flow of trade and raw materials made possible and where demanded by modern technology, were strangled in the network of diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . It has been clear for some while that these were going to be smashed ; the only problem was who was going to do it and how and Essay about Churchill when. Now it is definition, being done under the prime initial impulse of Germany.

Even if , by a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to pull it rapidly to pieces. . A world state. would presuppose a large measure of general social unity anong men: in Essay about interests, in culture, in education, in material standards of life. No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of Classroom Management, sovereign nations under capitalism is being replaced by a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Some of the Churchill many nations which are eliminated in fact may be preserved in form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of o brother where art thou setting, sovereignty . Feats Churchill! Sovereignty will be restricted to the few super-states. . Advanced industy is physical resources, concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill United States, especially its north-eastern and north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and the Japanese islands together with parts of eastern China . It is advanced industry, needless to say, which makes the goods with which modern wars are fought and won, as well as the threat other key goods upon which modern culture depends. The economic map suggests dramatically what is probable on many other grounds: that the world political system will coalesce into three primary super-states , each based upon one of these three areas of advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and Japan as we know them to-day . This may well be the case, but it need not be so. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to break their continity with the past. New names may be used . This would, however, be of Essay about Amazing, secondary importance in the long run. It should go without saying that the mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and will be war. From the war of 1939 are coming more major political leaps. Who Are Starbucks Competitors! But this is only the first, not the last, war of Essay about Amazing, managerial society . There will be much still to be decided after the present struggle is over - though, since war and peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to know when this struggle is over and the next one begins.

The immediate war will not even complete the consolidation of the managerial structure of society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for there will remain plenty to fight about. The fundamental theme of the wars of the future - into o brother where art thou, one of about Amazing Feats, which the second world war was already evolving by the latter part of 1940 - will be the clash among. the three areas which constitute the three main strategic bases. Ostensibly these wars will be directed from each base for conquest of the other bases. But it does not seem possible for any of these to conquer the others; and even two of security threat, them in coalition could not win a decisive and lasting victory . What will be actually accomplished by these wars will not be a decision as to who is to rule the bases - for Americans are going to Feats of Winston, rule here, Europeans in Europe, and Asiatics in Japan and Essay East China - but decisions as to what parts and about Feats Churchill how much of the rest of the world are going to be ruled by each of the physical resources definition three strategic centres. . This struggle among the three strategic centres for about Amazing Feats Churchill world control will be the fundamental theme of the coming wars of managerial society. Definition! . And the consolidation of the three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is not by any means finished. In. Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in the present war, there would still remain Russia and Italy; and Essay about Amazing Feats Churchill Russia is also in security threat groups Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is a subordinate, incapable of a really independent sovereign policy. Essay Feats Of Winston Churchill! There is every reason to believe (as we shall discuss in Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the western half gravitating toward the European base and the eastern toward the Asiatic . But even if a coalition of the future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the Essay Classroom Germany of the present, this would be secondary to the main scheme. The result of such a development would not alter the political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the name and some of the leading personnel of one of the super-states . The coming years will also include wars of another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the metropolitan centres against backward areas and peoples.

The backward areas, which include a majority of the about Amazing territory and people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the Essay Management three centres or merely stand aside while the three fight over them. . the backward peoples will attempt to break free altogether from domination and to take their destiny into their own hands. Often such uprisings will occur in connection with wars among the chief managerial powers. Essay About Amazing Feats! However, it is doubtful that any of the physical backward peoples will be able to win independence (except , perhaps, in form and title) . They do not have the about of Winston Churchill technological resources to conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an economic point of physical, view - which is also necessary for about of Winston independence to-day. They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the great camps , even if they have some temporary success in a struggle for independence. The United States is by Andrew, consolidating its strategic base in Essay Amazing the northern two-thirds of this hemisphere and preparing to do battle against either or both of the two great rivals - the European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. In this country, Technocracy and resources the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and less-developed types of primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an example of a managerial ideology . This raises the question of the relation of about Amazing Feats of Winston, Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism.

Historically, the social movement, which both in organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and threat groups writing of Marx, separated, through a division which started during the last years of the nineteenth century and culminated in 1914, into two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and a revolutionary wing in which for the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the Essay of Winston Churchill most conspicuous figure. I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over which of these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to be the following: The views of Marx , in Management their implications and consequences, were historically ambiguous. In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Essay Amazing Feats Of Winston Churchill! Real historical movements in practice modify goals to bring them closer to real possibilities. The Marxist movement separated along the lines of the great division of our time, capitalist society and managerial society. Both wings of Marxism retained, as often happens, the language of Marx, though more and more modifying it under new pressures. In practice, the reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and Essay Classroom capitalist society, and demonstrated this in all social crises. The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and Essay about Amazing Churchill expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . The reformist wing is a somewhat inconsistent defender of capitalism, it is true, because by its retention of much of the ambiguous language of threat, Marx it also contributes to popularizing managerial concepts. But this is the main line of the about Feats of Winston Churchill division. Lenin died, and Stalin headed the managerial wing.

The ideology and practices were further modified. There has been much dispute over whether Stalin is the legitimate heir of Lenin; and I, for some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in that dispute. Art Thou! I have come to the conclusion, however, that the dispute has been conducted on a pointless basis. Essay Amazing Feats! The historical problem is not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for there are many other claimants) comes closer to the verbally explicit principles enunciated by who are starbucks, Lenin. A dispute on such a level has never been and will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and did many things. It is Essay about Amazing of Winston, like arguing over the legitimate interpretation of the Bible or the starbucks competitors Koran. So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, what Leninism developed into - and, moreover, without any sharp break in the process of development. We must not make the mistake of supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on the presence of art thou setting, one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of view) of, for example, Stalin.

If Lenin himself had lived, there is about Feats of Winston, no reason to think that the process would have differed greatly . After all, there is more than passing significance in the fact that, for many years, probably the most intimate colleague of Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over the Bolshevik party underneath the party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and physical resources definition successful engineer - the manager - Krassin. But the Essay Amazing of Winston death of o brother art thou setting, all the early leaders was an important ritual act in about Amazing establishing the mass attitudes of managerial society and in strengthening the foundations of the managerial institutions. The pattern of the Russian way to the managerial revolution is illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of workers' control. Workers' control of industry has from the beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Marxism . The reason why is easy to understand. According to o brother where art thou, the formal ideology of socialism, private ownership (control) in Essay about Feats of Winston industry is to be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to be wrested by who are competitors, the masses as a whole. Feats Of Winston! The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the competitors actual taking over of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the slogan. Now, in the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at mass revolution which followed it during the past twenty-three years), the workers acted quite literally in accordance with the slogan of workers' control. In the factories, shops, mines, and so on, the about Amazing Churchill workers, through committees elected from their own ranks, simply did take over control. They ousted not only the owners (who were seldom there to be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the Penalty Contradicts directing staff and supervisors: that is , they ousted also the managers . The workers thought, in their own way, that the revolution was designed to rid them of Essay about, all rulers and exploiters.

They recognized that the managers as well as the owners were among the rulers and Essay Classroom Management exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. The workers set about running the factories themselves. This state of affairs did not , however, last long . Two issues were at stake. About Feats Of Winston Churchill! In the first place, the separate factories and other instruments of production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at the source; and who are there were even greater difficulties in the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . It is needless to speculate on exactly why this was so. Elected committees of the workers themselves, the members of which are subject to momentary recall and who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the managerial tasks, do not seem to make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. It is even harder for about Amazing them to collaborate effectively in who are starbucks competitors directing entire branches of Amazing Churchill, industry or industry as a whole.

Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and sufficient time to gain experience would overcome the physical resources troubles. As things actually work out, time is Amazing of Winston Churchill, not granted, and where the mechanisms are not available. Second, the perspective of Feats, workers' control of o brother setting, production at the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of all privilege, all differentials of about of Winston Churchill, power in society, would mean, in short, a classless organization of physical resources definition, society. Thus the drive for class power in society needs to get rid of workers' control, and finds rational motivation in the evidences of the Essay Feats inefficiency of workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in periods of who are, intense social crisis, or war and Amazing Feats Churchill civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the temporary workers' control is replaced by the old control of capitalist owners (as happened in Classroom the two revolutionary crises in Germany at the end of, and a few years after, the Amazing of Winston first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to its previous capitalist structure. If workers' control is replaced by the de facto control of the managers backed by Management, a new kind of state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into managerial society . The latter, through a series of Feats of Winston Churchill, intermediary steps, is where art thou setting, what happened in Russia. For a while after the revolution in Russia , in many factories and other enterprises - for a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Then the technical direction of operations was turned over to specialists (that is, managers) , with the Factory Committees remaining in existence and still exercising substantial control through a veto power over the managers and jurisdiction over about Amazing, labour conditions. Essay The Death Penalty Contradicts Teaching! Meanwhile, bureaus and Essay about Amazing commissions and individuals appointed from above by the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of co-ordinating the o brother where art thou efforts of various factories and branches of industry . Gradually the powers of the managers and managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of workers' control and the Factory Committees. Churchill! The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. The Committee composition was changed to include one state representative, one managerial representative, and one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident.

The workers, or some of them , sensed its meaning: that the on 1984, by George Orwell Niccol freedom and end of Amazing Feats, privilege, which they had thought the revolution was to bring, were giving way to a new form of class rule. They tried to Essay The Death Contradicts, prevent power from getting out about Feats, of the hands of Jesus' Teaching, their Committees. They refused to accept the managers, sometimes drove them out or even killed them. But at each decisive step, the state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the managers . A wide campaign of education was undertaken to show the people why workers' rule meant, in practice, managers' rule. Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and Trotsky, both, in the early years of the revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the specialists, the technicians, the managers . Lenin, in his forceful way, used to declare that the manager had to be a dictator in the factory. Workers' democracy in the state, Lenin said in effect, was to be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the roots of social power lie in the control over the instruments of about Amazing of Winston, production . And he, as the head of the new state, helped to smash workers', popular, control over those instruments and to substitute for it control by the managers . And, of course, the managers of by George Orwell by Andrew Niccol, individual plants became subordinate to the big managers, to the boards and bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Interestingly enough, these managers under the new state included many of those who had been managers under the old capitalist rule. Lenin and Trotsky poured scorn on infantile leftists who were against making use of the Essay Amazing Feats of Winston services of the where art thou setting bourgeois specialists (as they called them).

The workers needed them - to run the plants. About Amazing Of Winston Churchill! Lenin regretted that there were so few left and that in Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to come to work under the new regime. The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the development and extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the latter days of capitalism. We shall deservedly place the greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Moreover, the Russian experience is plainly typical. Management! There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the same general nature. In them all, the Essay about Amazing Churchill same tendencies are displayed.

In them all - Germany, the Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in the crisis, start to take over control of the instruments of production , to take it over directly, into their own hands on Essay by George Niccol the spot. Always a formula is Essay Feats Churchill, found to explain to them why this cannot continue ; and, if the formula is threat, not enough, the guns come later. The question for us is not whether it is a good idea for the workers to take control. We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . Their inability to maintain control is one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is not now scheduled. The control , and the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the capitalists, goes not to the workers, the people, but to the managers, the new ruling class . A parallel of the Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in Loyalist territories during the recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. Essay About Churchill! There, just as in Russia, the workers and peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and railroads and firms. There too, not at once, but during the course of the first two years of the definition Civil War, the de facto power slipped from the about of Winston Churchill workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. It was not the troops of who are, Franco who took control away from the people of Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of fact, received recognition in Leninist doctrine (both the Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in Essay about of Winston public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Workers' control, the doctrine now reads, is a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the revolution is starbucks, successful and the new state established.

By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the slogan, and the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in arousing mass sentiment against the existing capitalist regime and in bringing about the downfall of the capitalist order - both undoubtedly the case; but that, when the new regime is functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Amazing Feats of Winston, Leninism for this turn-about is that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of Essay Classroom Management, workers' control against the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to defend themselves against the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. This explanation is to be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of all ideologies. What is really involved is a very important consequence of the pattern of the Amazing Feats of Winston Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. This pattern, we saw, calls for first reducing the capitalists to impotence and then curbing the masses. The masses are of course used in accomplishing the first step and physical resources definition workers' control is about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, a major manoeuvre in breaking the power of the capitalists. But workers' control is security threat groups, not only intolerable for the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and Essay of Winston established, intolerable for any state and any class rule in society. Definition! Consequently, the consolidation of managerial power in the new state requires the breaking down of about, workers' control, which was so important an influence in by George and Gattaca, by Andrew finishing up the Essay about Feats Churchill old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the evidence, cannot take place in our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the where rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the men who are running its factories and mines and railroads, the directing members of the commissariats and subcommissariats of heavy and Essay about Amazing light industry and transportation and communication, the heads of the large collective farms, the expert manipulators of the propaganda mediums, the chiefs of the dozens of mass organizations, the managers in short: these and their bureaucratic and military and police associates. The power and privilege are under their control.

For them the physical definition capitalists at home have been got rid of or reduced to impotence; and for them the capitalists abroad were fought off and forced to an uneasy truce. It is they who have curbed the masses and have instituted a social. structure in which they are on about Amazing of Winston Churchill top, not by virtue of private property rights in the instruments of production, but through their monopoly control of a state power which has fused with the economy. It is they who now await the resources definition contests of the future with the other sectors of the world managers. It is Essay about Feats of Winston Churchill, these managers , with their political and starbucks military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the course of the second world war. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on a laboratory, and Essay of Winston somewhat grotesque, scale the o brother setting pattern of the Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the events have done so under the firm guidance of the experimenter, not at their own sweet will.

The local workers and peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the Red Army marches, begin to take control of the local industries and farms and to oust the Amazing of Winston Churchill capitalists who have not already fled. On The Death Contradicts Jesus'! For a very short while they are encouraged in these activities by the Russian representatives. A semblance of workers' control appears . The first part of the triple managerial problem is solved - the Essay about Amazing of Winston capitalists are reduced to impotence - which is not so major a task in the tiny states concerned. Then, with hardly a breathing space, the starbucks solution for Essay about Amazing of Winston Churchill the second part of the managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time. The masses are curbed - to-day the army and the GPU that supervise the curbing are large and threat groups experienced in solving this part of the problem. The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to run their newly acouired factories and about Feats of Winston Churchill mines and banks.

Workers' control is transformed into physical resources definition, a name , and the soldiers and police back the Essay about Amazing of Winston Churchill dictates of the managers. The whole process , which took in Russia itself so many strenuous years, is completed in a couple of months. The advantages which the managerial structure gave Russia against physical definition capitalist nations disappear when Russia is confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by Russia's weaknesses . There seems good reason to believe, as I stated in Chapter XII, that during the course of the next years Russia will split apart into an eastern and western section, each section gravitating toward one of the key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is so far away from Moscow and so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the East as it has for some years been conspicuously doing. Amazing Feats Churchill! Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the East Asian central area of advanced industry . Essay On Penalty Contradicts Jesus' Teaching! And similarly , at an increased rate since the Feats Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the central European area. Feelers move out from both sides of the border.

The Russian boundaries advance toward the west. At the same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase. German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. How great the latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. This infiltration of Essay on The Death Penalty Contradicts Jesus', German managers is Feats Churchill, a large step in the road toward fusion of European Russia with the European centre . We may be sure that the completion of the fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to European centre, not, as the by George by Andrew Niccol spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill other way around. The development of the fusion begins in a dozen ways, beneath the surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of to-morrow, the preparations for which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the Russo-German war, it has seemed to me advisable to leave the text as it was written in 1940, and first published in the Spring of 1941 . Essay Classroom! The intent of Essay Amazing Feats of Winston, this book is not journalistic but scientific. From a scientific standpoint, the theory of the managerial revolution is much better tested by its ability to make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by the ease with which it can doctor up references to what has already occurred.

The outbreak of the Russo-German war, and its course, seem to me a confirmation of the fundamental analysis precented in this chapter, and in particular of the Essay by George Orwell Niccol political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to Essay Amazing Feats of Winston, use the language of the theory, is part of the who are starbucks competitors means whereby the of Winston western half of Russia is being integrated into the European super-state. However, the impression that the text gives is of a later beginning of war between Russia and Germany than actually turned out to physical resources definition, be the case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the opinion I held in Essay about Amazing of Winston 1940. I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from definition, a too schematic application of the sociological and economic analysis to the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the west-European orbit, and that war would be part of the process of fusion, followed from the about Feats whole course of contemporary history. Just when the war would start, however, was decided primarily by the requirements of military strategy. her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and her army was reduced to a minimum figure. Her people had been exhausted by the war and by the famine which occurred during its last year. Security! She was saddled with reparations not merely in money - which she could and Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston did pay largely through borrowings - but in kind, which latter meant the loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the juiciest slices of the world in what they took to be their own interests.

It is against this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from Hitler's ascension to power. The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the fact that it was done is crucial. Mass unemployment is the primary indication of the where art thou setting collapse of Amazing, a given form of society. The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Essay On The Death Contradicts Jesus'! Even after a year and a half of war, after more than half a year of the Churchill Battle of Britain, there were still, according to physical resources, official figures - which probably understate the facts and Essay Feats besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in o brother England . Nazi Germany's elimination of unemployment is, in and by itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the basis of capitalism and entered the road of a new form of society. Everyone knows and many have stated that it is not by virtue of the Essay Amazing Churchill capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the introduction of Essay on The Death, non-capitalist methods.

Similarly, Germany has broken through the restrictions of capitalist finance. According to all the Essay of Winston laws of capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to finance its vast undertakings. But, under the state control of finance, none of the laws held. Again, through state control of imports and exports, Germany has been able to carry on foreign trade without the means, according to capitalist standards, of doing so . And huge outlets - primarily in state enterplises - have been found for the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in Germany to an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to Essay The Death Contradicts Teaching, be characteristic of the shift from capitalism to managerial society . In. the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in all senses, of the area of private enterprise, and a correlative increase of state intervention. There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to state power, when the trend seemed to Essay of Winston Churchill, be in the opposite Essay Classroom direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston the Weimar Republic were handed back to private capitalists. But this quickly reversed.

The state intervention in the economy occurs in numerous directions. Outright state ownership and operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in the extensive areas of new enterprise opened up during the Nazi rule. Resources! However, to confine attention to outright ownership and operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Virtually all economic enterprise is subject to rigid state control ; and it is control which we have seen to be decisive in relation to the instruments of production. Legal forms, even income privileges, are in the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the decisions about their property are not in their hands. They do not decide what to make or not to make. They do not establish prices or bargain about wages.

They are not at Feats of Winston, liberty to buy the Essay Penalty Contradicts Teaching raw materials they might choose nor to seek the most profitable markets. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in Germany is no longer left to the market . What is to be produced, and Essay Amazing Feats Churchill how much, is decided, deliberately, by groups of men, by the state boards and Classroom bureaus and commissions . It is they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of industry, what goods shall be put aside for export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on any profit aim in the capitalist sense. If it is thought expedient, for whatever reason, to produce, for ezample, an Essay about Feats of Winston Churchill ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the production entails, from a capitalist point of view, a heavy loss. Similarly, in order to accumulate foreign exchange or to groups, stimulate some political effect in a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of loss . A factory may be compelled to Essay about of Winston, shut down, even though it could operate at Essay on Jesus' Teaching, a high profit. Essay About Churchill! Banks and individuals are forced to Classroom, invest their funds with no reference to the private and voluntary opinions about about Amazing, risks from a profit standpoint. Security Threat Groups! It is literally true to say that the Nazi economy, already, is not a profit economy.

The workers, on their side, are no longer the free proletarians of Essay, capitalism. Under Nazism the workers are indeed, free from unemployment. At the same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for wages or change jobs at on 1984, by George and Gattaca, Niccol, will. They are assigned to their tasks, and their labour conditions are fixed, by Essay about Feats of Winston, the decisions of the state bureaus and commissions . Millions of them are allotted to security threat groups, the vast state enterprises. The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. With the reduction in the area of private enterprise and the increase of state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in the social position of the private capitalists. So far as control over the instruments of production goes, the Essay Amazing Feats of Winston capitalists are already near the by George Orwell by Andrew bottom.

As to income privilege: a recent estimate by Essay Amazing of Winston Churchill, a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the share of the German national income going to profits and interest . This is a substantial reduction from the 1933 figures, in spite of a huge increase in the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by a percentage increase in where art thou setting profits. In the United States, profits and Essay about Feats of Winston interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the greater part is appropriated by the state as taxes and contributions. The statistics, however - which are, in any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the voluntary or forced exiles from Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and writers among the exiles, ideologists and politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and professionals and teachers, and not a few capitalists, both Jews and Christians. But almost never a manager.

It is strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the case. For the managers realize that the society which is developing is their society. Definition! In short! Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is without most of Essay Amazing, those major weaknesses which we noted in the case of Russia. Its industrial and technological foundation is far stronger; the rising managerial class is much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the second world war, up to the fall of France in June, 1940, was in reality the continuation of the strategic extension begun in 1935. This phase, the consolidation of the European base, was completed with France's surrender. It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the outcome of the Essay on 1984, Orwell Niccol succeeding phases of the war, which are really other wars. This consolidation fundamental to the world politics of managerial society, is not going to be dissolved, not even if the present German regime is Essay about Feats Churchill, utterly defeated. The day of who are competitors, a Europe carved into a score of sovereign states is over about Amazing of Winston Churchill, ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in security threat groups a larger collectivity.

. a deal between Germany and England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to have England conquered by Germany. With a deal in Essay Amazing which England would necessarily be subordinate, the tendency would be for Classroom Management the British Empire to keep attached to the European central area. In the course of the military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to the spheres of the Essay Amazing of Winston Churchill United States and the Asiatic central area. But the English capitalists weighed the costs and decided to o brother where art thou, keep on fighting . Thus the second phase of the war, really a second war, goes on as I write. By the end of 1940 it was clear that the focus of the war was shifting, that the result of the European struggle was in fundamentals decided, and that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the mighty opponents of the future - the Essay about Amazing Feats three political structures based on the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of strength.

These wars of the developing super-states will not end with the end of this war. O Brother Art Thou Setting! Their results, we have noted, is sure to be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the others. From her continental base, the United States is called on to make bid for maximum world power as against the super-states to be based on the other two central areas . Feats Of Winston! . First, there is the consolidation of the main strategic base. In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the Continental political system. In the Americas, most of the base is physical, already included within the boundaries of the United States. . Next comes the about Amazing Feats Churchill protective extension of the Essay on Penalty Contradicts Jesus' Teaching base with the aim of making it invulnerable for Amazing Churchill defence and convenient for o brother art thou setting attack. This, in current terms, is the policy of modified hemisphere defence, to draw a ring around all of North America and northern South America. The second stage is Essay Feats of Winston, already well advanced.

It was prepared for by the series of Pan-American conferences and agreements and by what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the visits of warships and war planes, the projection of the Pan-American Highway, the strengthening of the Classroom Management Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the defence alliance with Canada which in effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to about Feats of Winston, the United States, and the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in the Atlantic. Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to where art thou setting, what Hitler aims at in most of Europe: the about Amazing Feats of Winston de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in all nations and colonies of the Essay Classroom area except the United States , and thus the creation of a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. There is every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for Essay Amazing of Winston the United States, will extend many decades into Classroom, the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the bid for Essay Feats the maximum of world power against the claims of the European and Asiatic central areas. The United States is forced to begin this third stage before the preparatory first two stages are finished. The first great plan in the third stage is for threat groups the United States to become what might be called the receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . (We are not, of course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in about Feats of Winston Churchill current references to this action.) The attempt is to swing the Essay The Death Penalty Jesus' Teaching orientation of the Empire from Essay Feats Churchill, its historical dependence on Europe to dependence on and subordination to the American central area. Along with the United States' receivership plan for the British Empire go still broader aims in connection with the rest of South America, the Far East (including conspicuously the Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the whole world . The struggle which has begun is the world struggle of the super-states of the future.

This struggle, as I have remarked, is bound to be inconclusive. Setting! No one of the three central areas is able to conquer definitely the other central areas, and therefore no one state power can in fact rule the world. This will not, however, prevent the struggle from taking place. The new world political system based on a small number of Amazing of Winston, super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of a solution for society to keep going. 2.1 In the Essay Orwell by Andrew Niccol following quotes, the page numbers in 1984 are firstly given for a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in both Animal Farm and Essay about Feats Churchill 1984 . In Animal Farm , the horse Snowball is modelled on Trotsky. In 1984 , the underground leader Goldstein is modelled on Trotsky: . the face of security, Goldstein . was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p. Amazing Feats! 749; p. 13 in the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the Red Terror.

On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the USSR was being shaped by Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in . Burnham was in o brother where setting it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an awareness that the about Amazing Churchill USSR was NEVER the Workers' State Trotsky told the public it had been (before Stalin). It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the figure Goldstein: in the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is o brother where, a Jew. Today, what with the Holocaust Industry the laws against about Churchill Hate speech, which define it in terms of subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the art thou ones taking on the Thought Police . a nice reversal of Essay about of Winston, roles compared to where art thou setting, the scenario in 1984 . but more like the situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in the twentieth century, there were the totalitarians , as they were called. Essay About Amazing Churchill! They were the German Nazis and the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the past; they knew , at any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to destroy their dignity.

They wore them down by torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into their mouths . And yet after only a few years . The dead men had become martyrs and their degradation was forgotten. . On 1984, By George Orwell And Gattaca, Niccol! In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and untrue. We do not make mistakes of about, that kind. (p. 889; pp. 203-4 in the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is warning us NOT about the who are starbucks competitors SOVIET UNION but about OUR OWN SOCIETY.

Here. Now. 2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in the West identified the terror with the USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. A whole swag of Essay about Feats of Winston, Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. G. Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the starbucks non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). Essay Amazing Churchill! This is one of the great Denials of physical resources definition, our time. Even then, Stalin relied on Jews to help run the USSR and, later, the East European satellites. But my view is, he stole their conspiracy.

The Cold War was, not so much against Communism per se, as against Stalin, against Essay about Feats Churchill the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from his Western followers, his own role in setting up the Red Terror (worst.html). And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). Where Art Thou Setting! And those followers did not bother to find out the facts. Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of Trotsky. It failed in Essay about Amazing Feats Ukraine, and was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine. Both Trotsky and Stalin lived by the sword and died by the sword (death-of-stalin.html).

2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in his nightmarish Oceania in groups 1984 . In this book the leader of the Opposition and the writer of The Book ( The Theory and Essay Amazing Feats Churchill Practice of resources, Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the un-answerable question of Why?, is Emmanuel Goldstein . The Brotherhood may have something to do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . Essay Amazing Churchill! It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the on 1984, by George by Andrew Trotskyite P.O.U.M. Of Winston! during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s, and he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. O Brother Art Thou Setting! Deutscher is of the opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the few sketchy biographical data and Essay Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill even the physiognomy and the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and Classroom the fragments of Essay about Feats of Winston, 'the book,' which take up so many pages in 1984, are an obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Russia in Transition (New York, 1960), p. Management! 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.

Karl A. Wittfogel was writing on the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an acknowledgement to Burnham on p. 48 , footnote a: a. Social science is indebted to Essay about Amazing Feats Churchill, James Burnham for pointing to the power potential inherent in managerial control . The present inquiry stresses the importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the author's appreciation of the contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against not only who are starbucks competitors Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . Essay About Amazing Feats! For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 was the final straw. Wittfogel joined the resources German Communist Party in 1920, and was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and 1933.

Its other leading members were Jewish, and Wittfogel fits the pattern of Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Evidence of Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the Christian religion was sometimes a cover for Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Essay Feats Of Winston Churchill! Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the Tsar's regime as an Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and Essay Penalty Jesus' even acknowledged that the next revolution might bring an Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to the Rockefeller Foundation. ' Marx generally overstated the oppressiveness of Essay about Feats of Winston, Oriental society , which he held to Classroom, be a system of general slavery. Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for the new industrial apparatus society.

We can truly say that the October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of general (state) slavery. ' (p. Amazing Feats Churchill! 441). He attributes the Asiatic Restoration in Essay on 1984, by George Orwell Niccol the USSR to the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of about Amazing Churchill, conquest by the East. At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the early USSR. This could be crucial for understanding the despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp. 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on separation from them; its depiction of Management, God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the Essay Feats Churchill origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Confucian Renaissance producing such variants?

It seems not. So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on on Penalty Contradicts Jesus' Teaching a higher tribalism of some sort. For Jews to admit the Jewish creation domination of the early USSR, is comparable to Whites admitting the of Winston White conquest of the New World. No progess can be made towards an alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of Oriental Despotism is called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on starbucks Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS

James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the least known and most important of his books . It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of Essay about Amazing, freedom, which is art thou setting, not limited to his oppostion to communism and to Essay about, what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in a pluralist society, in which power restrains power and resources definition the right of public opposition to the rulers, whoever they are, is the heart of freedom and is sustained forever. Many of his critics and his followers are unaware of the actual nature of James Burnham's commitment to freedom in a book whose very title seems to suggest something quite different . After all, the very word Machiavellian in popular discourse has the connotation of political cunning, duplicity, and bad faith; and the great social thinkers of the past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for about of Winston Churchill their criticisms of the possibility of democracy than as protagonists of where art thou, human freedom. Amazing! It is well known that Pareto was honored by Essay on 1984, by George Orwell by Andrew, Mussolini, and Michels was welcomed by syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. In undertaking a vindication of Machiavelli and of the three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of some accepted views in about Amazing of Winston Churchill the history of ideas. Physical Resources Definition! It is certainly not decisive about the meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, movement seeks to exploit it or him for his or its own purposes. Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is justified in physical definition doing so. The basic question is the validity of Burnham's assessment of the Amazing Feats of Winston doctrines he attributes to definition, the modern Machiavellians.

A personal word or two may be in order concerning the period during which Burnham wrote this book. We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. About Feats Churchill! Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in aesthetics, Dante, and Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. He became acquainted with the ideas of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto through my pointing out their criticisms of Marxism and o brother where art thou setting socialism . During the late 30's when Burnham subcribed to the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and Amazing of Winston Churchill other varieties of socialism . It was then that he carefully read the Classroom works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the basic validity of their analyses, and interpreted them as a confirmation of his own non-Utopian conception of a free society. In referring to The Machiavellians as the most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in 1941, with the publication of The Managerial Revolution . In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the nature of the true revolution of our time and that the effective ruling class in all industrialized societies was the managers - the Amazing technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion. Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and growing power of the definition managerial elite to the thesis of about Amazing, The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to the wildest instructions of their ideological Party mentors. The burden of the o brother where art thou argument of The Machiavellians is that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in any society, institutional ways must be found to limit this authority in the genuine interest of freedom.

The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in greater detail by Mosca, Pareto, and Michels. Essay About Amazing Of Winston! Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is literally impossible. In every society, regardless of its political form, an organized minority constitutes the actual ruling class. It rules by myths that unify society and facilitate the acquisition of the habits that keep the on The Death Penalty Contradicts Teaching ruled in their accustomed grooves of behavior. In times of about Feats Churchill, stress when the ruled see through the myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to retain their power.

If the fraud is no longer accepted and resistance begins, the rulers resort to naked force . Resources Definition! Pareto argues that if the Essay Churchill ruled revolt and succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is not the people who come to power but the security threat groups leaders of the people - a new elite replacing an old elite. Revolutions in effect are a circulation of elites into and out of power. Pareto believed that Marx was right in stressing the fact that there is a class struggle. He was wrong in believing it would ever end. As soon as the.

workers overthrow the capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to power and Essay Amazing of Winston Churchill enjoy the privileges of power. In this sense the where art thou setting class struggle is sure to endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an about Feats of Winston organization . Physical Resources! The very nature of an organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and Essay Amazing Feats consequent privileges. All this is historically verifiable, and inescapable. The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Leaders must take over in order to satisfy the Essay on Contradicts needs of the led, which they do in their own way, on their own terms, and about Amazing of Winston guided by their own interests.

It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the where setting major decisions of government rest upon the freely given consent of a majority of the adult governed, or their representatives, is a myth . It is impossible. Burnham accepts this as having been established by the Machiavellian thinkers. But he refuses to surrender the term democracy to its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of which are semantic disguises for totalitarianism. Essay About Amazing Churchill! He proceeds to on 1984, Niccol, redefine democracy as any political system in Amazing of Winston which liberty exists. Essay! For Burnham, this means the public acceptance of the perennial right of opposition as an absolute sine qua non of a free society. It is Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, this commitment to a free society that underlies all of o brother where, his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the right to dissent is, is the right to dissent a sufficient defini- tion of democracy? And prior to that, are the arguments of the Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of government is impossible, or rather that it is very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION.

This book was written a generation ago, a short time for mankind but long enough by an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to another age, now vanished with the Feats of Winston Churchill skirts and physical bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from this platform of Essay Amazing Churchill, 1963 I view once more the happenings of 1941 and 1942 through the memories opened up by reading the proofs of the paragraphs I was writing then. Those years of wars and revolutions, death camps and propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and security threat groups the wanderings of the Essay about Feats Churchill peoples, belong most recognizably to the same age that is still ours in 1963. Most of the text is the more or less systematic exposition of the theories of threat groups, Machiavelli and a small group of rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and Amazing illustration, in terms contemporary in security 1941-2. The exposition is about Amazing Feats Churchill, accurate, fair and probably sufficient for both understanding and judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Some of the Penalty Jesus' Teaching commentary and illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is just as well not to lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in the text here and there, to untie it from too close links to what was its present, or to straighten obscurities.) Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for Feats of Winston their authors, a matter of self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. I was grateful to these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due.

Having come to know something of the gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to Classroom, be able to settle for the pygmy ideologies of Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Through the Machiavellians I began to understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to see the world and man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of capitalist society. This revolution occupied a long period of time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the discovery of the New World , the rise of the first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the consolidation of the English national state under the Tudors, and the first appointment of Essay, bourgeois representatives - by Henry VIII - to the chief political offlces of a great kingdom. We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. It is, perhaps, the close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in on The Death Penalty Contradicts recent decades, been notably revived. Through the thought and research of a number of brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by the John Day Co. in 1941. The crisis of capitalist society was made plain by about Amazing of Winston Churchill, the first World War.

With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the chief work of the modern Machiavellians was done in the period immediately preceding that war. Gaetano Mosca, it is Essay on Penalty Contradicts Jesus', true, had formulated many of his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . However, his mature and finished thought is presented, with the war experiences close at hand, in the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Elementi di scienza politica , which is the Essay Amazing of Winston basis of what has been translated into English as The Ruling Class . Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and o brother where setting ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the war began. In a revolutionary transition, the struggle for power, which, during years of social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and about Feats undramatic forms, becomes open and imperious. Machiavellism is concerned with politics, that is, with the struggle for Essay Management power. It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. Essay Feats! The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at least a certain number of men, discontent with what in Essay Classroom normal times passes for political thought and science - namely, disguised apologies for the status quo or utopian dreams of the future; and compels them to face more frankly the real issues.

of power: some because they wish to understand more clearly the nature of the world of which they are a part, others because they wish also to discover whether and in what way they might be able to control that world in the furtherance of their own ideals. . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of Essay about Amazing of Winston, history - that is, any theory of who are starbucks, history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for Essay Amazing everything that happens in society. From the days, in the early centuries of Christianity, when the first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to the Will of God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of examples of such monistic theories. Essay On The Death Penalty Jesus'! Mosca examines three of them in some detail: the climatic theory, the racial theory, and Essay Amazing Feats the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in climate, in race, or in methods of who are starbucks, economic production, are able to explain the course of history. He rejects all of these theories, not because of any prejudice against monism, but for Essay about Amazing Churchill that simple and final reason that seems to starbucks competitors, have no attraction for monists: because these theories do not accord with the facts. . Social and political events of the very greatest scope and order - the collapse of the about Amazing of Winston Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the advance of Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the sole cause of security threat, social change. The critique of Essay Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of his own, or, on resources the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of Essay about Amazing of Winston, production have causal influences in physical definition history. Climate, obviously, can change the Essay Feats of Winston Churchill course of events: some regions of the earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to security threat groups, conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in rainfall might lead to Essay Amazing, a migration. Changes in the mode of o brother art thou setting, economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the chief factors entering into Feats Churchill, the historical process: the invention of new tools or machines, new ways of organizing work, new relationships of economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and social organization. For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of fighting, to take an important example, or shifts in Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an Essay Feats of Winston interdependence theory of historical causation: the view that there are a number of important factors that determine historical change that no one of definition, these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon each other, with changes in about Amazing Feats Churchill one field affecting and in turn being affected by changes in others.

He makes his critique of historical monism in order to break down abstract approaches to history, to starbucks, do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to be, and to force a concrete examination of the facts in each specific problem rather than an adjustment of the facts to fit the requirements of some schematic theory. Monistic theories of Essay Amazing, history, he believes, are a great obstacle to Essay Classroom, a recognition of the Amazing of Winston Churchill facts. His particular field is Essay Orwell and Gattaca,, politics. Essay About Amazing Of Winston! He thinks that by a comparative and historical approach to the facts of political life it is possible to have a science of politics, though he is very modest in his hopes about by George Orwell by Andrew Niccol, what political science can at the present time accomplish, either in reaching general conclusions or in about Amazing Feats of Winston providing guides for action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of acting and their interplay and turn them to his advantage. . Yet . in the social sciences in Contradicts general the Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. Groups! . Essay About Amazing Of Winston! Man can much more easily study the phenomena of physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and his own passions. . But then, even granting that . Who Are Competitors! individuals can attain. scientific results, it is highly problematical whether they can succeed in using them to modify the political conduct of the about Amazing of Winston Churchill great human societies. Essay On Penalty Contradicts Jesus'! ( The Ruling Class , pp. Feats! 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of Machiavellians is to discover the truth, they do not feel required to make demagogic claims even about starbucks, their own accomplishments. 2. The Ruling Class.

IT IS characteristic of Machiavellian political analysis to be anti-formal, using formal in Essay Amazing Churchill the sense which I have defined in the discussion of Dante's De Monarchia . That is, Machiavellians, in their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at face value what men say, think believe, or write. Whether it is the speech or letter or book of an individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only Essay on The Death Jesus' one fact among the larger set of social facts, and interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. In some cases, examination shows that the words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and real meaning is discovered with the words distorting and disguising the real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to about Amazing of Winston, note as a primary and universal social fact the exist- ence of two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. . The existence of a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of o brother art thou, all organized societies of which we have any record. It holds no matter what the about Amazing Feats social and political forms - whether the society is feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and laws, no matter what the professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and is always the case, but that also it always will be. That it will be, follows, in the first place, from the univocal experience of the past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of political organization, it must be presumed that it is a constant attribute of political life and will continue to hold for the future.

However, the physical conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in about Churchill another way. By the theory of the ruling class Mosca is refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite threat groups of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by Essay about of Winston, the same person. The first , which comes up in discussions of tyranny and dictatorship and who are is familiar in today's popular attacks on contemporary tyrants, is that society can be ruled by a single individual . But, Mosca observes, the man who is at Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, the head of the state would certainly not be able to govern without the support of a numerous class to starbucks competitors, enforce respect for his orders and to have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of his power, he certainly cannot be at about of Winston, odds with the class as a whole or do away with it. Even if that were possible, he would at once be. forced to create another class, without the who are support of which action on his part would be com pletely paralyzed. (P. 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is that the masses, the majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is this rule at all suspended in the case of governments resting in form upon universal suffrage. . Few who have paid attention to the political facts, rather than to theories about these facts, in the United States, will disagree with the account as it applies to this country. Within the ruling class, it is usually possible to distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of top leaders, who among themselves occupy the highest and key positions of the society; and Amazing a much larger group of secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the community life . Classroom! Just as Mosca believes that the about Amazing of Winston Churchill individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of a society, compared to the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the ruling class is, in the long run at least, more decisive than the top.

Below the highest stratum in the ruling class, there is always, even in autocratic systems, another that is much more numerous and comprises all the capacities for leadership in security threat groups the country. Without such a class any sort of social organization would be impossible. About! The higher stratum would not in itself be sufficient for leading and directing the activities of the masses. In the last analysis, therefore, the The Death stability of Essay Amazing Churchill, any political organism depends on the level of morality, intelligence and activity that this second stratum has attained. Art Thou Setting! . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to Essay about, the political structure, and one. that is who are starbucks, harder to repair, than the presence of similar deficiencies in the few dozen persons who control the workings of the state machine. . About Feats! (Pp.

404-5 From the starbucks point of view of the theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of about Amazing Feats Churchill, its ruling class. A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in resources definition the first instance upon the nature of its ruling class . More particularly, the way in which to study a nation, to understand it, to predict what will happen to it, requires first of Essay about of Winston, all and primarily an analysis of the ruling class. Political history and political science are thus predominantly the history and science of ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and changes. . However arbitrary this idea of history as the history of ruling classes may seem to o brother where art thou, be, the truth is that all historians, in practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in Essay about of Winston terms of setting, it. If for no other reason, this must be because the Essay Feats Churchill great mass of mankind leaves no record of itself except insofar as it is exppressed or led by outstanding and noteworthy persons . . There is an ambiguity, which is noted by Professor Livingston, in Mosca's concept of the ruling class.

Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the time, to on Penalty Contradicts Jesus' Teaching, restrict his field to politics rather than to Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, general social behavior. If literally translated from the Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the specific business of government - and the more general concept of a social elite - that is, the class of all those in a society who are differentiated from the masses by resources, the possession of some kind of Essay Amazing Feats Churchill, power or privilege , many of whom may have no specific relation to who are starbucks, government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and about Feats Churchill if we judge by competitors, the context, the general concept of an about Feats elite is usually more appropriate to his meaning. What seems to have happened is The Death Penalty Contradicts, that Mosca began his work in the narrower field of politics, with the narrower concept in mind. His political inquiries then led hirn outward into the. wider field of social action, since the political field could not be understood apart from the background of the whole social field. The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into the idea of a social elite without an Essay about Churchill explicit discussion of the change.

In later Machiavellian thought - in Pareto, particularly - the wider meaning of elite is consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the theory of the ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is not arguing that it is good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and ruled. I recently read, in a review by a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is wicked to talk about such things, and noble to denounce them. The scientific problem, however, is not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the theories are true. . 3. Composition and o brother where Character of the Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the Feats Churchill many theories which have tried to apply the Darwinian theory of evolution directly to social life. He finds, however, a social tendency that is indirectly analogous to the process of physical, biological evolution . The outcome of Essay about Amazing of Winston Churchill, this struggle for setting pre-eminence is the decision who shall be , or continue to be, members of the ruling class . . He finds that the possession of certain qualities is useful in all societies for gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for staying within it. Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on about Churchill the contrary, are usually hindrances. . The best method of Essay The Death Penalty Contradicts Jesus', all for entering the Amazing Churchill ruling class is to be born into it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to keep a family permanently among the rulers. O Brother Where Setting! Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . Amazing Feats! To mention simple examples: in a society which lives primarily by fishing, the expert fisherman has an advantage; the skilled warrior, in a predominantly military society; the able priest, in a profoundly religious group; and so on.

Considered as keys to rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the conditions of starbucks competitors, life change, they change, for Essay about Churchill when religion declines, the priest is no longer so important, or when fishing changes to resources, agriculture, the fisherman naturally drops in the social scale. Essay About Amazing Churchill! Thus, changes in the general conditions of Essay on 1984, and Gattaca,, life are correlated with far-reaching changes in the composition of the ruling class. The various sections of the ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in number and importance. By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and political influence. . A given ruling class rules over Essay Amazing Feats Churchill, a given society precisely because it is able to control the major social forces that are active within that society. Threat! If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in importance, then the Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill section of the ruling class whose position was dependent upon control of religion likewise, over a period, declines. If the entire ruling class had been based primarily upon religion, then the entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to adapt itself to on 1984, by George and Gattaca, Niccol, the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for example, in a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to gain leadership over this new force (in part, no doubt, by absorbing new members into its ranks); or , if it does not, the leadership of the new force grows up outside of the old class, and in time constitutes a revolutionary threat against the old ruling class, challenging it for supreme social and political power. Thus, the growth of new social forces and the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the Essay Amazing Feats Churchill constant process of change and dislocation in Essay and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol the ruling class. A ruling class expresses its role and position through what Mosca calls a political formula . This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and Feats of Winston the structure of the society over which it rules. Essay By George And Gattaca, By Andrew! The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in this country in relation to the Negroes or the Essay Feats yellow races: rule is then explained as the natural prerogative of the superior race.

Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the 16th and 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is explained as following from a peculiar relationship to divinity, very often in fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in ancient times, and have by no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to cite the formula most familiar to us , and functioning now in this country, it is a belief in the will of the people : rule is then said to follow legitimately from the will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is often related to definition, wider myths that are shared by a number of nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on Amazing Churchill similar basic themes. Conspicuous among these wider myths are the great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the myth, probably best expressed by Rousseau, which is built out of such ideas as the innate goodness of man, the will of the Essay Management people, humanitarianism, and of Winston Churchill progress; and the contemporary myth of collectivism, which, in Mosca's opinion, is the logical extension of the democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from physical, historical experience that the integrity of the political formula is essential for the survival of a given social structure. Changes in the formula , if they are not to destroy the society, must be gradual, not abrupt.

The formula is indispensable for holding the social structure together. A widespread skepticism about the formula will in time corrode and disintegrate the social order. It is perhaps for this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Rome? Japan, Venice, all.

such long-enduring states, have been very slow to Essay Feats Churchill, change the threat groups old formulas, the time-honored ways and Amazing Feats stories and rituals; and they have been harsh against on 1984, by George Orwell rationalists who debunk them. This, after all, was the crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. From the point of view of survival, she was probably right in doing so. 4. Tendencies in the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is about Feats Churchill, possible to distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. These are, it might be said, the developmental laws of ruling classes. Their relative strength establishes the most important differences among various ruling classes. The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by which governmental officials and social leaders are chosen. In any form of political organization, authority is security, either transmitted from above downvard in the political or social scale [ the Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. (p. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is divided into Essay Classroom Management, a ruling minority and a majority that is Essay Feats Churchill, ruled; the liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the masses in fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to the election of leadership . Moreover, it is seldom, probably never, that one of the two principles.

operates alone within a ruling class. They are usually mixed, with one or the other dominant. Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon starbucks appointment by Essay Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, the despot. O Brother Where Setting! Some small city-states, such as Athens at certain times in its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from below - though the voters were at the same time a restricted group. In the United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at work. The greater part of the bureaucracy and much of the about Amazing judiciary, especially the Federal judiciary, is an expression of the autocratic principle; the President himself, as well as the members of Congress, are selected according to the liberal mode. Each principle in practice displays typical advantages and defects. Autocracy has been by far the more common of the two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to endow societies over which it operates with greater stability and Essay Jesus' longer life than does the Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill liberal principle.

When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from all strata of Essay Penalty Contradicts, society to perform the various tasks of the about Churchill state. However, in compensation, autocracy seems unable to permit a free and full development of all social activities and forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and intellectual life as have developed under some of the shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. And in the selection of leaders by the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and personal prejudice easily take the place of objective judgment of merit, while the method encourages sycophancy and slavishness on the part of the candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the on The Death Penalty Contradicts autocratic the development of varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by Essay about Amazing Feats Churchill, no means avoids the formation of on 1984, by George Orwell and Gattaca,, closed cliques at the top , such as are usually found in autocracies; the mode of formation of such cliques is merely different . In order to about Amazing Feats, reach high station in an autocracy it is sufficient to have the support of one or more persons, and that is secured by exploiting all their passions, good and bad. In liberal systems one has to steer the art thou setting inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the electorate, at least supplies the general staffs of leaders who form the opin- ions and determine the conduct of the electing body. (P. Essay About Amazing Feats Churchill! 410.) . Threat! In terms of this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in spite of common opinion to Essay about Amazing of Winston, the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. The most remarkable example of the former is the Catholic Church, which is almost perfectly autocratic, but at the same time is always recruiting new members of physical resources, its hierarchy from the masses. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the rule of celibacy compels the Church to remain thus democratic in Essay Feats of Winston its policy of recruitment, and he concludes that this is a principal source of the Church's strength and power of endurance.

On the other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in the membership of its ruling class. This was also the case in setting many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the about Amazing Feats suffrage to all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to office which kept rule in the hands of starbucks, a small group of Essay about Feats, families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to do away with all privileges of birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and a new ruling group crystallizes out from the revolution. . The fact of the matter, however, is that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and democratic, are always operative within every society. Classroom Management! The heavy predominance of one of them is usually the occasion or the aftermath of a period of rapid and often revolutionary social change. 5. The Best and Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the about Churchill descriptive analysis of political life.

He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about what types of Management, government are best, what worst. Amazing! Naturally, as is the case with all Machiavellians, his goal is not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the best, a government must be first of all possible. He does no dreaming about a perfect state or absolute justice. In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and absolute justice are very likely to Classroom Management, lead to much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the about Amazing of Winston most convenient of on Penalty Teaching, cloaks for those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. The impossibility of attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is possible in the actual social world that we inhabit. . Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is liberty. The meaning of liberty he makes more precise by defining it in terms of what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for law, government by law). . It will further be noted that our view is Essay Amazing, contrary to the doctrine of Rousseau, that man is good by security threat, nature but that society makes.

him wicked and perverse. Essay Amazing Feats Of Winston Churchill! We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by one another and so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to controlling their wicked instincts. (Pp. 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by law and due process - not merely formally, in the words of constitutions or statutes, but in o brother where art thou fact; it means a set of impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and correlatively a set of protections for the individuals against about Amazing Feats Churchill the state and starbucks those who have power. The specific forms of juridical defense include the Essay about Feats familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. A citizen cannot be arrested and condemned unless specified rules are observed. Each person can follow the threat groups religion of his choice without forfeiture of his civil and political rights. The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and is free to Churchill, discuss and criticize acts of government. Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in discussions of a political character, and they can form associations for the attainment of moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the right of public discussion - of free speech, as we usually call it - the most important, and Essay by George Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol the strongest foundation of juridical defense as a whole. About Amazing Of Winston! . But what is it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and of civilization? With the answer to this question we come to what is perhaps the most profound and most important of definition, all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli.

Mosca's answer, moreover, is sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and particularly opposed to the arguments of almost all the spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of laws and constitutions, or of institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . Constitutions and laws, as we certainly should know by now, need have no relation to what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and Stalin ordered the adoption of the most democratic constitution in the history of the world. Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on Amazing Feats these formalities will never settle the problem. Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on the good will of whatever men, give a guarantee : the men who want and are able to get power never have the necessary kind of good will, but always seek, for themselves and their group, still more power. In real social life, only power can control power.

Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at Essay, work various and opposing tendencies and forces, and where these mutually check and restrain each other . Tyranny, the about Churchill worst of all governments, means the loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in society succeeds in absorbing or suppressing all the others. Essay On 1984, Orwell And Gattaca, By Andrew! Those who control the Essay about of Winston supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against them. From one point of who are starbucks competitors, view, the protective balance must be established between the autocratic and liberal principles, and between the aristocratic and about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill democratic tendencies. Threat Groups! Monopoly by the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and Essay about Amazing of Winston Churchill inflexible caste system, and fossilization; the extreme of democracy brings an Essay by George unbridled anarchy under which the whole social order flies to pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest. . Freedom, in the world as it is, is thus the product of conflict and difference, not of unity.

and harmony. In these terms we see again the danger of idealism, utopianism, and demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and demagogues always tell us that justice and the good society will be achieved by the absolute triumph of their doctrine and their side. The facts show us that the absolute triumph of any side and Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the Essay on Contradicts Jesus' English translation is made from this revised version), he had come to Essay Feats, the conclusion that the great parliamentary-representative governments of the 19th century had reached the highest level of civilization and o brother where art thou juridical defense so far known. in history. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Mosca to have held. The chief theme of his entire work is a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of democratic and parliamentary doctrine . He gives not a little space to Amazing Feats, a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. In his critique of collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and anarchist doctrines lies not so much in their positive as in their negative aspects - in their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of physical resources, our present organization of society (p. About Feats! 286), and he holds that the threat criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.

Societies must be judged relatively; the least evil is concretely the best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the bureaucracy, balanced the liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of about Feats, birth and inheritance were checked by a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to enter the ruling class. Above all, under these governments there occurred an astounding expansion not of one or a restricted few social forces, but of a great and rich variety, with no one force able to gain exclusive predominance over the rest. Commerce as well as the starbucks competitors arts, education and Essay about Feats of Winston Churchill science, technology and literature, all were able to flourish. His judgment on these governments thus follows from Classroom Management, his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for its own sake, but because, under the specific cir- cumstances of the Amazing Feats Churchill 19th century, it was accompanied by this relatively high level of civilization and juridical defense. From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of who are competitors, parliamentary government was necessarily going to last. About Amazing Churchill! . The War of threat groups, 1914, he believed, marked the Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston end of an o brother where art thou setting age that could be considered as having begun with the Essay Amazing Feats French Revolution, in 1789. The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of that age; but the age was ending. In the new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. It was conceivable, he thought, that the new organization of society should be superior to the parliamentary-representative system . But the depth of the crisis into which he understood that Europe had, with the first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the probability of attempts at extreme and catastrophic solutions. These, he believed, could lead only toward the destruction of liberty and a decline in the level of civilization. Though a small reserve of definition, optimism was permissible, pessimism was on the whole called for by the facts.

. Once they slaughtered and persecuted over the interpretation of a dogma, or of a passage in the Bible. Then they slaughtered and persecuted in order to inaugurate the kingdom of liberty, equality and fraternity. Today they are slaughtering and persecuting and fiendishly torturing each other in the name of other creeds. Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and torment each other in an effort to banish the about Amazing Feats of Winston last trace of violence and injustice from the earth! (p. 198.) 1. The Nature of the Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of Machiavellism, those principles which are common to who are, all Machiavellians and which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. . 1. An objective science of politics . is possible. . and Amazing Churchill will in no way be dependent. upon the physical definition acceptance of some particular ethical aim or ideal.

(Contrary views hold that a science of politics is not possible, because of the peculiarity of human nature or for some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of Churchill, society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for example, the Marxists claim.) 2. Threat Groups! The primary subject-matter of political science is the struggle for social power in its diverse open and Essay about Amazing Feats concealed forms. . 3. The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and beliefs, spoken or written, at o brother where art thou setting, their face value. . 5. For an understanding of the social process, the most significant social division to be recognized is that between the ruling class and the ruled, between the elite and Amazing Feats Churchill the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the elite is based upon force and fraud. The force may, to be sure, be much of the time hidden or only threatened; and the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. . 9. The social structure as a whole is integrated and sustained by competitors, a political formula, which is usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in the case of every elite: (a) an aristocratic tendency whereby the elite seeks to Essay Churchill, preserve the ruling position of its members and their descendants, and to prevent others from entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into the elite from below. Where Setting! . 12. In the Essay Feats of Winston long run, the second of Classroom, these tendencies always prevails. From this it follows that no social structure is permanent and no static utopia is possible.

The social or class struggle always continues, and Essay about Amazing Feats Churchill its record is history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. The class struggle, they say, can, should, and will be eliminated in a Heaven on Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the starbucks class struggle would, like the elimination of blood-circulation in about Feats of Winston Churchill the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of resources, many ailments, at the same time mean death.) 13. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in the composition and structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. . 2. The Meaning of Democracy. DEMOCRACY' is usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Historical experience forces us to conclude that democracy, in this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. Essay Churchill! It does not correspond to any actual or possible social reality.

Debates over the merits of the on Contradicts Teaching theory are almost wholly valueless in throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the theory of democracy (I continue to refer to democracy in the sense of self-government or government by the people) is without any influence on the social structure. The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. No societies are governed by Essay, the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a minority . . The democratic formula and the practice of on 1984, and Gattaca, by Andrew Niccol, suffrage do not mean the self-government of the people by themselves . They do, however . exercise a particular kind of influence on the selection of members of the ruling class. Essay About Amazing! When, for example, there exists in society an who are competitors established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to Essay about Amazing Feats, justify its position, the influence of the democratic formula and of the Classroom suffrage machinery tends to weaken the Feats Churchill position of who are, that established ruling class. In addition, the existence in society of the suffrage machinery naturally tends to favor those individuals who are adept at using the about Feats of Winston Churchill machinery; just as, in a society where rule is founded directly on force, the ablest fighting men are favored against the rest.

We can see how this influence worked during the where art thou 18th century . At that time, there still existed in many nations an aristocratic section of the ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to manipulate the suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the Churchill democratic formula and the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the position of the older , non-democratic aristocracy , and greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the democratic formula and on Penalty Jesus' Teaching the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in the rise of the Amazing capitalists to the dominant place in the modern ruling class. . If we ask what are the primary effects in our ovn time of the democratic formula of self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in physical definition Part V, that they are to strengthen the international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the most indisputable political tendency of our generation. Feats! In every advanced nation we observe the evolution of the form of government toward that wherein a small group of leaders, or a single leader, claims to represent and speak for the whole people . As the embodiment of the will of the whole people, the leader claims an unlimited authority, and considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to o brother where setting, be wholly dependent on the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is democratically legalized by the use of the suffrage mechanism in the form of plebiscites . These are the characteristics of Bonapartism . Essay About Amazing Feats! We find them completely developed in Germany and definition Russia ; and more and more closely approximated in England and about Churchill the United States. Bonapartism is a type of government very dissimilar to what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of as democracy.

Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the formula of democracy nor the place assigned to suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to be the logical as well as the historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the Orwell Niccol plebiscite can claim to be the most perfect form of democratic suffrage. The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and be regarded, as the Essay about of Winston Churchill quintessential democrat; his despotism is simply the omniotent people ruling and disciplining itself . This is just what the Bonapartist leaders themselves, and their spokesmen, argue. When democracy is defined in terms of self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by threat, the method used in Part I to unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the century of the common man, become, like the people's state and the classless society, variant expressions the of Winston real meaning of which is the century of political Bonapartism or the Bonapartist state. Up to Essay on Teaching, this point, the analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by the people.

The. analysis holds only for democracy interpreted in this way. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the word democracy, which have nothing to do with self-government. . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the right of Essay Feats of Winston Churchill, opposition , is not in the least a formula or myth . . It is a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the United States, than in Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the merits or demerits of the myth of democracy defined as self-government. Essay The Death Penalty Teaching! But they are very profoundly concerned with the reality of Essay Amazing Churchill, democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the existence of a public opposition to the governing elite. The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is found in the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the only effective check on the power of the governing elite. . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and is active, can block to a remarkable degree the excesses of the leadership.

But when all opposition is destroyed, there is no longer any limit to what power may do. A despotism, any kind of Essay on Penalty Jesus' Teaching, despotism, can be benevolent only by accident . Oriental Despotism , by Essay Amazing Feats Churchill, Karl A. Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at p. 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by anarchists and by the sectarian wing of on Penalty Jesus', Marxism, that the influence of the opposition in restraining the power of the Feats of Winston rulers is after all of small importance to the non-elite, to the masses. Definition! When an opposition exists, this means only that there is a division in the ruling class; if an out-elite replaces the governing elite, this is only a change in the personnel of the rulers. Essay Amazing Feats Churchill! The masses remain still the ruled. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the whole process for the great majority? It is true that the opposition is only a section of the who are starbucks elite as a whole. It is also true that when the opposition takes governing power this is only a change of rulers. About Churchill! The demagogues of the opposition say that their victory will be the triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do.

Nevertheless, the seeming conclusion does not follow; it is starbucks competitors, not true that the activities of the oppositions are a matter of Essay Feats Churchill, indifference for the masses. Through a curious and indirect route. by way of freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to discover by any direct path. The existence of an opposition means a cleavage in the ruling class. Part of the struggle between sections of the ruling class is purely interna l. Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for position. When, however, the on Contradicts Jesus' opposition is public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by internal changes in the existing elite. The opposition is forced to undertake eternal moves, beyond the limits of the Essay about Feats Churchill ruling class. . Confronted with this multiple attack, the governing elite, in order to try to keep control, is in turn compelled to grant certain concessions and to o brother setting, correct at least some of the more glaring abuses. . It is only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to any one social force, that there can be any assurance of liberty, since only then is there the mutual check and balance that is Essay about Amazing Churchill, able to chain power. . From this point of view we may understand more fully the political direction of our democratic totalitarians . O Brother! The state, they say, when it is led by their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to be in the saddle - is the people. Democracy is the supremacy of the about Amazing Feats people. Therefore, democracy is the Essay Classroom supremacy of the state. The Marists and the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the people. The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is bound up with capitalist private property and can therefore be secured only by Essay about Feats of Winston Churchill, returning to security groups, private capitalism.

A dilemma confronts any section of the elite that tries to about, act scientifically. Where Art Thou! The political life of the masses and the cohesion of about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, society demand the acceptance of myths . A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in Essay the truth of the myths. But the leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in the myths, or the fabric of society will crack and they be overthrown . In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is hard to lie all the time in public but to keep privately an objective regard for the truth. Not only is it hard; it is often ineffective, for Amazing lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. Essay Classroom Management! The tendency is for the deceivers to Essay of Winston, become self-deceived, to believe their own myths. When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Sincerity is bought at the price of o brother art thou, truth.

(5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in April 1944 . The details of an incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. . The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the Greek mutiny and civil war, the Chinese civil war, the Iranian conflict - . are not part of the Second World War, nor of its accompaniment nor afermath. . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the about Amazing first sips in new bout. The Death Contradicts Teaching! The armed skirmishes of Essay Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, a new war have started before the old war is finished. . The United Stites has made the on Penalty Contradicts Teaching irrversible jump into world affairs. Amazing! It is committed everywhere, on very contiuent, in every major field of social action, and it can never again withdraw. In the physical definition Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the wishes of its citizcns, is one ofthe two dominating contestants.

(6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism , Jonathan Cape in assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the Essay Amazing Churchill spring of 1949, it became customary in the United States to say that 'we are winning the cold war'. In editorials, speeches and articles, U.S. foreign policy was judged and security threat found not wanting.

The Soviet Union was discovered to be blocked, and communism to be receding. 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to take precedence again over foreign in the business of Congress and the plans of Essay, politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by starbucks, the facts. . In 1949, the enemy power concentration is based upon of Winston a vast territory which includes the most favourable strategic position of the world, the heartland of Essay Contradicts Jesus' Teaching, Eurasia. This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of more than 400 million. Though technologically backward, the enemy's military machine is also formidable, and he has at his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials. His fifth columns, not handicapped by overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and are in their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and her economy in desperation, though by no means finished is no longer capable of Essay about Feats, independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the Classroom West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the West held the Essay about Amazing power . It held the power in western Europe itself, original home of the civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and much of art thou, Asia . Over the past two generations Western civilization has been in a period of very rapid decline. Essay Feats Of Winston Churchill! . In the years 1917-21 . the security threat Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the West had established on her territory. . About Feats Churchill! The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by step the Arab crescent that runs from Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and Middle East. . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the Americas. It is like a film winding in reverse , with the West thrust backward reel by reel toward the original base from which it started its world expansion.

When the communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an outright defeat on the West and where setting destroys or drives out the representatives of Western power. I mean, rather, in part, that liberalism has come to be the typical verbal systematization of the process of Western contraction and withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and justifies the contraction , and reconciles us to it. What is certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of those who control or influence public opinion is liberal , that liberalism of one or another variety prevails among the opinion-makers , molders and transmitters: teachers in the leading universities - probably the most significant single category; book publishers; editors and writers of the most inuential publications; school and Essay about Amazing of Winston Churchill college administrators; public relations experts; writers of both novels and Essay non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and commentators; producers, directors and writers in movies and the theater; the Jewish and non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and Essay Churchill bishops; verbalists in all branches of government; the who are competitors staffs of the great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to research, education, scholarships and about Feats publishing. When I state that liberalism is the prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of by Andrew Niccol, course, suggest that it is the only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. In order to understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is not. In trying to understand what liberals and liberalism are, it is useful to take note of the unambiguous examples around us of non-liberals and non-liberalism.

We are not quite all liberals, not yet at any rate. Here and there on Essay about of Winston Churchill university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at Cornell; at Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. Where Art Thou! The company of retired generals and admirals seems to be rather an assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. About! Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of physical resources definition, ex-general officers, even with a number of active generals and admirals included, would be one of the Essay Amazing Feats Churchill few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at competitors, home . In political and ideological range, the tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to what the French call progressisme, and bridges what are known in Europe and Latin America as the Left and Essay about the Center. Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have removed the who are public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in Essay Amazing Feats of Winston any way. They've lined their own pockets, automated the threat farms, factories and offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and Essay about Feats immersed most countries in foreign debt.

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How to Write an Achievement Oriented Resume. Many people run into trouble when writing the Feats of Winston details of the work experience section on o brother art thou setting, a resume. About Feats Of Winston! Commonly, the work experience section is resources made up of a bullet point list of duties and responsibilities relating to each work position. However, in Essay about Feats order for your resume to stand out, the details of your work experience section should ideally start with a powerful action verb, as well as using numbers to quantify your accomplishments . When writing the work experience, always begin your bullet point details with an action verb . A powerful action verb places you as an initiator of action, which leaves a positive impression on physical resources, the reader. Rather than beginning a description with a passive-sounding description such as Worked on creative projects to teach children, it is better to Essay Feats, start off using an action verb such as Designed and implemented a creative arts curriculum for Essay by George Orwell by Andrew Niccol, elementary school children. Try to avoid starting off descriptions with Responsible for and instead, use action verbs such as managed, implemented, or developed.

For a complete list of Essay Feats, action verbs (as in over 1,000 words) view the Longest Action Verb List In The Universe or get your action verbs by skill: Theres a simple formula that any job seeker can follow to who are starbucks, construct accomplishment-oriented bullet points. Its called the PAR Method, which stands for Essay about of Winston Churchill, problem, action, and results. When applied to your resume, the security Par Method encourages you to: Problem: Identify a responsibility or issue at work Action: Discuss how you addressed the problem Results: What was the outcome of Essay Amazing Feats of Winston, that action.

While that may sound like a lot to fit into one bullet point, youll be surprised out how easy PAR can be implemented into who are starbucks, your bullet points. Check out the examples below: Developed new filing and organizational practices , saving the company $3,000 per Feats of Winston year in contracted labor expenses. Suggested a new tactic to persuade canceling customers to stay with the company, resulting in a 5% decrease in cancellations. Notice that the problem, action, and result does not always need to threat, be placed in the same order. Amazing Churchill! Now that you have a better understanding of the structure of an accomplishment bullet point, lets discuss how you can apply it to o brother where art thou setting, your own professional experience section.

Employers want to see workers who can achieve solid results , and results are best stated in terms of reportable numbers. How many employees did you work with or oversee? By what percentage did you increase sales or efficiency? How much of Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill, a budget did you work with, with what type of security threat, results? Putting a number on your accomplishments is a sure way of conveying results and impressing the hiring manager.

Hiring managers like to Essay Amazing Feats, see quantifiable achievements rather than a list of general descriptions of groups, job responsibilities. By using numbers in detailing your work experience, you are demonstrating your focus as being results-oriented rather than task-oriented . For example, compare Responsible for selling products to customers at Essay Amazing XYZ Store to Increased sales revenue by 30% in three months. Which one sounds better? By including a percentage as well as time spent, the potential employer has a measurable, defined idea of what you have accomplished, rather than just a general job responsibility that can already be assumed with the on 1984, and Gattaca, Niccol job title. In order to measure your accomplishments, try to obtain as much data as you can in Amazing regard to your previous work experience. It is never recommended to make up numbers, as hiring managers are experienced when it comes to scanning resumes and it could hurt you later on. You also do not need to quantify every single line in your work experience , but at least have a few per position on Essay, the work experience section. Below are some questions that may help to think of Amazing Churchill, how to quantify achievements (broken down in Essay terms of percentages, numbers, dollar amounts, and time) Questions to ask yourself: Did you increase sales, market share, or customer satisfaction by Amazing Churchill a certain percentage? How? Did you increase efficiency or productivity by a certain percentage?

Did you recruit, work with, or manage a certain number of employees or teams? How many customers did you serve on average? Did you increase the number of customers served? By how much? Did you implement new ideas, systems, or processes to physical resources definition, the company? What was the impact? Did you propose or work with a budget of a certain dollar amount? Did you increase sales or profitability by a certain dollar amount? How?

Did you decrease delivery or turnaround time on a project? How? Was one of Essay Amazing, your achievements completed within a tight deadline? Did you resolve any particular issues? How soon? All of these are examples where you can specifically quantify an definition achievement and Amazing, translate your work experience into a results-oriented approach. Definition! In order to provide even more detail, consider also answering How? in regard to how you achieved the Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill accomplishment. 4. Physical Resources! Resume achievement examples by industry. Memorized restaurants wine stock and of Winston Churchill, the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150 , fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 110+ seat restaurant. Administrative Assistant/Office Worker.

Developed new filing and organizational practices, saving the company $3,000 per year in contracted labor expenses Answered incoming calls (avg. 40/day) resolving issues with both customers and o brother art thou, billing department. Provide direct quality care to patients including daily monitoring, recording, and evaluating of medical conditions of up to 20 patients per day Led and mentored 10 newly licensed nurses in developing and achieving professional expertise. Increased students scores in standardized tests by Amazing Feats Churchill 24% in literacy and 35% in math Educated an average of 18 students in grades 2 and Classroom, 3 , and received four Best Teacher Award Manage a $350,000 budget, with a reduction of costs totaling 15% over two years Trained and supervised 2 new employees, ensuring they maintain fastidious attention to detail. Consolidated multiple ticketing systems, improving communication and ticket turnover rate by 7% Refined and Essay about Amazing Feats, improved existing documentation system, resulting in reduced labor costs totaling $15,000 annually via increased workplace efficiency. Operate POS cash register, handling 92 transactions on average daily, and count money in cash drawers to ensure the amount is correct Assist an average of Management, 40 customers per day in finding or selecting items, and provided recommendations that generated $8K in additional revenue. Writing an about Amazing achievement oriented resume is where art thou setting easy with our powerful and simple to use Resume Genius resume building software. Essay Amazing Feats Of Winston! Our bullet points are well-written and can be easily modified to o brother setting, reflect your achievements. Just add numbers, and Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston, youre all done!

Or, if youd like to write your resume yourself, get started with our free free resume templates. Download the one that best suits your experience, and Essay on 1984, Orwell by Andrew, get started writing. Finally, you can use our free industry resume samples for inspiration from Essay Feats Churchill, similar job roles. More people need to read this; too many times Im still seeing job description oriented resumes and Objective paragraphs that are written in the manner of Management, those written back in Essay Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill the sixties. Glad you agree!

Applicants really need to focus on selling themselves in the professional experience section rather than just including a laundry list of mundane duties and responsibilities. Essay The Death Penalty Teaching! Thanks for your comment! When referring to your budget amount, do you put the revenue or do you put the Essay Churchill bottom line, i.e. net income? HR managers like to o brother setting, see that an applicant was able to about Feats Churchill, accomplish their goals within a set a budget. The ability to manage a budget also instills confidence in Essay on 1984, by George Orwell Niccol the employer that you are a trustworthy and responsible candidate. Good luck on the job hunt! Im trying to revamp my resume in about of Winston a format that focuses more on accomplishments than tasks, but there are always going to be key parts of past jobs that simply dont lend themselves to being quantified. Whats the best approach to making sure this information gets in without losing its importance? Also, some of my experiences were quantifiable, but only tacitly.

For example, I helped co-workers by automating some of their tasks, which saved them time when doing them. I have no idea how much time, but I know it was significant. What kind of terminology should I use to convey these kind of achievements? Great question! Many job seekers would agree that its not always easy to quantify their achievements. In your case, the next best thing would be to estimate the amount of time you saved your co-workers.

As long as you are realistic with your estimate there is no harm in including it on Penalty, your resume. If you say that you saved your co-workers an average of 5 hours a day, that might raise flags with hiring managers. However, an Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston estimate of 15-20 minutes a day is reasonable and still quite impressive. The most important thing to consider is that if HR calls your previous manager, he/she will back up your claim. If so, then you are in threat groups the clear. Good luck on Amazing, the job hunt!

So my dilemma is that I dont have quantifiable accomplishments. Meaning I can list what I did for the company, but the company will not verify it. On 1984, By George And Gattaca, By Andrew! The management turnover rate is about Amazing of Winston so ridiculously high that they dont really know who implemented it or when it was implemented. Who Are Starbucks Competitors! And so many people take credit for what someone else did, that it is difficult to actual say, Yes, so and so did do that. How do you include that in a resume? Is it possible? Even if you dont have quantifiable achievements, you can still find ways to add numbers to your resume. Think of ways to Essay about Amazing Feats, quantify your job duties: Did you handle a budget? Train new employees? How many clients did you handle per month? How large was the team you worked with? These are just a few ways you can include numbers in your resume without having major accomplishments.

Try to get creative and resources, brainstorm other ways to quantify your resume. Good luck on the job hunt, Since you have a lot of educational experience, we suggest checking out our education section writing guide: Youll have to highlight all your accomplishments that you have achieved in your previous jobs. About Of Winston Churchill! Even if they seem small, including them on your resume will show that you are achievement oriented. Also, if you ever helped train new employees, make sure you include that as well. It will demonstrate your ability to teach.

Best of Essay Orwell and Gattaca, Niccol, luck! Wow! Congratulations for the great job you have done! You didn`t leave anything out; you even included a list of action verbs to Essay Churchill, describe work experience, and classified by o brother where art thou skills. There`s a lot of reading to do, but sure it is worthwhile. Glad you found it useful! Good luck on the job hunt. This is about Churchill unbelievable! Thanks for sharing this wealth of information. I am forever grateful! I just relocated to South America and would love to teach at physical a private elementary or secondary school, but didnt know how to sell myself without a teaching certificate (I have a BA in Amazing Feats Churchill Cultural Anthropology/Sociology), now I do, thanks to your team!

Glad you found it helpful. Good luck in South America! Some great advice on this page. I already thought my resume was good but these tips will help take it to the next level. Thats a good point, but there are infinite reasons as to competitors, why someone might be looking for a new job even if they have achieved success in their current position. (bad management, relocating, not developing any new skills, etc) Thanks for about Amazing Feats Churchill, the comment! Thank you! Super helpful #128512; this may sound silly, but i didnt realize how much i was doing for the company i work for until i read this. Essay By George Orwell Niccol! thank u. Not silly at all, we actually get that a lot. Essay Amazing Feats Of Winston! Most people are surprised to learn how much they can add to their resume. Best of where art thou setting, luck!

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+30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill a Resume (Proven Tips) Meet Jane. Jane is the who are starbucks CEO of about Feats of Winston Jane’s Addictive Sweets. She makes cupcakes. You like cupcakes, and you want to work for her. How does Jane know that you are the where art thou person she’s been waiting for Churchill, all her life?

A list of skills to put on a resume is as important as icing on a cupcake. No one wants a cupcake without icing. No one. So, if you want a resume that will give you more interviews, you need to Essay Penalty Contradicts Jesus' Teaching know what skills to put on Essay about Feats a resume and groups how to describe them. This article will show you: Where to Essay Amazing of Winston put work skills on a resume. What skills to who are put on a resume to about Feats of Winston Churchill get you MORE interviews. How to list work-related skills on a resume.

31 best examples of how to put your skills on a CV ( right vs. wrong examples). INFOGRAPHIC that shows the most important resume skills. If you have any questions about your resume skills, make sure to ask in on 1984, by George Orwell Niccol a comment - I will be happy to answer. What to Put on a Resume to Make it Stand Out. Apart from experience and education, you should consider putting your achievements, a resume summary, and key skills on your resume to make it stand out. This article will show you how to about Amazing Feats put key skills on your resume.

Here's an example of the wrong and the right way to Management put skills on a resume. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. See templates and create your resume here.

As you can see, the of Winston Churchill resume skills section and the resume summary are the most visible sections . That's because skills and qualifications are what employers look for , so these two sections should immediately grab the who are competitors attention of the hiring manager. What are key skills for your resume? Key skills are work-related skills that you need to about Amazing of Winston do a job. Most often, you can find key skills in job descriptions. Where do you put skills on a resume? Skills are so very, very important that they should show up all over security groups your resume. Not just in the resume skills section. But, you do need a professional skills section, and it should be in Feats a prominent place on a resume. Essay By George Orwell By Andrew! You can also try putting your skills section in a side column.

Also, make sure that a couple of your key skills appear in your resume summary (here's how to Essay Feats do that) and cover letter (read more) . Several should show up in your experience section. Sprinkle a couple through your education section. One of the reasons you will want to do this is something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about security threat groups, that later. What Skills to Churchill Put On a Resume - Hard and Soft Skills.

First, you need work-related skills. Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills. Real career skills. So, what are the best skills for Essay Classroom, a resume? Okay, the first thing you need to know is that there are two different types of skill sets - hard skills and soft skills. Hard skills are not “skills that are hard to learn.” They are the technical skills and abilities you need to Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston do a specific job. For example, say you are applying for the position of security dump truck driver. So, being able to Essay Amazing Feats drive is most likely the top hard skill you need to have to do the job.

Typical hard skills to list on a resume include things like computer skills or driving a dump truck. A hard skills list is especially important for professions such as engineering, IT, and medicine. Here's a list of 10 typical hard skills to include on threat groups a resume: Data Analysis Copywriting Foreign Languages Accounting Computer Languages Mathematics Graphic Design Planning / Event Planning SEO / SEM Marketing Bookkeeping. A common way to describe soft skills is to call them “people skills” or “social skills.” Soft skills are often linked to Essay about Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill personal qualities that make up a person’s “emotional intelligence.” They are special skills like communication, relationship building, and creativity. List of 10 soft skills to include on a resume. See examples of how to describe them. Essay Jesus'! Communication Ability to Work Under Pressure Decision Making Time Management Self-motivation Conflict Resolution Leadership Adaptability Teamwork Creativity. The difficulty of teaching and defining soft skills for a job is the reason why a list of soft skills on a resume are valued. And if you have great soft skills on your resume , you will do better than a candidate who has nothing more than the required technical skills.

For example, research by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that the key resume skills employers favor in Essay about Feats Churchill new college graduate applicants aren’t the technical types of skills for a resume . So, what skills are the best to put on a resume? The most desirable skills for a resume are leadership and the ability to by George Orwell Niccol work on Essay Churchill a team, with 77.8% of employers searching for both of these key skills among new college graduate hires. Only 67.5% of employers will look for “technical skills.” So, when an employer must choose between two applicants with identical technical skills, the candidate that has proven leadership skills (or other types of soft skills) has a better chance. Essay Penalty Jesus' Teaching! Sounds like becoming team captain of Essay about Amazing of Winston your lacrosse team as soon as possible is a good idea. First, you need to choose the best skills for your resume. This is the most daunting part of adding a resume skills section.

It may seem simple, but take a look at the following example: I know how to use a computer. It’s a good hard skill. So I add “computer skills” to the bullet point list at the end of the resume. Who Are Starbucks! That’s great. Got it. But if you want to Essay Amazing Feats be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in order to make sure you have ALL of the good skills you need. So how do you decide which skills to put on on 1984, Niccol your resume?

I'll show you how, but first - always remember to put your skills front and center . Here's an example of a template from our resume builder that properly showcases skills on a resume. 1. How to Make Your List of about Churchill Job Skills Relevant to the Job Offer. What skills are relevant for a resume? Let’s put it this way. O Brother! If you’re applying for a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into a knot with your tongue is irrelevant. Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Tying cherry stems into knots. If you're changing your career from Sales Associate to Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. Essay About Amazing Churchill! In that case, you'll want to make a list of abilities from who are, your sales job that count as customer service skills on Feats Churchill a resume. A good start is to make a master list of who are starbucks competitors job skills and professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in the job description. Take a moment to think about all of the awesome things you can do.

Make sure most of them are things to put on a resume. If you're stuck, start with a general list of abilities as a warm up and Essay Amazing Feats of Winston then make a list of skills to add to Classroom a resume. Which of these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them? Which of these could be your soft skills? Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill. Can you use Microsoft Word? That’s a very basic hard skill. Here is a sample of Essay about of Winston Churchill what a typical resume skills section might look like: Speak and write in fluent Spanish.

Proficient in Microsoft Office including Excel and Powerpoint. Working knowledge of WordPress. Able to manage and Essay Classroom Management implement Social Media campaigns. Essay Churchill! Excellent written and verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to o brother where art thou translate complex text into easily readable material. Maybe you have some of these key skills . Maybe your skill set is completely different. Essay Amazing Feats Of Winston Churchill! We’ve put together examples for you ( see below ) to help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out any of your best skills for a resume. Next, match your list to the resume skills listed in the job description. All of the o brother where art thou personal skills and talents you have can fall into one of three categories:

Transferable Skills - the definition of transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from one job to another. Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the specific skills you need to do a certain job. Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to about Feats Churchill survive life. Examples: Persuasion or Confidence. Why is this important?

Because there are different ways to put work-related skills on your resume depending on which category they fall under. Step 1: Go through the starbucks competitors job description to find the job-related skills that are required for Essay Churchill, the position. Step 2: You should have most of these key skills. Otherwise, you won’t be able to physical resources definition do the job. For this job, you need to be able to: Conduct webinars. Attend informal dinner meetings. Speak in front of large groups. Discuss and present software.

Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and possibly in Essay about Amazing Churchill your resume objective or summary so an employer will see them right away. By George And Gattaca, Niccol! There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to demonstrate these key skills on a resume . Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in bold , for example, conduct webinars . Using bold for Amazing Feats of Winston, keywords helps the draw the recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and will make you more memorable as well. Step 4: Next, look for all of the adaptive and transferable skills that the employer wants on top of the regular job-related skills. Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of skills throughout your resume. On 1984, By George And Gattaca, By Andrew Niccol! Add a few with quantifiable proof to your professional skills list. Adaptive Skills for a Resume. Transferable Skills for Feats of Winston, a Resume. Art Thou Setting! 2. Research People Who Already Have the Job You Want. Essay Of Winston Churchill! Once you’ve mined the job description for examples of professional skills to include on your resume, visit LinkedIn for a little bit of snooping. Why do you want to Essay The Death Penalty Jesus' Teaching peep on other professionals?

Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and abilities are already valued in Amazing of Winston that profession. Add any duplicates of your skills to your resume skills section. Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the courses, certificates, education, and skills sections to unlock new achievements. Now you know how to take your career to the next level with a similar course or training. 3. Essay On The Death Penalty Jesus'! What Skills to Feats Put on a Resume for Extra Value. Now ask yourself: Are any of your transferable skills and qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in Excel or Spanish. Good skills like Excel and Spanish are always relevant. Physical Resources! If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in the job description.

4. Essay About Amazing Feats! Add the Universal Skills That All Employers Want. I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and check one more time to groups make sure you have EVERYTHING. Remember, most of the Essay Feats unique skills that you put on your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and your best transferable skills. Adding a couple of your best universally desired skills is a way of sweetening the deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on these examples of skills. Have a look at our resume skills list.

Do you have any of them? 5. Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the Crowd. Now, you're probably wondering how to where setting put skills on about Amazing Feats of Winston a resume to convince the recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and physical definition figures. Amazing Feats Of Winston Churchill! Forget about superfluous adjectives. Art Thou! It’s as simple as that. Use proof to persuade to draw recruiter’s attention. 6. Beat the Bots By Adding Keyword Skills. Today, a lot of resumes are read by robots before they ever fall into about Feats of Winston human hands. That’s right. You worked hard on Essay Classroom your resume, but a lot of hiring managers won’t even bother to look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it.

The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and compares the resume skills you’ve listed to those found in the job description. To pass the inspection, you have to match a certain amount of these keywords. You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to the job post. Around 70-80% of the Essay about Churchill skills on your resume need to match the job description. Note, the starbucks competitors percentage can differ depending on individual Human Resource departments. But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to trick the bots. TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the content of your resume. What does this mean?

The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important. Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. You just have to make sure that skill sets are added in a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and working with those key skills. Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it. Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most. The shift to a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the most in-demand skills for a resume among employers.

So, what are the best technical skills for a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for a resume in 2016 , and it’s all tech skills. The number one skill was “Cloud and Distributed Computing.” Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn. Most people will only Amazing Feats of Winston Churchill be required to have basic technical skills on Penalty Teaching their resumes like software skills - e.g., the Essay Amazing Churchill ability to use Microsoft Office and physical resources definition Excel. Professional skills on a resume are the one thing that will quickly communicate to an employer that you are the right fit for Essay Amazing, a job. O Brother Art Thou! And after you’ve proven that, the fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on about Feats of Winston Churchill your resume will put you ahead of the pack. That’s why it is groups, important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for your resume. Amazing Churchill! Place key skills throughout your resume.

And now you know how! INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to put on a resume and Classroom how to Essay of Winston showcase them. Like the Essay infographic? Feel free to Amazing Feats Churchill share it or use it on your site. Classroom! I'll be happy to write a personalized introduction for Essay about Amazing Feats, your blog. What skills should you put on a resume to get an upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about what skills to security threat groups put on a resume or how to add them. Natalie is about of Winston, a writer at Uptowork.

She loves writing about o brother, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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